results for au:D

- May 22 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1805.07669v1We demonstrate spin pumping, i.e. the generation of a pure spin current by precessing magnetization, without application of microwave radiation commonly used in spin pumping experiments. We use femtosecond laser pulses to simultaneously launch the magnetization precession in each of two ferromagnetic layers of a Galfenol-based spin valve and monitor the temporal evolution of the magnetizations. The spin currents generated by the precession cause a dynamic coupling of the two layers. This coupling has dissipative character and is especially efficient when the precession frequencies in the two layers are in resonance, where coupled modes with strongly different decay rates are formed.
- May 22 2018 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1805.07847v1Superconductors with a van der Waals (vdW) structure have attracted a considerable interest because of the possibility for truly two-dimensional (2D) superconducting systems. In order to clarify the underlying mechanisms of exotic states in these compounds, further studies on a novel family of vdW-type superconductors as an alternative system are highly desirable. We recently reported the superconductivity in layered tin arsenide NaSn2As2 with transition temperature (Tc) of 1.3 K. Its crystal structure mainly consists of a buckled honeycomb network of SnAs layer bound by the vdW forces. Herein, we present the crystal structure and superconductivity of a novel material Na1-xSn2P2, having a crystal structure analogous to NaSn2As2. Amount of Na deficiency (x) was estimated to be 0.074(18) using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Measurements of electrical resistivity and specific heat confirm the bulk nature of the superconductivity of Na1-xSn2P2 with Tc = 2.0 K. Because there are various structural analogues with tin-pnictide (SnPn) conducting layers, our results indicate that SnPn-based layered compounds can be categorized into a novel family of vdW-type superconductors, providing a new platform for studies on physics and chemistry of low-dimensional superconductors.
- May 22 2018 math.GR arXiv:1805.07587v1We survey recent progress in computing with finitely generated linear groups over infinite fields, describing the mathematical background of a methodology applied to design practical algorithms for these groups. Implementations of the algorithms have been used to perform extensive computer experiments.
- May 22 2018 hep-ph arXiv:1805.08198v1We study the one-loop gluon polarization tensor at zero and finite temperature in the presence of a magnetic field, to extract the thermo-magnetic evolution of the strong coupling $\alpha_s$. We analyze four distinct regimes, to wit, the small and large field cases, both at zero and at high temperature. From a renormalization group analysis we show that at zero temperature, either for small or large magnetic fields, and for a fixed transferred momentum $Q^2$, $\alpha_s$ grows with the field strength with respect to its vacuum value. However, at high temperature and also for a fixed value of $Q^2$ we find two different cases: When the magnetic field is even larger than the squared temperature, $\alpha_s$ also grows with the field strength. On the contrary, when the squared temperature is larger than the magnetic field, a turnover behavior occurs and $\alpha_s$ decreases with the field strength. This thermo-magnetic behavior of $\alpha_s$ can help explain the inverse magnetic catalysis phenomenon found by lattice QCD calculations.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.SR astro-ph.GA arXiv:1805.07590v1We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of the young (2-3 Myr) stellar cluster IC 348, which lies at a distance of 310 pc, and is dominated by low-mass stars (M$_{\star}$ $\sim$ 0.1-0.6 M$_{\odot}$). We observed 136 Class II sources (disks that are optically thick in the infrared) at 0.8$''$ (200 au) resolution with a 3$\sigma$ sensitivity of $\sim$ 0.45 mJy (M$_{\rm dust}$ $\sim$ 1.3 M$_{\oplus}$). We detect 40 of the targets and construct a mm-continuum luminosity function. We compare the disk mass distribution in IC 348 to those of younger and older regions, taking into account the dependence on stellar mass. We find a clear evolution in disk masses from 1 to 5-10 Myr. The disk masses in IC 348 are significantly lower than those in Taurus (1-3 Myr) and Lupus (1-3 Myr), similar to those of Chamaleon~I, (2-3 Myr) and $\sigma$ Ori (3-5 Myr) and significantly higher than in Upper Scorpius (5$-$10 Myr). About 20 disks in our sample ($\sim$5$\%$ of the cluster members) have estimated masses (dust $+$ gas) $>$1 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and hence might be the precursors of giant planets in the cluster. Some of the most massive disks include transition objects with inner opacity holes based on their infrared SEDs. From a stacking analysis of the 96 non-detections, we find that these disks have a typical dust mass of just $\lesssim$ 0.4 M$_{\oplus}$, even though the vast majority of their infrared SEDs remain optically thick and show little signs of evolution. Such low-mass disks may be the precursors of the small rocky planets found by \emphKepler around M-type stars.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1805.07747v1We present the ensemble variability analysis results of quasars using the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar catalogs. Our dataset includes 119,305 quasars with redshifts up to 4.89. Combining the two datasets provides a 15-year baseline and permits analysis of the long timescale variability. Adopting a power-law form for the variability structure function, $V=A(t/1yr)^{\gamma}$, we use the multi-dimensional parametric fitting to explore the relationships between the quasar variability amplitude and a wide variety of quasar properties, including redshift (positive), bolometric luminosity (negative), rest-frame wavelength (negative), and black hole mass (uncertain). We also find that $\gamma$ can be also expressed as a function of redshift (negative), bolometric luminosity (positive), rest-frame wavelength (positive), and black hole mass (positive). Tests of the fitting significance with the bootstrap method show that, even with such a large quasar sample, some correlations are marginally significant. The typical value of $\gamma$ for the entire dataset is $\gtrsim 0.25$, consistent with the results in previous studies on both the quasar ensemble variability and the structure function. A significantly negative correlation between the variability amplitude and the Eddington ratio is found, which may be explained as an effect of accretion disk instability.
- May 22 2018 eess.SP arXiv:1805.08120v1We describe block oriented multidimensional pulse position modulation and its resilience against impulsive noise. The modulation implements the encoder and part of the decoder of the BBC algorithm. We tested the modulation on circuits that send and detect a pulse based signal in the presence of impulsive noise. We measured the packet error rate vs. signal to noise ratio and we compared it with published error rates for OFDM. We found an error rate of 2 x 10^(-5) at a signal to noise ratio of 16 dB without forward error correction and a data rate of 64 kbit /sec.
- May 22 2018 cond-mat.stat-mech hep-th arXiv:1805.08132v1We study homogeneous quenches in integrable quantum field theory where the initial state contains zero-momentum particles. We demonstrate that the two-particle pair amplitude necessarily has a singularity at the two-particle threshold. Albeit the explicit discussion is carried out for special (integrable) initial states, we argue that the singularity is inevitably present. We also identify the singularity in quenches in the Ising model across the quantum critical point, and compute it perturbatively in phase quenches in the quantum sine-Gordon model which are potentially relevant to experiments. We then construct the explicit time dependence of one-point functions using a linked cluster expansion regulated by a finite volume parameter. We find that the secular contribution normally linear in time is modified by a $t\ln t$ term. We additionally encounter a novel type of secular contribution which is shown to be related to parametric resonance. It is an interesting open question to resum the new contributions and to establish their consequences directly observable in experiments or numerical simulations.
- First detection of the $2^+\rightarrow 0^+$ ground-state transition in the $\beta$ decay of $^{20}$FMay 22 2018 nucl-ex arXiv:1805.08149v1We report the first detection of the second-forbidden, non-unique, $2^+\rightarrow 0^+$, ground-state transition in the $\beta$ decay of $^{20}$F. A low-energy, mass-separated $^{20}\rm{F}$ beam produced at the IGISOL facility in Jyväskylä, Finland, was implanted in a thin carbon foil and the $\beta$ spectrum measured using a magnetic transporter and a plastic-scintillator detector. The branching ratio inferred from the observed $\beta$ yield is $[ 1.10\pm 0.21\textrm{(stat)}\pm 0.17\textrm{(sys)}^{+0.00}_{-0.11}\textrm{(theo)}] \times 10^{-5}$ corresponding to $\log ft = 10.47(11)$, making this the strongest known second-forbidden, non-unique transition. The experimental result is supported by shell-model calculations and has important astrophysical implications.
- We develop the orbit method in a quantitative form, along the lines of microlocal analysis, and apply it to the analytic theory of automorphic forms. Our main global application is an asymptotic formula for averages of Gan--Gross--Prasad periods in arbitrary rank. The automorphic form on the larger group is held fixed, while that on the smaller group varies over a family of size roughly the fourth root of the conductors of the corresponding $L$-functions. Ratner's results on measure classification provide an important input to the proof. Our local results include asymptotic expansions for certain special functions arising from representations of higher rank Lie groups, such as the relative characters defined by matrix coefficient integrals as in the Ichino--Ikeda conjecture.
- May 22 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1805.07818v1Binary pulsar observations and gravitational wave detections seriously constrained scalar-tensor theories with massless scalar field allowing only small deviations from general relativity. If we consider a nonzero mass of the scalar field, though, significant deviations from general relativity are allowed for values of the parameters that are in agreement with the observations. In the present paper we extend this idea and we study scalar-tensor theory with massive field with self-interaction term in the potential. The additional term suppresses the scalar field in the neutron star models in addition to the effect of the mass of the scalar field but still, large deviations from pure GR can be observed for values of the parameters that are in agreement with the observations.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.CO astro-ph.HE arXiv:1805.07995v1If ultra-high-energy cosmic rays originate from extragalactic sources, the offsets of their arrival directions from these sources imply an upper limit on the strength of the extragalactic magnetic field. The Pierre Auger Collaboration has recently reported that anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays is correlated with several types of extragalactic objects. If these cosmic rays originate from these objects, they imply a limit on the extragalactic magnetic field strength of B < 0.7-2.2 x 10^-9 (lambda_B / 1 Mpc)^-1/2 G for coherence lengths lambda_B < 100 Mpc and B < 0.7-2.2 x 10^-10 G at larger scales. This is comparable to existing upper limits at lambda_B = 1 Mpc, and improves on them by a factor 4-12 at larger scales. The principal source of uncertainty in our results is the unknown cosmic-ray composition.
- May 22 2018 nucl-th arXiv:1805.08152v1Friction coefficients for the fusion reaction $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O $\rightarrow$ $^{32}$S are extracted based on both the time-dependent Hartree-Fock and the time-dependent density matrix methods. The latter goes beyond the mean-field approximation by taking into account the effect of two-body correlations, but in practical simulations of fusion reactions we find that the total energy is not conserved. We analyze this problem and propose a solution that allows for a clear quantification of dissipative effects in the dynamics. Compared to mean-field simulations, friction coefficients in the density-matrix approach are enhanced by about $20 \, \%$. An energy-dependence of the dissipative mechanism is also demonstrated, indicating that two-body collisions are more efficient at generating friction at low incident energies.
- We describe a novel approach to imitation learning that infers latent policies directly from state observations. We introduce a method that characterizes the causal effects of unknown actions on observations while simultaneously predicting their likelihood. We then outline an action alignment procedure that leverages a small amount of environment interactions to determine a mapping between latent and real-world actions. We show that this corrected labeling can be used for imitating the observed behavior, even though no expert actions are given. We evaluate our approach within classic control and photo-realistic visual environments and demonstrate that it performs well when compared to standard approaches.
- May 22 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1805.08119v1We study the low-energy physics of a one-dimensional array of superconducting quantum dots realized by proximity coupling a semiconductor nanowire to multiple superconducting islands separated by narrow uncovered regions. The effective electrostatic potential inside the quantum dots and the uncovered regions can be controlled using potential gates. By performing detailed numerical calculations based on effective tightbinding models, we find that multiple low-energy sub-gap states consisting of partially overlapping Majorana bound states emerge generically in the vicinity of the uncovered regions. Explicit differential conductance calculations show that a robust zero-bias conductance peak is not inconsistent with the presence of such states localized throughout the system, hence the observation of such a peak does not demonstrate the realization of well-separated Majorana zero modes. However, we find that creating effective potential wells in the uncovered regions traps pairs of nearby partially overlapping Majorana bound states, which become less separated and acquire a finite gap that protects the pair of Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the system. This behavior persists over a significant parameter range, suggesting that proximitized quantum dot arrays could provide a platform for highly controllable Majorana devices.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1805.07364v1We present a new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) absorption-line survey to study halo gas around 16 luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z=0.21-0.55. The LRGs are selected uniformly with stellar mass Mstar>1e11 Msun and no prior knowledge of the presence/absence of any absorption features. Based on observations of the full Lyman series, we obtain accurate measurements of neutral hydrogen column density N(HI) and find that high-N(HI) gas is common in these massive quiescent halos with a median of <log N(HI)> = 16.6 at projected distances d<~160 kpc. We measure a mean covering fraction of optically-thick gas with log N(HI)>~17.2 of <kappa>LLS=0.44^+0.12_-0.11 at d<~160 kpc and <kappa>LLS=0.71^+0.11_-0.20 at d<~100 kpc. The line-of-sight velocity separations between the HI absorbing gas and LRGs are characterized by a mean and dispersion of <v_gas-gal>=29 km/s and \sigma_v_gas-gal=171 km/s. Combining COS FUV and ground-based echelle spectra provides an expanded spectral coverage for multiple ionic transitions, from low-ionization MgII and SiII, to intermediate ionization SiIII and CIII, and to high-ionization OVI absorption lines. We find that intermediate ions probed by CIII and SiIII are the most prominent UV metal lines in LRG halos with a mean covering fraction of <kappa(CIII)>_0.1=0.75^+0.08_-0.13 for W(977)>=0.1 Ang at d<160 kpc, comparable to what is seen for CIII in L* and sub-L* star-forming and red galaxies but exceeding MgII or OVI in quiescent halos. The COS-LRG survey shows that massive quiescent halos contain widespread chemically-enriched cool gas and that little distinction between LRG and star-forming halos is found in their HI and CIII content.
- We investigate the presence of vortices in generalized Maxwell-Higgs models with a hidden sector. The model engenders $U(1)\times U(1)$ symmetry, in a manner that the sectors are coupled via the visible magnetic permeability depending only on the hidden scalar field. We develop a first order framework in which the hidden sector decouples from the visible one. We illustrate the results with two specific examples, that give rise to the presence of vortices with internal structure.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.EP physics.ao-ph arXiv:1805.07415v1Secondary eclipse observations of ultra-hot Jupiters have found evidence that hydrogen is dissociated on their daysides. Additionally, full-phase light curve observations of ultra-hot Jupiters show a smaller day-night emitted flux contrast than that expected from previous theory. Recently, it was proposed by Bell & Cowan (2018) that the heat intake to dissociate hydrogen and heat release due to recombination of dissociated hydrogen can affect the atmospheric circulation of ultra-hot Jupiters. In this work, we add cooling/heating due to dissociation/recombination into the analytic theory of Komacek & Showman (2016) and Zhang & Showman (2017) for the dayside-nightside temperature contrasts of hot Jupiters. We find that at high values of incident stellar flux, the day-night temperature contrast of ultra-hot Jupiters may decrease with increasing incident stellar flux due to dissociation/recombination, the opposite of that expected without including the effects of dissociation/recombination. We propose that a combination of a greater number of full-phase light curve observations of ultra-hot Jupiters and future General Circulation Models that include the effects of dissociation/recombination could determine in detail how the atmospheric circulation of ultra-hot Jupiters differs from that of cooler planets.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1805.08033v1We report the discovery of an esdL3 subdwarf, ULAS J020858.62+020657.0 and a usdL4.5 subdwarf, ULAS J230711.01+014447.1. They were identified as L subdwarfs by optical spectra obtained with the Gran Telescopio Canarias, and followed up by optical to near infrared spectroscopy with the Very Large Telescope. We also obtained an optical to near infrared spectrum of a previously known L subdwarf, ULAS J135058.85+081506.8, and re-classified it as a usdL3 subdwarf. These three objects all have typical halo kinematics. They have $T_{\rm eff}$ around 2050-2250 K, $-$1.8 $\leq$ [Fe/H] $\leq -$1.5, and mass around 0.0822-0.0833 M$_{\odot}$, according to model spectral fitting and evolutionary models. These sources are likely halo transitional brown dwarfs with unsteady hydrogen fusions, as their masses are just below the hydrogen-burning minimum mass, which is $\sim$ 0.0845 M$_{\odot}$ at [Fe/H] = $-$1.6 and $\sim$ 0.0855 M$_{\odot}$ at [Fe/H] = $-$1.8. Including these, there are now nine objects in the `halo brown dwarf transition zone', which is a `substellar subdwarf gap' spans a wide temperature range within a narrow mass range of the substellar population.
- May 22 2018 math.AT arXiv:1805.08146v1There are only 10 Euclidean forms, that is flat closed three dimensional manifolds: six are orientable and four are non-orientable. The aim of this paper is to describe all types of $n$-fold coverings over orientable Euclidean manifolds $\mathcal{G}_{2}$ and $\mathcal{G}_{4}$, and calculate the numbers of non-equivalent coverings of each type. We classify subgroups in the fundamental groups $\pi_1(\mathcal{G}_{2})$ and $\pi_1(\mathcal{G}_{4})$ up to isomorphism and calculate the numbers of conjugated classes of each type of subgroups for index $n$. The manifolds $\mathcal{G}_{2}$ and $\mathcal{G}_{4}$ are uniquely determined among the others orientable forms by their homology groups $H_1(\mathcal{G}_{2})=\mathbb{Z}_2\times \mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}$ and $H_1(\mathcal{G}_{4})=\mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}$.
- May 22 2018 cs.CV arXiv:1805.07706v1Inspired by CapsNet's routing-by-agreement mechanism, with its ability to learn object properties, and by center-of-mass calculations from physics, we propose a CapsNet architecture with object coordinate atoms and an LSTM network for evaluation. The first is based on CapsNet but uses a new routing algorithm to find the objects' approximate positions in the image coordinate system, and the second is a parameterized affine transformation network that can predict future positions from past positions by learning the translation transformation from 2D object coordinates generated from the first network. We demonstrate the learned translation transformation is transferable to another dataset without the need to train the transformation network again. Only the CapsNet needs training on the new dataset. As a result, our work shows that object recognition and motion prediction can be separated, and that motion prediction can be transferred to another dataset with different object types.
- May 22 2018 cs.CE arXiv:1805.07472v1The design of flow control systems remains a challenge due to the nonlinear nature of the equations that govern fluid flow. However, recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have enabled the simulation of complex fluid flows with high accuracy, opening the possibility of using learning-based approaches to facilitate controller design. We present a method for learning the forced and unforced dynamics of airflow over a cylinder directly from CFD data. The proposed approach, grounded in Koopman theory, is shown to produce stable dynamical models that can predict the time evolution of the cylinder system over extended time horizons. Finally, by performing model predictive control with the learned dynamical models, we are able to find a straightforward, interpretable control law for suppressing vortex shedding in the wake of the cylinder.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.HE astro-ph.SR arXiv:1805.07372v1[Abridged] We present UV/optical observations of PS16aqv (SN 2016ard), a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) classified as part of our search for low-$z$ SLSNe. PS16aqv is a fast evolving SLSNe-I that reached a peak absolute magnitude of $M_{r} \approx -22.1$. The lightcurves exhibit a significant undulation at 30 rest-frame days after peak, with a behavior similar to undulations seen in the slowly fading SLSN-I SN 2015bn. This similarity strengthens the case that fast and slow SLSNe-I form a continuum with a common origin. At $\approx\!80$ days after peak, the lightcurves exhibit a transition to a slow decline, followed by significant subsequent steepening, indicative of a plateau phase or a second significant undulation. Deep limits at $\approx280$ days after peak imply a tight constraint on the nickel mass, $M_{\rm Ni} \lesssim 0.35$ M$_{\odot}$ (lower than for previous SLSNe-I), and indicate that some SLSNe-I do not produce significantly more nickel than normal Type Ic SNe. Using MOSFiT, we model the lightcurve with a magnetar central engine model and find $P_{\rm spin} \approx 0.9$ ms, $B \approx 1.5 \times 10^{14}$ G, and $M_{\rm ej} \approx 16$ M$_{\odot}$. The implied rapid spin-down time and large reservoir of available energy coupled with the high ejecta mass may account for the fast evolving lightcurve and slow spectroscopic evolution. We also study the location of PS16aqv in its host galaxy and find that it occurred at an offset of $2.46 \pm 0.21$ kpc from the central star-forming region. We find the host galaxy exhibits low metallicity and spatially varying extinction and star formation rate, with the explosion site exhibiting lower values than the central region. The complexity seen in the lightcurves of PS16aqv and other events highlights the importance of obtaining well-sampled lightcurves for exploring deviations from a uniform decline.
- May 22 2018 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1805.07404v1We numerically investigate the low-lying entanglement spectrum of the ground state of random one dimensional spin chains obtained after a partition of the chain in two equal halves. We consider two paradigmatic models: the spin-1/2 random transverse field Ising model, solved exactly, and the spin-1 random Heisenberg model, simulated using the density matrix renormalization group. In both cases we analyse the mean Schmidt gap, defined as the difference of the two largest eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix of one of the two partitions, averaged over many disorder realizations. We find that the Schmidt gap detects very well the critical point and scales with universal critical exponents.
- The spiral waves detected in the protostellar disc surrounding Elias 2-27 have been suggested as evidence of the disc being gravitationally unstable. However, previous work has shown that a massive, stable disc undergoing an encounter with a massive companion are also consistent with the observations. We compare the spiral morphology of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations modelling both cases. The gravitationally unstable disc produces symmetric, tightly wound spiral arms with constant pitch angle, as predicted by the literature. The companion disc's arms are asymmetric, with pitch angles that increase with radius. However, these arms are not well-fitted by standard analytic expressions, due to the high disc mass and relatively low companion mass. We note that differences (or indeed similarities) in morphology between pairs of spirals is a crucial discriminant between scenarios for Elias 2-27, and hence future studies must fit spiral arms individually. If Elias 2-27 continues to show symmetric tightly wound spiral arms in future observations, then we posit that it is the first observed example of a gravitationally unstable protostellar disc.
- New data on the production of single neutral pions in the $pd\rightarrow{}^3\textrm{He}\,\pi^0$ reaction are presented. For fifteen proton beam momenta between $p_p=1.60\;\textrm{GeV}/c$ and $p_p=1.74\;\textrm{GeV}/c$, differential cross sections are determined over a large fraction of the backward hemisphere. Since the only previous systematic measurements of single-pion production at these energies were made in collinear kinematics, the present work constitutes a significant extension of the current knowledge on this reaction. Even this far above the production threshold, significant changes are found in the behaviour of the angular distributions over small intervals in beam momentum.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1805.08192v1We present Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6 and 4.5 micron observations of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 at 43, 74, and 264 days post-merger. Using the final observation as a template, we uncover a source at the position of GW170817 at 4.5 micron with a brightness of 22.9+/-0.3 AB mag at 43 days and 23.8+/-0.3 AB mag at 74 days (the uncertainty is dominated by systematics from the image subtraction); no obvious source is detected at 3.6 micron to a 3-sigma limit of >23.3 AB mag in both epochs. The measured brightness is dimmer by a factor of about 2-3 times compared to our previously published kilonova model, which is based on UV, optical, and near-IR data at <30 days. However, the observed fading rate and color (m_3.6-m_4.5> 0 AB mag) are consistent with our model. We suggest that the discrepancy is likely due to a transition to the nebular phase, or a reduced thermalization efficiency at such late time. Using the Spitzer data as a guide, we briefly discuss the prospects of observing future binary neutron star mergers with Spitzer (in LIGO/Virgo Observing Run 3) and the James Webb Space Telescope (in LIGO/Virgo Observing Run 4 and beyond).
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1805.07752v1The solar magnetic field is responsible for all aspects of solar activity. Sunspots are the main manifestation of the ensuing solar activity. Combining high-resolution and synoptic observations has the ambition to provide a comprehensive description of the sunspot growth and decay processes. Active region NOAA 12396 emerged on 2015 August 3 and was observed three days later with the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope on 2015 August 6. High-resolution spectropolarimetric data from the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) are obtained in the photospheric Si I $\lambda$ 1082.7 nm and Ca I $\lambda$1083.9 nm lines, together with the chromospheric He I $\lambda$1083.0 nm triplet. These near-infrared spectropolarimetric observations were complemented by synoptic line-of-sight magnetograms and continuum images of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and EUV images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).
- May 22 2018 hep-ph arXiv:1805.07815v1We consider new modes of two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decays in which one $\beta$ electron goes over to a continuous spectrum and the other occupies a vacant bound level of the daughter ion. We calculate the corresponding phase-space factors of the final states, estimate the partial decay rates, and derive the one- and two-electron energy spectra using relativistic many-electron wave functions of atoms provided by the multiconfiguration Dirac--Hartree--Fock package GRASP2K. While the bound-state neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decays are strongly suppressed, their two-neutrino counterparts can be observed in the next-generation double-$\beta$-decay experiments, most notably SuperNEMO.
- Inferring intent from observed behavior has been studied extensively within the frameworks of Bayesian inverse planning and inverse reinforcement learning. These methods infer a goal or reward function that best explains the actions of the observed agent, typically a human demonstrator. Another agent can use this inferred intent to predict, imitate, or assist the human user. However, a central assumption in inverse reinforcement learning is that the demonstrator is close to optimal. While models of suboptimal behavior exist, they typically assume that suboptimal actions are the result of some type of random noise or a known cognitive bias, like temporal inconsistency. In this paper, we take an alternative approach, and model suboptimal behavior as the result of internal model misspecification: the reason that user actions might deviate from near-optimal actions is that the user has an incorrect set of beliefs about the rules -- the dynamics -- governing how actions affect the environment. Our insight is that while demonstrated actions may be suboptimal in the real world, they may actually be near-optimal with respect to the user's internal model of the dynamics. By estimating these internal beliefs from observed behavior, we arrive at a new method for inferring intent. We demonstrate in simulation and in a user study with 12 participants that this approach enables us to more accurately model human intent, and can be used in a variety of applications, including offering assistance in a shared autonomy framework and inferring human preferences.
- As it requires a huge number of parameters when exposed to high dimensional inputs in video detection and classification, there is a grand challenge to develop a compact yet accurate video comprehension at terminal devices. Current works focus on optimizations of video detection and classification in a separated fashion. In this paper, we introduce a video comprehension (object detection and action recognition) system for terminal devices, namely DEEPEYE. Based on You Only Look Once (YOLO), we have developed an 8-bit quantization method when training YOLO; and also developed a tensorized-compression method of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) composed of features extracted from YOLO. The developed quantization and tensorization can significantly compress the original network model yet with maintained accuracy. Using the challenging video datasets: MOMENTS and UCF11 as benchmarks, the results show that the proposed DEEPEYE achieves 3.994x model compression rate with only 0.47% mAP decreased; and 15,047x parameter reduction and 2.87x speed-up with 16.58% accuracy improvement.
- May 22 2018 astro-ph.SR astro-ph.EP arXiv:1805.07726v1We conducted high-contrast polarimetry observations of T Tau in the H-band, using the HiCIAO instrument mounted on the Subaru Telescope, revealing structures as near as 0.$\arcsec$1 from the stars T Tau N and T Tau S. The whole T Tau system is found to be surrounded by nebula-like envelopes, and several outflow-related structures are detected in these envelopes. We analyzed the detailed polarization patterns of the circumstellar structures near each component of this triple young star system and determined constraints on the circumstellar disks and outflow structures. We suggest that the nearly face-on circumstellar disk of T Tau N is no larger than 0.$\arcsec$8, or 117 AU, in the northwest, based on the existence of a hole in this direction, and no larger than 0.$\arcsec$27, or 40 AU, in the south. A new structure "N5" extends to about 0.$\arcsec$42, or 59 AU, on the southwest of the star, believed to be part of the disk. We suggest that T Tau S is surrounded by a highly inclined circumbinary disk with a radius of about 0.$\arcsec$3, or 44 AU, with a position angle of about 30$^\circ$, that is misaligned with the orbit of the T Tau S binary. After analyzing the positions and polarization vector patterns of the outflow-related structures, we suggest that T Tau S should trigger the well-known E-W outflow, and is also likely to be responsible for a southwest precessing outflow "coil" and a possible south outflow.
- May 22 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.08104v1We consider branched quantum wires, whose connection rules provide PT-symmetry for the Schrodinger equation on graph. For such PT-symmetric quantum graph we derive general boundary conditions which keep the Hamiltonian as PT-symmetric with real eigenvalues and positively defined norm. Explicit boundary conditions which are consistent with the general PT-symmetric boundary conditions are presented. Secular equations for finding the eigenvalues of the quantum graph are derived. Breaking of the Kirchhoff rule at the branching point is shown. Experimental realization of PT-symmetric quantum graphs on branched optical waveguides is discussed.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1805.06921v1Changing-look quasars are a recently identified class of active galaxies in which the strong UV continuum and/or broad optical hydrogen emission lines associated with unobscured quasars either appear or disappear on timescales of months to years. The physical processes responsible for this behaviour are still debated, but changes in the black hole accretion rate or accretion disk structure appear more likely than changes in obscuration. Here we report on four epochs of spectroscopy of SDSS J110057.70-005304.5, a quasar at a redshift of $z=0.378$ whose UV continuum and broad hydrogen emission lines have faded, and then returned over the past $\approx$20 years. The change in this quasar was initially identified in the infrared, and an archival spectrum from 2010 shows an intermediate phase of the transition during which the flux below rest-frame $\approx$3400Å has decreased by close to an order of magnitude. This combination is unique compared to previously published examples of changing-look quasars, and is best explained by dramatic changes in the innermost regions of the accretion disk. The optical continuum has been rising since mid-2016, leading to a prediction of a rise in hydrogen emission line flux in the next year. Increases in the infrared flux are beginning to follow, delayed by a $\sim$3 year observed timescale. If our model is confirmed, the physics of changing-look quasars are governed by processes at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) around the black hole, and the structure of the innermost disk. The easily identifiable and monitored changing-look quasars would then provide a new probe and laboratory of the nuclear central engine.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1805.06957v1Here we explore the disk-jet connection in the broad-line radio quasar 4C+74.26, utilizing the results of the multiwavelength monitoring of the source. The target is unique in that its radiative output at radio wavelengths is dominated by a moderately-beamed nuclear jet, at optical frequencies by the accretion disk, and in the hard X-ray range by the disk corona. Our analysis reveals a correlation (local and global significance of 96\% and 98\%, respectively) between the optical and radio bands, with the disk lagging behind the jet by $250 \pm 42$ days. We discuss the possible explanation for this, speculating that the observed disk and the jet flux changes are generated by magnetic fluctuations originating within the innermost parts of a truncated disk, and that the lag is related to a delayed radiative response of the disk when compared with the propagation timescale of magnetic perturbations along relativistic outflow. This scenario is supported by the re-analysis of the NuSTAR data, modelled in terms of a relativistic reflection from the disk illuminated by the coronal emission, which returns the inner disk radius $R_{\rm in}/R_{\rm ISCO} =35^{+40}_{-16}$. We discuss the global energetics in the system, arguing that while the accretion proceeds at the Eddington rate, with the accretion-related bolometric luminosity $L_{\rm bol} \sim 9 \times 10^{46}$ erg s$^{-1}$ $\sim 0.2 L_{\rm Edd}$, the jet total kinetic energy $L_\textrm{j} \sim 4 \times 10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$, inferred from the dynamical modelling of the giant radio lobes in the source, constitutes only a small fraction of the available accretion power.
- May 21 2018 physics.atm-clus arXiv:1805.07114v1Angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of fenchone and camphor by short intense laser pulses is computed by the time-dependent Single Center (TDSC) method. Thereby, the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the three-photon resonance enhanced ionization and four-photon above-threshold ionization of these molecules is investigated in detail. The computational results are in a satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data, measured for randomly-oriented fenchone and camphor molecules at different wavelengths of the exciting pulses. We predict a significant enhancement of the multiphoton PECD for uniaxially-oriented fenchone and camphor.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1805.07119v1Data from the NUCLEON space observatory give a strong indication of the existence of a new universal cosmic ray "knee", which is observed in all groups of nuclei, including heavy nuclei, near a magnetic rigidity of about 10\u2009TV. Universality means the same position of the knee in the magnetic rigidity scale for all groups of nuclei. The knee is observed by both methods of measurement of particles energy implemented in the NUCLEON observatory---the calorimetric method and the kinematic method KLEM. This new cosmic ray "knee" is probably connected with the limit of acceleration of cosmic rays by some generic or nearby source of cosmic rays.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.EP arXiv:1805.07164v1We provide the catalogue of all transit-like features, including false alarms, detected by the CoRoT exoplanet teams in the 177 454 light curves of the mission. All these detections have been re-analysed with the same softwares so that to ensure their homogeneous analysis. Although the vetting process involves some human evaluation, it also involves a simple binary flag system over basic tests: detection significance, presence of a secondary, difference between odd and even depths, colour dependence, V-shape transit, and duration of the transit. We also gathered the information from the large accompanying ground-based programme carried out on the planet candidates and checked how useful the flag system could have been at the vetting stage of the candidates. In total, we identified and separated 824 false alarms of various kind, 2269 eclipsing binaries among which 616 are contact binaries and 1653 are detached ones, 37 planets and brown dwarfs, and 557 planet candidates. For the planet candidates, the catalogue gives not only their transit parameters but also the products of their light curve modelling, together with a summary of the outcome of follow-up observations when carried out and their current status. Among the planet candidates whose nature remains unresolved, we estimate that 8 +/- 3 planets are still to be identified. We derived planet and brown dwarf occurrences and confirm disagreements with Kepler estimates: small-size planets with orbital period less than ten days are underabundant by a factor of three in the CoRoT fields whereas giant planets are overabundant by a factor of two. These preliminary results would however deserve further investigations using the recently released CoRoT light curves that are corrected of the various instrumental effects and a homogeneous analysis of the stellar populations observed by the two missions.
- We consider 5d Yang-Mills theory with a compact ADE-type gauge group $G$ on ${\mathbb R}^{3,1}\times{\cal I}$, where $\cal I$ is an interval. The maximally supersymmetric extension of this model appears after compactification on $S^1$ of 6d $\cal N$= (2,0) superconformal field theory on ${\mathbb R}^{3,1}\times S^2_2$, where $S^2_2\cong{\cal I}\times S^1$ is a two-sphere with two punctures. In the low-energy limit, when the length of $\cal I$ becomes small, the 5d Yang-Mills theory reduces to a nonlinear sigma model on ${\mathbb R}^{3,1}$ with the Lie group $G$ as its target space. It contains an infinite tower of interacting fields whose leading term in the infrared is the four-derivative Skyrme term. A maximally supersymmetric generalization leading to a hyper-Kähler sigma-model target space is briefly discussed.
- May 21 2018 physics.flu-dyn cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1805.07304v1We report experiments, modeling and numerical simulations of the self--assembly of particle patterns obtained from a nanometric metallic square grid. Initially, nickel filaments of rectangular cross section are patterned on a SiO$_2$ flat surface, and then they are melted by laser irradiation with $\sim 20$ ns pulses. During this time, the liquefied metal dewets the substrate, leading to a linear array of drops along each side of the squares. The experimental data provides a series of SEM images of the resultant morphology as a function of the number of laser pulses or cumulative liquid lifetime. These data are analyzed in terms of fluid mechanical models that account for mass conservation and consider flow evolution with the aim to predict the final number of drops resulting from each side of the square. The aspect ratio, $\delta$, between the square sides' lengths and their widths is an essential parameter of the problem. Our models allow us to predict the $\delta$-intervals within which a certain final number of drops are expected. The comparison with experimental data shows a good agreement with the model that explicitly considers the Stokes flow developed in the filaments neck region that lead to breakup points. Also, numerical simulations, that solve the Navier-Stokes equations along with slip boundary condition at the contact lines, are implemented to describe the dynamics of the problem.
- Modelling High-Frequency Backscattering from a Mesh of Curved Surfaces Using Kirchhoff ApproximationMay 21 2018 physics.comp-ph arXiv:1805.06945v1The Kirchhoff approximation (K-A) to calculate the acoustic backscattering of a complex structure can be evaluated using a discretized version of its surface (i.e. a $\textit{mesh}$). From the computational viewpoint, the most accesible approach is the one based on flat facets. However, in the high frequency range, where the K-A provides good agreement and is therefore applicable, it requires a mesh with such a large number of facets that it turns impractical. To avoid these difficulties a mesh of curved triangles can be used to model the scatterer's complex structure. Previous computational implementations reported in the literature did not accomplish satisfactory results for high frequency. In this work we propose a numerical model based upon an iterative integration using Gauss-Legendre rules that led us to achieve adequate results in the high-frequency range and was validated against exact solutions.
- We use the Tridiagonal Representation Approach (TRA) to obtain exact bound states solution (energy spectrum and wavefunction) of the Schrödinger equation for a three-parameter short-range potential with 1/r, 1/r^2 and 1/r^3 singularities at the origin. The solution is a finite series of square integrable functions with weighted coefficients that satisfy a three-term recursion relation. The solution of the recursion is the discrete version of a non-conventional orthogonal polynomial. We are currently preparing to use the results of this work to study the binding of an electron to a molecule with an effective electric quadrupole moment, which has the same 1/r^3 singularity.
- The construction of effective and informative landscapes for stochastic dynamical systems has proven a long-standing and complex problem. In many situations, the dynamics may be described by a Langevin equation while constructing a landscape comes down to obtaining the quasi-potential, a scalar function that quantifies the likelihood of reaching each point in the state-space. In this work we provide a novel method for constructing such landscapes by extending a tool from control theory: the Sum-of-Squares method for generating Lyapunov functions. Applicable to any system described by polynomials, this method provides an analytical polynomial expression for the potential landscape, in which the coefficients of the polynomial are obtained via a convex optimization problem. The resulting landscapes are based upon a decomposition of the deterministic dynamics of the original system, formed in terms of the gradient of the potential and a remaining "curl" component. By satisfying the condition that the inner product of the gradient of the potential and the remaining dynamics is everywhere negative, our derived landscapes provide both upper and lower bounds on the true quasi-potential; these bounds becoming tight if the decomposition is orthogonal. The method is demonstrated to correctly compute the quasi-potential for high-dimensional linear systems and also for a number of nonlinear examples.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1805.07305v1In the direction of l = 17.6 - 19 deg, the star-forming sites Sh 2-53 and IRAS 18223-1243 are prominently observed, and seem to be physically detached from each other. Sh 2-53 has been investigated at the junction of the molecular filaments, while a larger-scale environment of IRAS 18223-1243 remains unexplored. The goal of this paper is to investigate the star formation processes in the IRAS site (area ~0.4 deg x 0.4 deg). Based on the GRS 13CO line data, two molecular clouds, peaking at velocities of 45 and 51 km/s, are found. In the position-velocity plots, a relatively weak 13CO emission is detected at intermediate velocities (i.e. 47.5 - 49.5 km/s) between these two clouds, illustrating a link between two parallel elongated velocity structures. These clouds are physically connected in both space and velocity. The MAGPIS data at 20 cm trace free-free continuum emission toward the IRAS 18223-1243 source. Using the Spitzer and UKIDSS photometric data, we have identified infrared-excess young stellar objects (YSOs), and have observed their groups toward the intersection zones of the clouds. IRAS 18223-1243 is also spatially seen at an interface of the clouds. Considering these observational findings, we propose the onset of the collision of two clouds in the IRAS site about 1 Myr ago, which triggered the birth of massive star(s) and the YSO groups. A non-uniform distribution of the GPIPS H-band starlight mean polarization angles is also observed toward the colliding interfaces, indicating the impact of the collision on the magnetic field morphology.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.GA astro-ph.CO arXiv:1805.06961v1We present a spectroscopically complete sample of 147 infrared-color-selected AGN down to a 22 $\mu$m flux limit of 20 mJy over the $\sim$270 deg$^2$ of the SDSS Stripe 82 region. Most of these sources are in the QSO luminosity regime ($L_{\rm bol} \gtrsim 10^{12} L_\odot$) and are found out to $z\simeq3$. We classify the AGN into three types, finding: 57 blue, unobscured Type-1 (broad-lined) sources; 69 obscured, Type-2 (narrow-lined) sources; and 21 moderately-reddened Type-1 sources (broad-lined and $E(B-V) > 0.25$). We study a subset of this sample in X-rays and analyze their obscuration to find that our spectroscopic classifications are in broad agreement with low, moderate, and large amounts of absorption for Type-1, red Type-1 and Type-2 AGN, respectively. We also investigate how their X-ray luminosities correlate with other known bolometric luminosity indicators such as [O III] line luminosity ($L_{\rm [OIII]}$) and infrared luminosity ($L_{6 \mu{\rm m}}$). While the X-ray correlation with $L_{\rm [OIII]}$ is consistent with previous findings, the most infrared-luminous sources appear to deviate from established relations such that they are either under-luminous in X-rays or over-luminous in the infrared. Finally, we examine the luminosity function (LF) evolution of our sample, and by AGN type, in combination with the complementary, infrared-selected, AGN sample of Lacy et al. (2013), spanning over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. We find that the two obscured populations evolve differently, with reddened Type-1 AGN dominating the obscured AGN fraction ($\sim$30%) for $L_{5 \mu{\rm m}} > 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$, while the fraction of Type-2 AGN with $L_{5 \mu{\rm m}} < 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$ rises sharply from 40% to 80% of the overall AGN population.
- May 21 2018 physics.optics arXiv:1805.06985v1Triple sum-frequency (TSF) spectroscopy is a recently-developed fully coherent methodology that enables collection of multidimensional spectra by resonantly exciting multiple quantum coherences of molecular, vibrational, and electronic states. This Letter reports the first application of TSF to the electronic states of semiconductors. Two independently tunable ultrafast excitation pulses excite the A, B, and C features of a MoS\textsubscript2 thin film. The two-dimensional spectrum differs markedly from absorption and second harmonic generation spectra. The differences arise because of the relative importance of transition moments and the joint density of states. We develop a simple model and use global fitting of absorption and harmonic generation spectra to extract the joint density of states and the transition moments in these spectra. Our results validate previous assignments of the C feature to a large joint density of states created by band nesting.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1805.07077v1We report 20 new lithium-rich giants discovered within the Gaia-ESO Survey, including the first Li-rich giant with evolutionary stage confirmed by CoRoT data. Atmospheric parameters and abundances were derived in model atmosphere analyses using medium-resolution GIRAFFE or high-resolution UVES spectra. These results are part of the fifth internal data release of Gaia-ESO. The Li abundances were corrected for non-LTE effects. We used Gaia DR2 parallaxes to estimate distances and luminosities. The giants have A(Li) > 2.2 dex. The majority of them (14 out of 20 stars) are in the CoRoT fields. Four giants are located in the field of three open clusters but are not members. Two giants were observed in fields towards the Galactic bulge but are likely in the inner disk. One of the bulge field giants is super Li-rich with A(Li) = 4.0 dex. We identified one giant with infrared excess at 22 microns. Two other giants, with large vsin i, might be Li-rich because of planet engulfment. Another giant is found to be barium enhanced and thus could have accreted material from a former AGB companion. Otherwise, besides the Li enrichment, the evolutionary stages are the only other connection between these new Li-rich giants. The CoRoT data confirm that one Li-rich giant is at the core-He burning stage. The other giants are concentrated in close proximity to the RGB luminosity bump, the core-He burning stages, or the early-AGB. This is very clear when looking at the Gaia-based luminosities of the Li-rich giants. This is also seen when the CoRoT Li-rich giants are compared to a larger sample of 2252 giants observed in the CoRoT fields by the Gaia-ESO Survey, which are distributed all over the RGB in the Teff-logg diagram. These observations show that evolutionary stage is a major factor behind the Li enrichment in giants. Other processes, like planet accretion, contribute to a smaller scale. [abridged]
- May 21 2018 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1805.07173v1Unconventional superconductivity is often soft and tunable. To optimise $T_c$, the sweet spot for a monolayer of FeSe is, for example, uniquely bound to titanium-oxide substrates. By contrast for La$_{2-x}$Sr$_x$CuO$_4$ thin films, such substrates are sub-optimal and the highest transition temperature is instead obtained using LaSrAlO$_4$. An outstanding challenge is thus to understand what are the optimal conditions for superconductivity in thin films and, eventually, how to realise them. Here we demonstrate, by a combination of x-ray absorption (XAS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy, how the Coulomb and magnetic-exchange interaction of prototypical La$_2$CuO$_4$ thin films can be enhanced by compressive strain. Our experiments and theoretical calculations establish that the substrate producing the largest $T_c$ also generates the largest nearest neighbour hopping integral, Coulomb and magnetic-exchange interaction. We hence suggest optimising the parent Mott state as a potential strategy for enhancing the superconducting transition temperature in cuprates.
- May 21 2018 nlin.PS arXiv:1805.07200v1The Frenkel-Kontorova chain with a free end is used to study initiation and propagation of crowdions (anti-kinks) caused by impact of a molecule consisting of K atoms. It is found that molecules with 1 < K < 10 are more efficient in initiation of crowdions as compared to single atom (K = 1) because total energy needed to initiate the crowdions by molecules is smaller. This happens because single atom can initiate in the chain only sharp, fast-moving crowdions that requires a relatively large energy. Molecule has finite length, that is why it is able to excite a wider crowdion with a smaller velocity and smaller energy. Our results can shed light on the atomistic mechanisms of mass transfer in crystals subject to atom and molecule bombardment.
- May 21 2018 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1805.07205v1We have studied the compact phase conformations of semi-flexible polymer chains confined in two dimensional nonhomogeneous media, modelled by fractals that belong to the family of modified rectangular (MR) lattices. Members of the MR family are enumerated by an integer $p$ $(2\leq p<\infty)$, and fractal dimension of each member of the family is equal to 2. The polymer flexibility is described by the stiffness parameter $s$, while the polymer conformations are modelled by weighted Hamiltonian walks (HWs). Applying an exact method of recurrence equations we have found the asymptotic behavior of partition function $Z_N$ for closed HWs consisting of $N$ steps. We have established that $Z_N$ scales as $\omega^N \mu^{N^\sigma}$, where the critical exponent $\sigma$ in the stretched exponential term does not depend on $s$, and takes the value 1/2 for each fractal from the family. The constants $\omega$ and $\mu$ depend on both $p$ and $s$, and, in addition, $\mu$ depends on the parity of MR generator. Besides, we have calculated numerically the stiffness dependence of the polymer persistence length and various thermodynamic quantities (such as free and internal energy, specific heat and entropy), for a large set of members of MR family. We have found that semi-flexible compact polymers, on MR lattices, can exist only in the liquid-like (disordered) phase, whereas the crystal (ordered) phase has not appeared. Finally, the behavior of examined system at zero temperature has been discussed.
- May 21 2018 hep-ph arXiv:1805.07306v1We present an update of the Mathematica package SARAH to calculate unitarity constraints in BSM models. The new functions can perform an analytical and numerical calculation of the two-particle scattering matrix of (uncoloured) scalars. We do not make use of the simplifying assumption of a very large scattering energy, but include all contributions which could become important at small energies above the weak scale. This allows us to constrain trilinear scalar couplings. However, it can also modify (weakening or strengthening) the constraints on quartic couplings, which we show via the example of a singlet extended Standard Model.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.GA astro-ph.CO arXiv:1805.07318v1The part played by stars in the ionization of the intergalactic medium remains an open question. A key issue is the proportion of the stellar ionizing radiation that escapes the galaxies in which it is produced. Spectroscopy of gamma-ray burst afterglows can be used to determine the neutral hydrogen column-density in their host galaxies and hence the opacity to extreme ultra-violet radiation along the lines-of-sight to the bursts. Thus, making the reasonable assumption that long-duration GRB locations are representative of the sites of massive stars that dominate EUV production, one can calculate an average escape fraction of ionizing radiation in a way that is independent of galaxy size, luminosity or underlying spectrum. Here we present a sample of NH measures for 138 GRBs in the range 1.6<z<6.7 and use it to establish an average escape fraction at the Lyman limit of <fesc>~0.005, with a 98% confidence upper limit of ~0.015. This analysis suggests that stars provide a small contribution to the ionizing radiation budget of the IGM at z<5, where the bulk of the bursts lie. At higher redshifts, z>5, firm conclusions are limited by the small size of the GRB sample, but any decline in average HI column-density seems to be modest. We also find no indication of a significant correlation of NH with galaxy UV luminosity or host stellar mass, for the subset of events for which these are available. We discuss in some detail a number of selection effects and potential biases. Drawing on a range of evidence we argue that such effects, while not negligible, are unlikely to produce systematic errors of more than a factor ~2, and so would not affect the primary conclusions. Given that many GRB hosts are low metallicity, high specific star-formation rate, dwarf galaxies, these results present a particular problem for the hypothesis that such galaxies dominated the reionization of the universe.
- May 21 2018 hep-ph arXiv:1805.07344v1We compute the gluon polarization tensor in a thermo-magnetic environment in the weak and strong magnetic field cases, both at zero and at high temperature. The magnetic field effects are introduced using Schwinger's proper time method. Thermal effects are computed in the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. We find that for the zero temperature case and a non-vanishing quark mass, the coefficients of the tensor structures describing the polarization tensor develop an imaginary part corresponding to the threshold for quark-antiquark pair production. These coefficients are infrared finite and simplify considerably when the quark mass vanishes. In the high temperature case, the quark mass can be safely ignored. Nevertheless, we explicitly maintain this mass finite to separate the unrenormalized vacuum and matter contributions. We discuss how knowledge of this coefficients is useful in particular to study the thermo-magnetic evolution of the strong coupling in the four regimes hereby treated.
- May 21 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.07351v1Constructing a large scale quantum processor will require gate operations that are robust in the presence of noise and experimental imperfection. We experimentally demonstrate, making use of a pair of trapped ions, how a new type of Mølmer-Sørensen gate protects against infidelity caused by heating of the motional mode used during the gate. Furthermore, we show how the same technique simultaneously provides significant protection against slow fluctuations and mis-sets in the frequency of the mode. Since this sensitivity is further enhanced in cases where the ions are not ground state cooled, our method provides a path towards relaxing ion cooling requirements in practical realisations of quantum computing and simulation.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.GA astro-ph.HE arXiv:1805.07016v1The extinction profiles in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are usually described by the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-type extinction curve. In different empirical extinction laws, the total-to-selective extinction, RV, is an important quantity because of its relation to dust grain sizes and compositions. We here analyse a sample of 17 GRBs (0.34<z<7.84) where the ultraviolet to near-infrared spectroscopic observations are available through the VLT/X-shooter instrument, giving us an opportunity to fit individual extinction curves of GRBs for the first time. Our sample is compiled on the basis that multi-band photometry is available around the X-shooter observations. The X-shooter data are combined with the Swift X-ray data and a single or broken power-law together with a parametric extinction law is used to model the individual SEDs. We find 10 cases with significant dust, where the derived extinction, AV, ranges from 0.1-1.0mag. In four of those, the inferred extinction curves are consistent with the SMC curve. The GRB individual extinction curves have a flat RV distribution with an optimal weighted combined value of RV = 2.61+/-0.08 (for seven broad coverage cases). The 'average GRB extinction curve' is similar to, but slightly steeper than the typical SMC, and consistent with the SMC Bar extinction curve at ~95% confidence level. The resultant steeper extinction curves imply populations of small grains, where large dust grains may be destroyed due to GRB activity. Another possibility could be that young age and/or lower metallicities of GRBs environments are responsible for the steeper curves.
- May 21 2018 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1805.07198v1The family of rare-earth tritellurides RTe$_3$ features charge-density-wave (CDW) order related to strongly momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling. Similar to other CDW compounds, superconductivity is observed when the CDW order is suppressed via hydrostatic pressure [1]. What sets the heavier members of the RTe3 series apart is the observation of a second CDW transition at lower temperatures having an in-plane ordering wavevector $q_{CDW,2}\parallel [100]$ of almost the same magnitude but orthogonal to the ordering wavevector $q_{CDW,1}\parallel [001]$ observed at higher temperatures [2]. Here, we report an inelastic x-ray scattering investigation of the lattice dynamics of DyTe$_3$. In particular, we show that there are several phonon modes along both in-plane directions, which respond to the onset of the CDW transition at $T_{CDW,1}=308\,\rm{K}$. Surprisingly, these soft modes close to $q_{CDW,2}=(0.68,0,0)$ show strong softening near $T_{CDW,1}$ but do not exhibit any response to the lower-temperature transition at $T_{CDW,2}=68\,\rm{K}$. Our results indicate that the low-temperature CDW order is not just the 90\deg rotated analogue of the one appearing at high temperatures.
- May 21 2018 cond-mat.soft arXiv:1805.07201v1A challenge in soft robotics and soft actuation is the determination of an elastic system which spontaneously recovers its trivial path during postcritical deformation after a bifurcation. The interest in this behaviour is that a displacement component spontaneously cycles around a null value, thus producing a cyclic soft mechanism. An example of such a system is theoretically proven through the solution of the Elastica and a stability analysis based on dynamic perturbations. It is shown that the asymptotic self-restabilization is driven by the development of a configurational force, of similar nature to the Peach-Koehler interaction between dislocations in crystals, which is derived from the principle of least action. A proof-of-concept prototype of the discovered elastic system is designed, realized, and tested, showing that this innovative behaviour can be obtained in a real mechanical apparatus.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1805.06974v1There are several peculiar long-period dwarf-nova like objects, which show rare, low-amplitude outbursts with highly ionized emission lines. 1SWASP J162117$+$441254, BD Pav, and V364 Lib belong to this kind of objects. Some researchers even doubt whether 1SWASP J1621 and V364 Lib have the same nature as normal dwarf novae. We studied the peculiar outbursts in these three objects via our optical photometry and spectroscopy, and performed numerical modeling of their orbital variations to investigate their properties. We found that their outbursts lasted for a long interval (a few tens of days), and that slow rises in brightness were commonly observed during the early stage of their outbursts. Our analyses and numerical modeling suggest that 1SWASP J1621 has a very high inclination, close to 90 deg, plus a faint hot spot. Although BD Pav seems to have a slightly lower inclination ($\sim$75 deg), the other properties are similar to those in 1SWASP J1621. On the other hand, V364 Lib appears to have a massive white dwarf, a hot companion star, and a low inclination ($\sim$35 deg). In addition, these three objects possibly have low transfer rate and/or large disks originating from the long orbital periods. We find that these properties of the three objects can explain their infrequent and low-amplitude outbursts within the context of the disk instability model in normal dwarf novae without strong magnetic field. In addition, we suggest that the highly-ionized emission lines in outburst are observed due to a high inclination and/or a massive white dwarf. More instances of this class of object may be unrecognized, since their unremarkable outbursts can be easily overlooked.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1805.06920v1We report a new changing-look quasar, WISE~J105203.55+151929.5 at $z=0.303$, found by identifying highly mid-IR variable quasars in the WISE/NEOWISE data stream. Compared to multi-epoch mid-IR photometry of a large sample of SDSS-confirmed quasars, WISE J1052+1519 is an extreme photometric outlier, fading by more than a factor of two at $3.4$ and $4.6 \mu$m since 2009. Swift target-of-opportunity observations in 2017 show even stronger fading in the soft X-rays compared to the ROSAT detection of this source in 1995, with at least a factor of fifteen decrease. We obtained second-epoch spectroscopy with the Palomar telescope in 2017 which, when compared with the 2006 archival SDSS spectrum, reveals that the broad H$\beta$ emission has vanished and that the quasar has become significantly redder. The two most likely interpretations for this dramatic change are source fading or obscuration, where the latter is strongly disfavored by the mid-IR data. We discuss various physical scenarios that could cause such changes in the quasar luminosity over this timescale, and favor changes in the innermost regions of the accretion disk that occur on the thermal and heating/cooling front timescales. We discuss possible physical triggers that could cause these changes, and predict the multiwavelength signatures that could distinguish these physical scenarios.
- May 21 2018 hep-th arXiv:1805.07017v1In this work we consider kink-antikink and antikink-kink collisions in a hybrid model. The potential has two topological sectors connecting adjacent minima, so it simulates the $\phi^6$ model. However, in each topological sector, the potential is symmetric around the local maximum and the perturbed static kink solutions have translational and one vibrational mode, so it simulates the $\phi^4$ model. The two-bounce windows for antikink-kink collisions can be explained by the mechanism of Campbell-Schonfeld-Wingate (CSW) resonant transfer of energy between translational to vibrational mode. The high degree of symmetry of the potential leads, for kink-antikink collisions, to a new structure of bounce windows. In particular, depending on the initial velocity, one can have oscillations of the scalar field at the center of mass even for one bounce, or a change of topological sector. We show how a modified CSW mechanism can be used to explain some of the results.
- May 21 2018 astro-ph.SR gr-qc arXiv:1805.07257v1The equilibrium configuration and the radial stability of white dwarfs composed of charged perfect fluid are investigated. These cases are analyzed through the results obtained from the solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation. We regard that the fluid pressure and the fluid energy density follow the relation of a fully degenerate electron gas. For the electric charge distribution in the object, we consider that it is centralized only close to the white dwarfs' surfaces. We obtain larger and more massive white dwarfs when the total electric charge is increased. To appreciate the effects of the electric charge in the structure of the star, we found that it must be in the order of $10^{20}\,[{\rm C}]$ with which the electric field is about $10^{16}\,[{\rm V/cm}]$. For white dwarfs with electric fields close to the Schwinger limit, we obtain masses around $2\,M_{\odot}$. We also found that in a system constituted by charged static equilibrium configurations, the maximum mass point found on it marks the onset of the instability. This indicates that the necessary and sufficient conditions to recognize regions constituted by stable and unstable equilibrium configurations against small radial perturbations are respectively $dM/d\rho_c>0$ and $dM/d\rho_c<0$.
- May 21 2018 hep-ph arXiv:1805.07310v1Two-Higgs-Doublet-Models (THDMs) are among the simplest extensions of the standard model and are intensively studied in the literature. Using on-shell parameters such as the masses of the additional scalars as input, corresponds often to large quartic couplings in the underlying Lagrangian. Therefore, it is important to check if these couplings are for instance in agreement with perturbative unitarity. The common approach for doing this check is to consider the two-particle scattering matrix of scalars in the large centre-of-mass energy limit where only point interactions contribute. We show that this is not always a valid approximation: the full calculation including all tree-level contributions at finite energy can lead to much more stringent constraints. We show how the allowed regions in the parameter space are affected. In particular, the light Higgs window with a second Higgs below 125 GeV completely closes for large values of the $Z_2$ breaking parameter $|M_{12}|$. We also compare against the loop corrected constraints, which use also the large $\sqrt{s}$ approximation, and find that (effective) cubic couplings are often more important than radiative corrections.
- May 21 2018 physics.optics arXiv:1805.07327v1Ultra-compact, low-loss, fast, and reconfigurable optical components, enabling manipulation of light by light, could open numerous opportunities for controlling light on the nanoscale. Nanostructured all-dielectric metasurfaces have been shown to enable extensive control of amplitude and phase of light in the linear optical regime. Among other functionalities, they offer unique opportunities for shaping the wave front of light to introduce the orbital angular momentum (OAM) to a beam. Such structured light beams bring a new degree of freedom for applications ranging from spectroscopy and micromanipulation to classical and quantum optical communications. To date, reconfigurability or tuning of the optical properties of all-dielectric metasurfaces have been achieved mechanically, thermally, electrically or optically, using phase-change or nonlinear optical materials. However, a majority of demonstrated tuning approaches are either slow or require high optical powers. Arsenic trisulfide (As$_2$S$_3$) chalcogenide glass offering ultra-fast and large $\chi^{(3)}$ nonlinearity as well as a low two-photon absorption coefficient in the near and mid-wave infrared spectral range, could provide a new platform for the realization of fast and relatively low-intensity reconfigurable metasurfaces. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an As$_2$S$_3$ chalcogenide glass based metasurface that enables reshaping of a conventional Hermite-Gaussian beam with no OAM into an OAM beam at low-intensity levels, while preserves the original beam's amplitude and phase characteristics at high-intensity levels. The proposed metasurface could find applications for a new generation of optical communication systems and optical signal processing.
- Comparison of \nu\mu-Ar multiplicity distributions observed by MicroBooNE to GENIE model predictionsMay 18 2018 hep-ex physics.ins-det arXiv:1805.06887v1We measure a large set of observables in inclusive charged current muon neutrino scattering on argon with the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber operating at Fermilab. We evaluate three neutrino interaction models based on the widely used GENIE event generator using these observables. The measurement uses a data set consisting of neutrino interactions with a final state muon candidate fully contained within the MicroBooNE detector. These data were collected in 2016 with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam, which has an average neutrino energy of 800 MeV, using an exposure corresponding to 5e19 protons-on-target. The analysis employs fully automatic event selection and charged particle track reconstruction and uses a data-driven technique to separate neutrino interactions from cosmic ray background events. We find that GENIE models consistently describe the shapes of a large number of kinematic distributions for fixed observed multiplicity, but we show an indication that the observed multiplicity fractions deviate from GENIE expectations.
- May 18 2018 physics.data-an arXiv:1805.06630v1It is well known that to estimate the Shannon entropy for symbolic sequences accurately requires a large number of samples. When some aspects of the data are known it is plausible to attempt to use this to more efficiently compute entropy. A number of methods having various assumptions have been proposed which can be used to calculate entropy for small sample sizes. In this paper, we examine this problem and propose a method for estimating the Shannon entropy for a set of ranked symbolic natural events. Using a modified Zipf-Mandelbrot-Li law and a new rank-based coincidence counting method, we propose an efficient algorithm which enables the entropy to be estimated with surprising accuracy using only a small number of samples. The algorithm is tested on some natural sequences and shown to yield accurate results with very small amounts of data.
- In this paper we continue a study of cosmological perturbations in the conformal gravity theory. In previous work we had obtained a restricted set of solutions to the cosmological fluctuation equations, solutions that were required to be both transverse and synchronous. Here we present the general solution. We show that in a conformal invariant gravitational theory fluctuations around any background that is conformal to flat (backgrounds that include the cosmologically interesting Robertson-Walker and de Sitter geometries) can be constructed from the (known) solutions to fluctuations around a flat background. For this construction to hold it is not necessary that the perturbative geometry associated with the fluctuations itself be conformal to flat. Using this construction we show that in a conformal Robertson-Walker cosmology early universe fluctuations grow as $t^4$. We present the scalar, vector, tensor decomposition of the fluctuations in the conformal theory, and compare and contrast our work with the analogous treatment of fluctuations in the standard Einstein gravity theory.
- May 18 2018 physics.optics nlin.PS arXiv:1805.06845v1We investigate theoretically frequency comb generation in a bottle microresonator accounting for the azimuthal and axial degrees of freedom. We first identify a discrete set of the axial nonlinear modes of a bottle microresonator that appear as tilted resonances bifurcating from the spectrum of linear axial modes. We then study azimuthal modulational instability of these modes and show that families of 2D soliton states localized both azimuthally and axially bifurcate from them at critical pump frequencies. Depending on detuning, 2D solitons can be either stable, or form persistent breathers, chaotic spatio-temporal patterns, or exhibit collapse-like evolution.
- May 18 2018 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1805.06496v1The bipolar nebula Menzel 3 (Mz 3) was observed as part of the \textitHerschel Planetary Nebula Survey (\textitHerPlaNS), which used the PACS and SPIRE instruments aboard the \textitHerschel Space Observatory to study a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe). In this paper, one of the series describing \textitHerPlaNS results, we report the detection of H I recombination lines (HRLs) in the spectrum of Mz 3. Inspection of the spectrum reveals the presence of 12 HRLs in the 55 to 680 $\mu$m range covered by the PACS and SPIRE instruments (H11$\alpha$ to H21$\alpha$ and H14$\beta$). The presence of HRLs in this range is unusual for PNe and has not been reported in Mz 3 before. Our analysis indicates that the HRLs we observed are enhanced by laser effect occurring in the core of Mz 3. Our arguments for this are: (i) the available Mz 3 optical to submillimetre HRL $\alpha$ line intensity ratios are not well reproduced by the spontaneous emission of optically thin ionized gas, as would be typical for nebular gas in PNe; (ii) the compact core of Mz 3 is responsible for a large fraction of the Herschel HRLs emission; (iii) the line intensity ratios for Mz 3 are very similar to those in the core emission of the well known star MWC 349A, where laser effect is responsible for the enhancement of HRLs in the Herschel wavelength range; (iv) the physical characteristics relevant to cause laser effect in the core of MWC 349A are very similar to those in the core of Mz 3.
- May 18 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall hep-th arXiv:1805.06547v1We show that electrons undergoing a two-particle collision in a crystal experience a coordinate shift that depends on their single-particle Bloch wave functions, and derive a gauge-invariant expression for such shift, valid for arbitrary band structures, and arbitrary two-particle interaction potentials. As an application of the theory, we consider two-particle coordinate shifts for Weyl fermions in space of three spatial dimensions. We demonstrate that such shifts in general contribute to the anomalous Hall conductivity of a clean electron liquid.
- May 18 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1805.06484v1The advanced-wave picture is "... an intuitive treatment of two-photon correlation with the help of the concept of an effective field acting upon one of the two detectors and formed by parametric conversion of the advanced wave emitted by the second detector ..." [A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, JETP 78, 259 (1994)]. This quote from Belinskii and Klyshko nicely describes the concept of the advanced-wave picture; an intuitive tool for designing and predicting results from coincidence-based two-photon experiments. Up to now, the advanced-wave picture has been considered primarily for the case of an ideal plane-wave pump beam and only for design purposes. Here we study the advanced-wave picture for a paraxial pump beam. This suggests stimulated parametric down-conversion as a useful experimental tool for testing the experimental sets designed with the advanced-wave picture. We present experimental results demonstrating the strategy of designing the experiment with advanced-wave picture and testing with stimulated emission.