results for au:Costeira_J in:cs
May 02 2017 cs.CV
In this paper, we aim to monitor the flow of people in large public infrastructures. We propose an unsupervised methodology to cluster people flow patterns into the most typical and meaningful configurations. By processing 3D images from a network of depth cameras, we built a descriptor for the flow pattern. We define a data-irregularity measure that assesses how well each descriptor fits a data model. This allows us to rank the flow patterns from highly distinctive (outliers) to very common ones and, discarding outliers, obtain more reliable key configurations (classes). We applied this methodology in an operational scenario during 18 days in the X-ray screening area of an international airport. Results show that our methodology is able to summarize the representative patterns, a relevant information for airport management. Beyond regular flows our method identifies a set of rare events corresponding to uncommon activities (cleaning,special security and circulating staff). We demonstrate that for such a long observation period our methodology encapsulates the relevant "states" of the infrastructure in a very compact way.
Mar 20 2017 cs.CV
Understanding traffic density from large-scale web camera (webcam) videos is a challenging problem because such videos have low spatial and temporal resolution, high occlusion and large perspective. To deeply understand traffic density, we explore both deep learning based and optimization based methods. To avoid individual vehicle detection and tracking, both methods map the image into vehicle density map, one based on rank constrained regression and the other one based on fully convolution networks (FCN). The regression based method learns different weights for different blocks in the image to increase freedom degrees of weights and embed perspective information. The FCN based method jointly estimates vehicle density map and vehicle count with a residual learning framework to perform end-to-end dense prediction, allowing arbitrary image resolution, and adapting to different vehicle scales and perspectives. We analyze and compare both methods, and get insights from optimization based method to improve deep model. Since existing datasets do not cover all the challenges in our work, we collected and labelled a large-scale traffic video dataset, containing 60 million frames from 212 webcams. Both methods are extensively evaluated and compared on different counting tasks and datasets. FCN based method significantly reduces the mean absolute error from 10.99 to 5.31 on the public dataset TRANCOS compared with the state-of-the-art baseline.
How to self-localize large teams of underwater nodes using only noisy range measurements? How to do it in a distributed way, and incorporating dynamics into the problem? How to reject outliers and produce trustworthy position estimates? The stringent acoustic communication channel and the accuracy needs of our geophysical survey application demand faster and more accurate localization methods. We approach dynamic localization as a MAP estimation problem where the prior encodes dynamics, and we devise a convex relaxation method that takes advantage of previous estimates at each measurement acquisition step; The algorithm converges at an optimal rate for first order methods. LocDyn is distributed: there is no fusion center responsible for processing acquired data and the same simple computations are performed for each node. LocDyn is accurate: experiments attest to a smaller positioning error than a comparable Kalman filter. LocDyn is robust: it rejects outlier noise, while the comparing methods succumb in terms of positioning error.
Jan 26 2016 cs.SI
Understanding adoption patterns of smartphones is of vital importance to telecommunication managers in today's highly dynamic mobile markets. In this paper, we leverage the network structure and specific position of each individual in the social network to account for and measure the potential heterogeneous role of peer influence in the adoption of the iPhone 3G. We introduce the idea of core/periphery as a meso-level organizational principle to study the social network, which complements the use of centrality measures derived from either global network properties (macro-level) or from each individual's local social neighbourhood (micro-level). Using millions of call detailed records from a mobile network operator in one country for a period of eleven months, we identify overlapping social communities as well as core and periphery individuals in the network. Our empirical analysis shows that core users exert more influence on periphery users than vice versa. Our findings provide important insights to help identify influential members in the social network, which is potentially useful to design optimal targeting strategies to improve current network-based marketing practices.