We propose hybrid methods for localization in wireless sensor networks fusing noisy range measurements with angular information (extracted from video). Compared with conventional methods that rely on a single sensed variable, this may pave the way for improved localization accuracy and robustness. We address both the single-source and network (i.e., cooperative multiple-source) localization paradigms, solving them via optimization of a convex surrogate. The formulations for hybrid localization are unified in the sense that we propose a single nonlinear least-squares cost function, fusing both angular and range measurements. We then relax the problem to obtain an estimate of the optimal positions. This contrasts with other hybrid approaches that alternate the execution of localization algorithms for each type of measurement separately, to progressively refine the position estimates. Single-source localization uses a semidefinite relaxation to obtain a one-shot matrix solution from which the source position is derived via factorization. Network localization uses a different approach where sensor coordinates are retained as optimization variables, and the relaxed cost function is efficiently minimized using fast iterations based on Nesterov's optimal method. Further, an automated calibration procedure is developed to express range and angular information, obtained by different devices, possibly deployed at different locations, in a single consistent coordinate system. This drastically reduces the need for manual calibration that would otherwise negatively impact the practical usability of hybrid range/video localization systems. We develop and test, both in simulation and experimentally, the new hybrid localization algorithms, which not only overcome the limitations of previous fusing approaches but also compare favorably to state-of-the-art methods, outperforming them in some scenarios.
Sep 06 2017 cs.CV
We propose a method to reconstruct and cluster incomplete high-dimensional data lying in a union of low-dimensional subspaces. Exploring the sparse representation model, we jointly estimate the missing data while imposing the intrinsic subspace structure. Since we have a non-convex problem, we propose an iterative method to reconstruct the data and provide a sparse similarity affinity matrix. This method is robust to initialization and achieves greater reconstruction accuracy than current methods, which dramatically improves clustering performance. Extensive experiments with synthetic and real data show that our approach leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction and segmentation, outperforming current state of the art for both low and high-rank data.
Aug 01 2017 cs.CV
In this paper, we develop deep spatio-temporal neural networks to sequentially count vehicles from low quality videos captured by city cameras (citycams). Citycam videos have low resolution, low frame rate, high occlusion and large perspective, making most existing methods lose their efficacy. To overcome limitations of existing methods and incorporate the temporal information of traffic video, we design a novel FCN-rLSTM network to jointly estimate vehicle density and vehicle count by connecting fully convolutional neural networks (FCN) with long short term memory networks (LSTM) in a residual learning fashion. Such design leverages the strengths of FCN for pixel-level prediction and the strengths of LSTM for learning complex temporal dynamics. The residual learning connection reformulates the vehicle count regression as learning residual functions with reference to the sum of densities in each frame, which significantly accelerates the training of networks. To preserve feature map resolution, we propose a Hyper-Atrous combination to integrate atrous convolution in FCN and combine feature maps of different convolution layers. FCN-rLSTM enables refined feature representation and a novel end-to-end trainable mapping from pixels to vehicle count. We extensively evaluated the proposed method on different counting tasks with three datasets, with experimental results demonstrating their effectiveness and robustness. In particular, FCN-rLSTM reduces the mean absolute error (MAE) from 5.31 to 4.21 on TRANCOS, and reduces the MAE from 2.74 to 1.53 on WebCamT. Training process is accelerated by 5 times on average.
Jul 17 2017 cs.CV
Many computer vision problems are formulated as the optimization of a cost function. This approach faces two main challenges: (i) designing a cost function with a local optimum at an acceptable solution, and (ii) developing an efficient numerical method to search for one (or multiple) of these local optima. While designing such functions is feasible in the noiseless case, the stability and location of local optima are mostly unknown under noise, occlusion, or missing data. In practice, this can result in undesirable local optima or not having a local optimum in the expected place. On the other hand, numerical optimization algorithms in high-dimensional spaces are typically local and often rely on expensive first or second order information to guide the search. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes Discriminative Optimization (DO), a method that learns search directions from data without the need of a cost function. Specifically, DO explicitly learns a sequence of updates in the search space that leads to stationary points that correspond to desired solutions. We provide a formal analysis of DO and illustrate its benefits in the problem of 3D point cloud registration, camera pose estimation, and image denoising. We show that DO performed comparably or outperformed state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy, robustness to perturbations, and computational efficiency.
While domain adaptation has been actively researched in recent years, most theoretical results and algorithms focus on the single-source-single-target adaptation setting. Naive application of such algorithms on multiple source domain adaptation problem may lead to suboptimal solutions. As a step toward bridging the gap, we propose a new generalization bound for domain adaptation when there are multiple source domains with labeled instances and one target domain with unlabeled instances. Compared with existing bounds, the new bound does not require expert knowledge about the target distribution, nor the optimal combination rule for multisource domains. Interestingly, our theory also leads to an efficient learning strategy using adversarial neural networks: we show how to interpret it as learning feature representations that are invariant to the multiple domain shifts while still being discriminative for the learning task. To this end, we propose two models, both of which we call multisource domain adversarial networks (MDANs): the first model optimizes directly our bound, while the second model is a smoothed approximation of the first one, leading to a more data-efficient and task-adaptive model. The optimization tasks of both models are minimax saddle point problems that can be optimized by adversarial training. To demonstrate the effectiveness of MDANs, we conduct extensive experiments showing superior adaptation performance on three real-world datasets: sentiment analysis, digit classification, and vehicle counting.
May 02 2017 cs.CV
In this paper, we aim to monitor the flow of people in large public infrastructures. We propose an unsupervised methodology to cluster people flow patterns into the most typical and meaningful configurations. By processing 3D images from a network of depth cameras, we built a descriptor for the flow pattern. We define a data-irregularity measure that assesses how well each descriptor fits a data model. This allows us to rank the flow patterns from highly distinctive (outliers) to very common ones and, discarding outliers, obtain more reliable key configurations (classes). We applied this methodology in an operational scenario during 18 days in the X-ray screening area of an international airport. Results show that our methodology is able to summarize the representative patterns, a relevant information for airport management. Beyond regular flows our method identifies a set of rare events corresponding to uncommon activities (cleaning,special security and circulating staff). We demonstrate that for such a long observation period our methodology encapsulates the relevant "states" of the infrastructure in a very compact way.
Mar 20 2017 cs.CV
Understanding traffic density from large-scale web camera (webcam) videos is a challenging problem because such videos have low spatial and temporal resolution, high occlusion and large perspective. To deeply understand traffic density, we explore both deep learning based and optimization based methods. To avoid individual vehicle detection and tracking, both methods map the image into vehicle density map, one based on rank constrained regression and the other one based on fully convolution networks (FCN). The regression based method learns different weights for different blocks in the image to increase freedom degrees of weights and embed perspective information. The FCN based method jointly estimates vehicle density map and vehicle count with a residual learning framework to perform end-to-end dense prediction, allowing arbitrary image resolution, and adapting to different vehicle scales and perspectives. We analyze and compare both methods, and get insights from optimization based method to improve deep model. Since existing datasets do not cover all the challenges in our work, we collected and labelled a large-scale traffic video dataset, containing 60 million frames from 212 webcams. Both methods are extensively evaluated and compared on different counting tasks and datasets. FCN based method significantly reduces the mean absolute error from 10.99 to 5.31 on the public dataset TRANCOS compared with the state-of-the-art baseline.
How to self-localize large teams of underwater nodes using only noisy range measurements? How to do it in a distributed way, and incorporating dynamics into the problem? How to reject outliers and produce trustworthy position estimates? The stringent acoustic communication channel and the accuracy needs of our geophysical survey application demand faster and more accurate localization methods. We approach dynamic localization as a MAP estimation problem where the prior encodes dynamics, and we devise a convex relaxation method that takes advantage of previous estimates at each measurement acquisition step; The algorithm converges at an optimal rate for first order methods. LocDyn is distributed: there is no fusion center responsible for processing acquired data and the same simple computations are performed for each node. LocDyn is accurate: experiments attest to a smaller positioning error than a comparable Kalman filter. LocDyn is robust: it rejects outlier noise, while the comparing methods succumb in terms of positioning error.
Jan 26 2016 cs.SI
Understanding adoption patterns of smartphones is of vital importance to telecommunication managers in today's highly dynamic mobile markets. In this paper, we leverage the network structure and specific position of each individual in the social network to account for and measure the potential heterogeneous role of peer influence in the adoption of the iPhone 3G. We introduce the idea of core/periphery as a meso-level organizational principle to study the social network, which complements the use of centrality measures derived from either global network properties (macro-level) or from each individual's local social neighbourhood (micro-level). Using millions of call detailed records from a mobile network operator in one country for a period of eleven months, we identify overlapping social communities as well as core and periphery individuals in the network. Our empirical analysis shows that core users exert more influence on periphery users than vice versa. Our findings provide important insights to help identify influential members in the social network, which is potentially useful to design optimal targeting strategies to improve current network-based marketing practices.