results for au:Dorai_K in:quant-ph

- Jul 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06739v1We present the first NMR implementation of a scheme for selective and efficient quantum process tomography using local measurements (LMSEQPT) without ancilla. We generalize this scheme such that it can be implemented efficiently using only a set of local measurements involving product operators. The method allows us to estimate any element of the quantum process matrix to a desired precision, provided a set of quantum states can be prepared efficiently. As opposed to the standard implementation of selective and efficient quantum process tomography (SEQPT) which involves the preparation and complete characterization of a large number of quantum states, our local measurement-based technique requires much fewer experimental resources as it avoids complete characterization of the states and allows us to compute specific elements of the process matrix by a restrictive set of sub-system measurements. To demonstrate the efficacy of our scheme, we experimentally tomograph the processes corresponding to `no operation', a controlled-NOT (CNOT), and a controlled-Hadamard gate on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor, with high fidelities.
- Jul 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.00289v1We have designed efficient quantum circuits for the three-qubit Toffoli (controlled-controlled NOT) and the Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate, optimized via genetic programming methods. The gates thus obtained were experimentally implemented on a three-qubit NMR quantum information processor, with a high fidelity. Toffoli and Fredkin gates in conjunction with the single-qubit Hadamard gates form a universal gate set for quantum computing, and are an essential component of several quantum algorithms. Genetic algorithms are stochastic search algorithms based on the logic of natural selection and biological genetics and have been widely used for quantum information processing applications. The numerically optimized rf pulse profiles of the three-qubit quantum gates achieve $> 99\%$ fidelity. The optimization was performed under the constraint that the experimentally implemented pulses are of short duration and can be implemented with high fidelity. Therefore the gate implementations do not suffer from the drawbacks of rf offset errors or debilitating effects of decoherence during gate action. We demonstrate the advantage of our pulse sequences by comparing our results with existing experimental schemes.
- May 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.03432v1We embarked upon the task of experimental protection of different classes of tripartite entangled states, namely the maximally entangled GHZ and W states and the ${\rm W \bar{W}}$ state, using dynamical decoupling. The states were created on a three-qubit NMR quantum information processor and allowed to evolve in the naturally noisy NMR environment. Tripartite entanglement was monitored at each time instant during state evolution, using negativity as an entanglement measure. It was found that the W state is most robust while the GHZ-type states are most fragile against the natural decoherence present in the NMR system. The ${\rm W \bar{W}}$ state which is in the GHZ-class, yet stores entanglement in a manner akin to the W state, surprisingly turned out to be more robust than the GHZ state. The experimental data were best modeled by considering the main noise channel to be an uncorrelated phase damping channel acting independently on each qubit, alongwith a generalized amplitude damping channel. Using dynamical decoupling, we were able to achieve a significant protection of entanglement for GHZ states. There was a marginal improvement in the state fidelity for the W state (which is already robust against natural system decoherence), while the ${\rm W \bar{W}}$ state showed a significant improvement in fidelity and protection against decoherence.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.06102v1We use the Majorana geometrical representation for a qutrit, where a pair of points on a unit sphere represents its quantum states. A canonical form for qutrit states is presented, where every qutrit state can be obtained from a one-parameter family of states via $SO(3)$ action. The notion of spin-1 magnetization which is invariant under $SO(3)$, is discussed and geometrically interpreted on the Majorana sphere. We study the dynamics of the pair of points representing a qutrit state under various useful quantum operations and connect them to different NMR operations. In our scheme, the rigid rotation of this pair of points under $SO(3)$ corresponds to non-selective pulses in NMR, while transition-selective NMR pulses are generated by the eight generators of $SU(3)$ and typically lead to the movement of only one point at a time on the Majorana sphere. Using the Majorana picture, we also describe the action of several quantum gates and the insights gained, are used to perform experiments on a spin-1 system (the NMR qutrit) oriented in a liquid crystalline environment. Finally, using the Gell Mann matrix picture we describe and experimentally implement a scheme for complete qutrit state tomography.
- Jan 31 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.08260v2We experimentally demonstrate the efficacy of a three-layer nested Uhrig dynamical decoupling (NUDD) sequence to preserve arbitrary quantum states in a two-dimensional subspace of the four-dimensional two-qubit Hilbert space, on an NMR quantum information processor. The effect of the state preservation is studied first on four known states, including two product states and two maximally entangled Bell states. Next, to evaluate the preservation capacity of the NUDD scheme, we apply it to eight randomly generated states in the subspace. Although, the preservation of different states varies, the scheme on the average performs very well. The complete tomographs of the states at different time points are used to compute fidelity. State fidelities using NUDD protection are compared with those obtained without using any protection. The nested pulse schemes are complex in nature and require careful experimental implementation.
- Jan 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.00606v2A bipartite quantum system in a mixed state can exhibit nonclassical correlations, which can go beyond quantum entanglement. While quantum discord is the standard measure of quantifying such general quantum correlations, the nonclassicality can be determined by simpler means via the measurement of witness operators. We experimentally construct a positive map to witness nonclassicality of two qubits in an NMR system. The map can be decomposed so that a single run of an experiment on an ensemble of spins suffices to detect the nonclassicality in the state, if present. We let the state evolve in time and use the map to detect nonclassicality as a function of time. To evaluate the efficacy of the witness operator as a means to detect nonclassicality, we measure quantum discord by performing full quantum state tomography at each time point and obtained a fairly good match between the two methods.
- Oct 11 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.02472v1Random local measurements have recently been proposed to construct entanglement witnesses and thereby detect the presence of bipartite entanglement. We experimentally demonstrate the efficacy of one such scheme on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor. We show that a set of three random local measurements suffices to detect the entanglement of a general two-qubit state. We experimentally generate states with different amounts of entanglement, and show that the scheme is able to clearly witness entanglement. We perform complete quantum state tomography for each state and compute state fidelity to validate our results. Further, we extend previous results and perform a simulation using random local measurements to optimally detect bipartite entanglement in a hybrid system of $2\otimes 3$ dimensionality.
- Oct 11 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.02755v1The discovery of the intriguing phenomenon that certain kinds of quantum correlations remain impervious to noise up to a specific point in time and then suddenly decay, has generated immense recent interest. We exploit dynamical decoupling sequences to prolong the persistence of time-invariant quantum discord in a system of two NMR qubits decohering in independent dephasing environments. We experimentally prepare two-qubit Bell-diagonal quantum states that interact with individual dephasing channels and demonstrate the effect of dynamical decoupling on the preservation of both quantum and classical correlations. We are able to freeze quantum discord over long time scales in the presence of noise, using dynamical decoupling. We use robust state-independent dynamical decoupling schemes for state preservation and demonstrate that these schemes are able to successfully preserve quantum discord.
- Apr 19 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.04691v1Estimation of quantum states is one of the most important steps in any quantum information processing experiment. A naive reconstruction of the density matrix from experimental measurements can often give density matrices which are not positive, and hence not physically acceptable. How do we ensure that at all stages of reconstruction, we keep the density matrix positive and normalized? Recently a method has been suggested based on maximum likelihood estimation, wherein the density matrix is guaranteed to be positive definite. We experimentally implement this protocol and demonstrate its utility on an NMR quantum information processor. We discuss several examples where we undertake such an estimation and compare it with the standard method of state estimation.
- Nov 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.00241v1We experimentally test quantum contextuality of a single qutrit using NMR. The contextuality inequalities based on nine observables developed by Kurzynski et. al. are first reformulated in terms of traceless observables which can be measured in an NMR experiment. These inequalities reveal the contextuality of almost all single-qutrit states. We demonstrate the violation of the inequality on four different initial states of a spin-1 deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal matrix, and follow the violation as the states evolve in time. We also describe and experimentally perform a single-shot test of contextuality for a subclass of qutrit states whose density matrix is diagonal in the energy basis.
- Apr 21 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.04856v1We experimentally construct a novel three-qubit entangled W-superposition ($\rm W \bar{\rm W}$) state on an NMR quantum information processor. We give a measurement-based filtration protocol for the invertible local operation (ILO) that converts the $\rm W \bar{\rm W}$ state to the GHZ state, using a register of three ancilla qubits. Further we implement an experimental protocol to reconstruct full information about the three-party $\rm W \bar{\rm W}$ state using only two-party reduced density matrices. An intriguing fact unearthed recently is that the $\rm W \bar{\rm W}$ state which is equivalent to the GHZ state under ILO, is in fact reconstructible from its two-party reduced density matrices, unlike the GHZ state. We hence demonstrate that although the $\rm W \bar{\rm W}$ state is interconvertible with the GHZ state, it stores entanglement very differently.
- Mar 24 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.06624v1The quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is a key ingredient of several quantum algorithms and a qudit-specific implementation of the QFT is hence an important step toward the realization of qudit-based quantum computers. This work develops a circuit decomposition of the QFT for hybrid qudits based on generalized Hadamard and generalized controlled-phase gates, which can be implemented using selective rotations in NMR. We experimentally implement the hybrid qudit QFT on an NMR quantum emulator, which uses four qubits to emulate a single qutrit coupled to two qubits.
- Sep 09 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1409.2419v2We experimentally demonstrate the freezing of evolution of quantum states in one- and two-dimensional subspaces of two qubits, on an NMR quantum information processor. State evolution was frozen and leakage of the state from its subspace to an orthogonal subspace was successfully prevented using super-Zeno sequences, comprising of a set of inverting radio frequency (rf) pulses punctuated by pre-selected time intervals. We demonstrate the efficacy of the scheme by preserving different types of states, including separable and maximally entangled states in one- and two-dimensional subspaces of two qubits. The change in the experimental density matrices was tracked by carrying out full state tomography at several time points. We use the fidelity measure for the one-dimensional case and the leakage (fraction) into the orthogonal subspace for the two-dimensional case, as qualitative indicators to estimate the resemblance of the density matrix at a later time to the initially prepared density matrix. For the case of entangled states, we additionally compute an entanglement parameter to indicate the presence of entanglement in the state at different times. We experimentally demonstrate that the super-Zeno scheme is able to successfully confine state evolution to the one- or two-dimensional subspace being protected.
- Jul 15 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.3448v2We experimentally explore the state space of three qubits on an NMR quantum information processor. We construct a scheme to experimentally realize a canonical form for general three-qubit states up to single-qubit unitaries. This form involves a non-trivial combination of GHZ and W-type maximally entangled states of three qubits. The general circuit that we have constructed for the generic state reduces to those for GHZ and W states as special cases. The experimental construction of a generic state is carried out for a nontrivial set of parameters and the good fidelity of preparation is confirmed by complete state tomography. The GHZ and W-states are constructed as special cases of the general experimental scheme. Further, we experimentally demonstrate a curious fact about three-qubit states, where for almost all pure states, the two-qubit reduced states can be used to reconstruct the full three-qubit state. For the case of a generic state and for the W-state, we demonstrate this method of reconstruction by comparing it with the directly tomographed three-qubit state.
- Jun 20 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1406.5026v1We present the NMR implementation of a recently proposed quantum algorithm to find the parity of a permutation. In the usual qubit model of quantum computation, speedup requires the presence of entanglement and thus cannot be achieved by a single qubit. On the other hand, a qutrit is qualitatively more quantum than a qubit because of the existence of quantum contextuality and a single qutrit can be used for computing. We use the deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal as the experimental qutrit. This is the first experimental exploitation of a single qutrit to carry out a computational task.
- Oct 25 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1110.5262v1We study multiple-spin coherence transfers in linear Ising spin chains with nearest neighbor couplings. These constitute a model for efficient information transfers in future quantum computing devices and for many multi-dimensional experiments for the assignment of complex spectra in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We complement prior analytic techniques for multiple-spin coherence transfers with a systematic numerical study where we obtain strong evidence that a certain analytically-motivated family of restricted controls is sufficient for time-optimality. In the case of a linear three-spin system, additional evidence suggests that prior analytic pulse sequences using this family of restricted controls are time-optimal even for arbitrary local controls. In addition, we compare the pulse sequences for linear Ising spin chains to pulse sequences for more realistic spin systems with additional long-range couplings between non-adjacent spins. We experimentally implement the derived pulse sequences in three and four spin systems and demonstrate that they are applicable in realistic settings under relaxation and experimental imperfections-in particular-by deriving broadband pulse sequences which are robust with respect to frequency offsets.
- Nov 07 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0211030v1The Quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is a key ingredient in most quantum algorithms. We have compared various spin-based quantum computing schemes to implement the QFT from the point of view of their actual time-costs and the accuracy of the implementation. We focus here on an interesting decomposition of the QFT as a product of the non-selective Hadamard transformation followed by multiqubit gates corresponding to square- and higher-roots of controlled-NOT gates. This decomposition requires only O(n) operations and is thus linear in the number of qubits $n$. The schemes were implemented on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor and the resultant density matrices reconstructed using standard quantum state tomography techniques. Their experimental fidelities have been measured and compared.
- Jun 29 2000 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0006123v1Quantum computing using two-dimensional NMR has recently been described using scalar coupling evolution technique [J. Chem. Phys.,109,10603 (1998)]. In the present paper, we describe two-dimensional NMR quantum computing with the help of selective pulses. A number of logic gates are implemented using two and three qubits with one extra observer spin. Some many-in-one gates (or Portmanteau gates) are implemented. Toffoli gate (or AND/NAND gate) and OR/NOR gates are implemented on three qubits. Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm for one and two qubits, using one extra work qubit, has also been implemented using selective pulses after creating a coherent superposition state, in the two-dimensional methodology.
- Jun 23 2000 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0006103v1We describe the experimental implementation of a recently proposed quantum algorithm involving quantum entanglement at the level of two qubits using NMR. The algorithm solves a generalisation of the Deutsch problem and distinguishes between even and odd functions using fewer function calls than is possible classically. The manipulation of entangled states of the two qubits is essential here, unlike the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm and the Grover's search algorithm for two bits.
- Sep 23 1999 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9909067v1A scheme to execute an n-bit Deutsch-Jozsa (D-J) algorithm using n qubits has been implemented for up to three qubits on an NMR quantum computer. For the one and two bit Deutsch problem, the qubits do not get entangled, hence the NMR implementation is achieved without using spin-spin interactions. It is for the three bit case, that the manipulation of entangled states becomes essential. The interactions through scalar J-couplings in NMR spin systems have been exploited to implement entangling transformations required for the three bit D-J algorithm.
- Jun 10 1999 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9906027v2We demonstrate experimentally the usefulness of selective pulses in NMR to perform quantum computation. Three different techniques based on selective pulse excitations have been proposed to prepare a spin system in a pseudo-pure state. We describe the design of novel ``portmanteau'' gates using the selective manipulation of level populations. A selective pulse implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm for a two-qubit and a three-qubit quantum computer is demonstrated.