We propose a scheme for authentication of physical keys that are materialized by optical multiple-scattering media. The authentication relies on the optical response of the key when probed by randomly selected coherent states of light, and the use of standard wavefront-shaping techniques that direct the scattered photons coherently to a specific target mode at the output. The quadratures of the electromagnetic field of the scattered light at the target mode are analysed using a homodyne detection scheme, and the acceptance or rejection of the key is decided upon the outcomes of the measurements. The proposed scheme can be implemented with current technology and offers collision resistance and robustness against key cloning.
Models of quantum systems on curved space-times lack sufficient experimental verification. Some speculative theories suggest that quantum properties, such as entanglement, may exhibit entirely different behavior to purely classical systems. By measuring this effect or lack thereof, we can test the hypotheses behind several such models. For instance, as predicted by Ralph and coworkers [T C Ralph, G J Milburn, and T Downes, Phys. Rev. A, 79(2):22121, 2009, T C Ralph and J Pienaar, New Journal of Physics, 16(8):85008, 2014], a bipartite entangled system could decohere if each particle traversed through a different gravitational field gradient. We propose to study this effect in a ground to space uplink scenario. We extend the above theoretical predictions of Ralph and coworkers and discuss the scientific consequences of detecting/failing to detect the predicted gravitational decoherence. We present a detailed mission design of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Space QUEST (Space - Quantum Entanglement Space Test) mission, and study the feasibility of the mission schema.
Multipartite entangled states are a fundamental resource for a wide range of quantum information processing tasks. In particular, in quantum networks it is essential for the parties involved to be able to verify if entanglement is present before they carry out a given distributed task. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a protocol that allows any party in a network to check if a source is distributing a genuinely multipartite entangled state, even in the presence of untrusted parties. The protocol remains secure against dishonest behaviour of the source and other parties, including the use of system imperfections to their advantage. We demonstrate the verification protocol in a three- and four-party setting using polarization-entangled photons, highlighting its potential for realistic photonic quantum communication and networking applications.
We provide the first example of a communication model and a distributed task, for which there exists a realistic quantum protocol which is asymptotically more efficient than any classical protocol, both in the communication and the information resources. For this, we extend a recently proposed coherent state mapping for quantum communication protocols, introduce the notion of multiplexed coherent state fingerprints and show how to use them to design an efficient quantum protocol for estimating the Euclidean distance of two real vectors within a constant factor.
Instantaneous quantum computing is a sub-universal quantum complexity class, whose circuits have proven to be hard to simulate classically in the Discrete-Variable (DV) realm. We extend this proof to the Continuous-Variable (CV) domain by using squeezed states and homodyne detection, and by exploring the properties of post-selected circuits. In order to treat post-selection in CVs we consider finitely-resolved homodyne detectors, corresponding to a realistic scheme based on discrete probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The unavoidable errors stemming from the use of finitely squeezed states are suppressed through a qubit-into-oscillator GKP encoding of quantum information, which was previously shown to enable fault-tolerant CV quantum computation. Finally, we show that, in order to render post-selected computational classes in CVs meaningful, a logarithmic scaling of the squeezing parameter with the circuit size is necessary, translating into a polynomial scaling of the input energy.
In view of real world applications of quantum information technologies, the combination of miniature quantum resources with existing fibre networks is a crucial issue. Among such resources, on-chip entangled photon sources play a central role for applications spanning quantum communications, computing and metrology. Here, we use a semiconductor source of entangled photons operating at room temperature in conjunction with standard telecom components to demonstrate multi-user quantum key distribution, a core protocol for securing communications in quantum networks. The source consists of an AlGaAs chip emitting polarization entangled photon pairs over a large bandwidth in the main telecom band around 1550 nm without the use of any off-chip compensation or interferometric scheme; the photon pairs are directly launched into a dense wavelength division multiplexer (DWDM) and secret keys are distributed between several pairs of users communicating through different channels. We achieve a visibility measured after the DWDM of 87% and show long-distance key distribution using a 50-km standard telecom fibre link between two network users. These results illustrate a promising route to practical, resource-efficient implementations adapted to quantum network infrastructures.
In recent years, the use of integrated technologies for applications in the field of quantum information processing and communications has made great progress. The resulting devices feature valuable characteristics such as scalability, reproducibility, low cost and interconnectivity, and have the potential to revolutionize our computation and communication practices in the future, much in the way that electronic integrated circuits have drastically transformed our information processing capacities since the last century. Among the multiple applications of integrated quantum technologies, this review will focus on typical components of quantum communication systems and on overall integrated system operation characteristics. We are interested in particular in the use of photonic integration platforms for developing devices necessary in quantum communications, including sources, detectors and both passive and active optical elements. We also illustrate the challenges associated with performing quantum communications on chip, by using the case study of quantum key distribution - the most advanced application of quantum information science. We conclude with promising perspectives in this field.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises unconditional security in data communication and is currently being deployed in commercial applications. Nonetheless, before QKD can be widely adopted, it faces a number of important challenges such as secret key rate, distance, size, cost and practical security. Here, we survey those key challenges and the approaches that are currently being taken to address them.
In this work we present a generalization of the recently developed Hardy-like logical proof of contextuality and of the so-called KCBS contextuality inequality for any qudit of dimension greater than three. Our approach uses compatibility graphs that can only be satisfied by qudits. We find a construction for states and measurements that satisfy these graphs and demonstrate both logical and inequality based contextuality for qudits. Interestingly, the quantum violation of the inequality is constant as dimension increases. We also discuss the issue of imprecision in experimental implementations of contextuality tests and a way of addressing this problem using the notion of ontological faithfulness.
We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial tele- com wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These tech- niques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.
The ability to distribute secret keys between two parties with information-theoretic security, that is, regardless of the capacities of a malevolent eavesdropper, is one of the most celebrated results in the field of quantum information processing and communication. Indeed, quantum key distribution illustrates the power of encoding information on the quantum properties of light and has far reaching implications in high-security applications. Today, quantum key distribution systems operate in real-world conditions and are commercially available. As with most quantum information protocols, quantum key distribution was first designed for qubits, the individual quanta of information. However, the use of quantum continuous variables for this task presents important advantages with respect to qubit based protocols, in particular from a practical point of view, since it allows for simple implementations that require only standard telecommunication technology. In this review article, we describe the principle of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, focusing in particular on protocols based on coherent states. We discuss the security of these protocols and report on the state-of-the-art in experimental implementations, including the issue of side-channel attacks. We conclude with promising perspectives in this research field.
The observation of the non-local properties of multipartite entangled states is of great importance for quantum information protocols. Such properties, however, are fragile and may not be observed in the presence of decoherence exhibited by practical physical systems. In this work, we investigate the robustness of the non-locality of symmetric states experiencing phase and amplitude damping, using suitable Bell inequalities based on an extended version of Hardy's paradox. We derive thresholds for observing non-locality in terms of experimental noise parameters, and demonstrate the importance of the choice of the measurement bases for optimizing the robustness. For $W$ states, in the phase damping case, we show that this choice can lead to a trade-off between obtaining a high violation of the non-local test and optimal robustness thresholds; we also show that in this setting the non-locality of $W$ states is particularly robust for a large number of qubits. Furthermore, we apply our techniques to the discrimination of symmetric states belonging to different entanglement classes, thus illustrating their usefulness for a wide range of practical quantum information applications.
Nonlocality enables two parties to win specific games with probabilities strictly higher than allowed by any classical theory. Nevertheless, all known such examples consider games where the two parties have a common interest, since they jointly win or lose the game. The main question we ask here is whether the nonlocal feature of quantum mechanics can offer an advantage in a scenario where the two parties have conflicting interests. We answer this in the affirmative by presenting a simple conflicting interest game, where quantum strategies outperform classical ones. Moreover, we show that our game has a fair quantum equilibrium with higher payoffs for both players than in any fair classical equilibrium. Finally, we play the game using a commercial entangled photon source and demonstrate experimentally the quantum advantage.
Multipartite nonlocality is of great fundamental interest and constitutes a useful resource for many quantum information protocols. However, demonstrating it in practice, by violating a Bell inequality, can be difficult. In particular, standard experimental setups require the alignment of distant parties' reference frames, which can be challenging or impossible in practice. In this work we study the violation of certain Bell inequalities, namely the Mermin, Mermin-Klyshko and Svetlichny inequalities, without shared reference frames, when parties share a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. Furthermore, we analyse how these violations demonstrate genuine multipartite features of entanglement and nonlocality. For 3, 4 and 5 parties, we show that it is possible to violate these inequalities with high probability, when the parties choose their measurements from the three Pauli operators, defined only with respect to their local frames. Moreover, the probability of violation, and the amount of violation, are increased when each party chooses their measurements from the four operators describing the vertices of a tetrahedron. We also consider how many randomly chosen measurement directions are needed to violate the Bell inequalities with high probability. We see that the obtained levels of violation are sufficient to also demonstrate genuine multipartite entanglement and nonseparability. Finally, we show analytically that choosing from two measurement settings per party is sufficient to demonstrate the maximum degree of genuine multipartite entanglement and nonseparability with certainty when the parties' reference frames are aligned in one direction so that they differ only in rotations around one axis.
Simply and reliably detecting and quantifying entanglement outside laboratory conditions will be essential for future quantum information technologies. Here we address this issue by proposing a method for generating expressions which can perform this task between two parties who do not share a common reference frame. These reference frame independent expressions only require simple local measurements, which allows us to experimentally test them using an off-the-shelf entangled photon source. We show that the values of these expressions provide bounds on the concurrence of the state, and demonstrate experimentally that these bounds are more reliable than values obtained from state tomography since characterizing experimental errors is easier in our setting. Furthermore, we apply this idea to other quantities, such as the Renyi and von Neumann entropies, which are also more reliably calculated directly from the raw data than from a tomographically reconstructed state. This highlights the relevance of our approach for practical quantum information applications that require entanglement.
Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here, we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug&play system, designed for quantum key distribution. We also show how to combine our protocol with coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries, hence enhancing them with a level of information-theoretic security. Our results offer a powerful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.
Establishing an information-theoretic secret key between two parties using a quantum key distribution (QKD) system is only possible when an accurate characterization of the quantum channel and proper device calibration routines are combined. Indeed, security loopholes due to inappropriate calibration routines have been shown for discrete-variable QKD. Here, we propose and provide experimental evidence of an attack targeting the local oscillator calibration routine of a continuous-variable QKD system. The attack consists in manipulating the classical local oscillator pulses during the QKD run in order to modify the clock pulses used at the detection stage. This allows the eavesdropper to bias the shot noise estimation usually performed using a calibrated relationship. This loophole can be used to perform successfully an intercept-resend attack. We characterize the loophole and suggest possible countermeasures.
Distributing secret keys with information-theoretic security is arguably one of the most important achievements of the field of quantum information processing and communications. The rapid progress in this field has enabled quantum key distribution (QKD) in real-world conditions and commercial devices are now readily available. QKD systems based on continuous variables present the major advantage that they only require standard telecommunication technology, and in particular, that they do not use photon counters. However, these systems were considered up till now unsuitable for long-distance communication. Here, we overcome all previous limitations and demonstrate for the first time continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of optical fibre. The demonstration includes all aspects of a practical scenario, with real-time generation of secret keys, stable operation in a regular environment, and use of finite-size data blocks for secret information computation and key distillation. Our results correspond to an implementation guaranteeing the strongest level of security for QKD reported to date for such long distances and pave the way to practical applications of secure quantum communications.
Fast and complete characterization of pulsed spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources is important for applications in quantum information processing and communications. We propose a simple method to perform this task, which only requires measuring the counts on the two output channels and the coincidences between them, as well as modeling the filter used to reduce the source bandwidth. The proposed method is experimentally tested and used for a complete evaluation of SPDC sources (pair emission probability, total losses, and fidelity) of different bandwidths. This method can find applications in the setting up of SPDC sources and in the continuous verification of the quality of quantum communication links.
We have experimentally implemented the distribution of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion through telecom dense wavelength division multiplexing filters. Using the measured counts and coincidences between symmetric channels, we evaluate the maximum fringe visibility that can be obtained with polarization entangled photons and compare different filter technologies.
When elliptically polarized maximally entangled states are considered, i.e., states having a non random phase factor between the two bipartite polarization components, the standard settings used for optimal violation of Bell inequalities are no longer adapted. One way to retrieve the maximal amount of violation is to compensate for this phase while keeping the standard Bell inequality analysis settings. We propose in this paper a general theoretical approach that allows determining and adjusting the phase of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states in order to optimize the violation of Bell inequalities. The formalism is also applied to several suggested experimental phase compensation schemes. In order to emphasize the simplicity and relevance of our approach, we also describe an experimental implementation using a standard Soleil-Babinet phase compensator. This device is employed to correct the phase that appears in the maximally entangled state generated from a type-II nonlinear photon-pair source after the photons are created and distributed over fiber channels.
As quantum key distribution becomes a mature technology, it appears clearly that some assumptions made in the security proofs cannot be justified in practical implementations. This might open the door to possible side-channel attacks. We examine several discrepancies between theoretical models and experimental setups in the case of continuous-variable quantum key distribution. We study in particular the impact of an imperfect modulation on the security of Gaussian protocols and show that approximating the theoretical Gaussian modulation with a discrete one is sufficient in practice. We also address the issue of properly calibrating the detection setup, and in particular the value of the shot noise. Finally, we consider the influence of phase noise in the preparation stage of the protocol and argue that taking this noise into account can improve the secret key rate because this source of noise is not controlled by the eavesdropper.
We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.
Future quantum information networks will likely consist of quantum and classical agents, who have the ability to communicate in a variety of ways with trusted and untrusted parties and securely delegate computational tasks to untrusted large-scale quantum computing servers. Multipartite quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource for such a network and hence it is imperative to study the possibility of verifying a multipartite entanglement source in a way that is efficient and provides strong guarantees even in the presence of multiple dishonest parties. In this work, we show how an agent of a quantum network can perform a distributed verification of a multipartite entangled source with minimal resources, which is, nevertheless, resistant against any number of dishonest parties. Moreover, we provide a tight tradeoff between the level of security and the distance between the state produced by the source and the ideal maximally entangled state. Last, by adding the resource of a trusted common random source, we can further provide security guarantees for all honest parties in the quantum network simultaneously.
A theoretical study of the performance of single-mode coupled spontaneous parametric downconversion sources is proposed, which only requires very few assumptions of practical interest : narrow-bandwidth and quasi-degenerate collinear generation. Other assumptions like pump beam spatial and temporal envelopes, target single-mode profile and size, and non-linear susceptibility distribution, are only taken into account in the final step of the computation, thus making the theory general and flexible. Figures of merit for performance include absolute collected brightness, pair collection efficiency and heralding ratio. The optimization of these values is investigated through functions that only depend on dimensionless parameters, allowing for deducing from the results the best experimental configuration for a whole range of design choices (e.g. crystal length, pump power). A particular application of the theory is validated by an experimental optimization obtained under compatible assumptions. A comparison with other works and proposals for numerically implementing the theory in its most generality are also provided.
In this article we show for the first time that quantum coin flipping with security guarantees that are strictly better than any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation like losses, multi-photon pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For channel length up to 21 km, we achieve a cheating probability that is better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is easy to implement using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.
A Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) network is an infrastructure capable of performing long-distance and high-rate secret key agreement with information-theoretic security. In this paper we study security properties of QKD networks based on trusted repeater nodes. Such networks can already be deployed, based on current technology. We present an example of a trusted repeater QKD network, developed within the SECOQC project. The main focus is put on the study of secure key agreement over a trusted repeater QKD network, when some nodes are corrupted. We propose an original method, able to ensure the authenticity and privacy of the generated secret keys.
A Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) network is an infrastructure that allows the realization of the key distribution cryptographic primitive over long distances and at high rates with information-theoretic security. In this work, we consider QKD networks based on trusted repeaters from a topology viewpoint, and present a set of analytical models that can be used to optimize the spatial distribution of QKD devices and nodes in specific network configurations in order to guarantee a certain level of service to network users, at a minimum cost. We give details on new methods and original results regarding such cost minimization arguments applied to QKD networks. These results are likely to become of high importance when the deployment of QKD networks will be addressed by future quantum telecommunication operators. They will therefore have a strong impact on the design and requirements of the next generation of QKD devices.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols, based on Gaussian modulation of the quadratures of coherent states, have been implemented in recent experiments. A present limitation of such systems is the finite efficiency of the detectors, which can in principle be compensated for by the use of classical optical preamplifiers. Here we study this possibility in detail, by deriving the modified secret key generation rates when an optical parametric amplifier is placed at the output of the quantum channel. After presenting a general set of security proofs, we show that the use of preamplifiers does compensate for all the imperfections of the detectors when the amplifier is optimal in terms of gain and noise. Imperfect amplifiers can also enhance the system performance, under conditions which are generally satisfied in practice.
We have designed and realized a prototype that implements a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on coherent states and reverse reconciliation. The system uses time and polarization multiplexing for optimal transmission and detection of the signal and phase reference, and employs sophisticated error-correction codes for reconciliation. The security of the system is guaranteed against general coherent eavesdropping attacks. The performance of the prototype was tested over preinstalled optical fibres as part of a quantum cryptography network combining different quantum key distribution technologies. The stable and automatic operation of the prototype over 57 hours yielded an average secret key distribution rate of 8 kbit/s over a 3 dB loss optical fibre, including the key extraction process and all quantum and classical communication. This system is therefore ideal for securing communications in metropolitan size networks with high speed requirements.
We report on the implementation of a reverse-reconciliated coherent-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, with which we generated secret keys at a rate of more than 2 kb/s over 25 km of optical fiber. Time multiplexing is used to transmit both the signal and phase reference in the same optical fiber. Our system includes all experimental aspects required for a field implementation of a quantum key distribution setup. Real-time reverse reconciliation is achieved by using fast and efficient LDPC error correcting codes.
Aug 15 2006 quant-ph
We present a quantum key distribution experiment in which keys that were secure against all individual eavesdropping attacks allowed by quantum mechanics were distributed over 100 km of optical fiber. We implemented the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol and used low timing jitter 1.55 um single-photon detectors based on frequency up-conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides and silicon avalanche photodiodes. Based on the security analysis of the protocol against general individual attacks, we generated secure keys at a practical rate of 166 bit/s over 100 km of fiber. The use of the low jitter detectors also increased the sifted key generation rate to 2 Mbit/s over 10 km of fiber.
Feb 16 2006 quant-ph
We use photon counters to obtain the joint photon counting statistics from twin-beam non-degenerate parametric down conversion, and we demonstrate directly, and with no auxiliary assumptions, that these twin beams are nonclassical.
Jul 13 2005 quant-ph
Since several papers appeared in 2000, the quantum key distribution (QKD) community has been well aware that photon number splitting (PNS) attack by Eve severely limits the secure key distribution distance in BB84 QKD systems with Poissonian photon sources. In attempts to solve this problem, entanglement-based QKD, single-photon based QKD, and entanglement swapping-based QKD, have been studied in recent years. However, there are many technological difficulties that must be overcome before these schemes can become practical systems. Here we report a very simple QKD system, in which secure keys were generated over >100 km fibre for the first time. We used an alternative protocol of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) but with a Poissonian source. We analysed the security of the DPSK protocol and showed that it is robust even against hybrid attacks including collective PNS attack over consecutive pulses, intercept-and-resend (I-R) attack and beamsplitting (BS) attack, because of the non-deterministic collapse of a wavefunction in a quantum measurement. To implement this protocol, we developed a new detector for the 1.5 um band based on frequency up-conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide followed by a Si avalanche photodiode (APD). The use of the new detectors increased the sifted key generation rate up to > 1 Mbit/s over 30 km fibre, which is two orders of magnitude larger than the previous record.
Jun 07 2005 quant-ph
We compare the performance of various quantum key distribution (QKD) systems using a novel single-photon detector, which combines frequency up-conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide and a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD). The comparison is based on the secure communication rate as a function of distance for three QKD protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84), the Bennett, Brassard, and Mermin 1992 (BBM92), and the coherent differential phase shift keying (DPSK). We show that the up-conversion detector allows for higher communication rates and longer communication distances than the commonly used InGaAs/InP APD for all the three QKD protocols.
Aug 12 2003 quant-ph
The Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) has the capability to discriminate photon number states, in contrast to conventional photon counters which can only detect the presence or absence of photons. We use this capability, along with the process of parametric down-conversion, to generate photon number states. We experimentally demonstrate generation of states containing 1,2,3 and 4 photons with high fidelity. We then explore the effect the detection efficiency of the VLPC has on the generation rate and fidelity of the created states.
Aug 12 2003 quant-ph
The Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) features high quantum efficiency and low pulse height dispersion. These properties make it ideal for efficient photon number state detection. The ability to perform efficient photon number state detection is important in many quantum information processing applications, including recent proposals for performing quantum computation with linear optical elements. In this paper we investigate the unique capabilities of the VLPC. The efficiency of the detector and cryogenic system is measured at 543nm wavelengths to be 85%. A picosecond pulsed laser is then used to excite the detector with pulses having average photon numbers ranging from 3-5. The output of the VLPC is used to discriminate photon numbers in a pulse. The error probability for number state discrimination is an increasing function of the number of photons, due to buildup of multiplication noise. This puts an ultimate limit on the ability of the VLPC to do number state detection. For many applications, it is sufficient to discriminate between 1 and more than one detected photon. The VLPC can do this with 99% accuracy.
Jul 24 2003 quant-ph
We employ a high quantum efficiency photon number counter to determine the photon number distribution of the output field from a parametric downconverter. The raw photocount data directly demonstrates that the source is nonclassical by forty standard deviations, and correcting for the quantum efficiency yields a direct observation of oscillations in the photon number distribution.
Jul 16 2003 quant-ph
We report the experimental demonstration of a quantum teleportation protocol with a semiconductor single photon source. Two qubits, a target and an ancilla, each defined by a single photon occupying two optical modes (dual-rail qubit), were generated independently by the single photon source. Upon measurement of two modes from different qubits and postselection, the state of the two remaining modes was found to reproduce the state of the target qubit. In particular, the coherence between the target qubit modes was transferred to the output modes to a large extent. The observed fidelity is 80 %, a figure which can be explained quantitatively by the residual distinguishability between consecutive photons from the source. An improved version of this teleportation scheme using more ancillas is the building block of the recent KLM proposal for efficient linear-optics quantum computation \citeref:klm.
Apr 16 2002 quant-ph
The performance of nondeterministic nonlinear gates in linear optics relies on the photon counting scheme being employed and the efficiencies of the detectors in such schemes. We assess the performance of the nonlinear sign gate, which is a critical component of linear optical quantum computing, for two standard photon counting methods: the double detector array and the visible light photon counter. Our analysis shows that the double detector array is insufficient to provide the photon counting capability for effective nondeterministic nonlinear transformations, and we determine the gate fidelity for both photon counting methods as a function of detector efficiencies.