results for au:Clerckx_B in:cs

- Radio waves carry both energy and information simultaneously. Nevertheless, Radio-Frequency (RF) transmission of these quantities have traditionally been treated separately. Currently, we are experiencing a paradigm shift in wireless network design, namely unifying wireless transmission of information and power so as to make the best use of the RF spectrum and radiations as well as the network infrastructure for the dual purpose of communicating and energizing. In this paper, we review and discuss recent progress on laying the foundations of the envisioned dual purpose networks by establishing a signal theory and design for Wireless Information and Power Transmission (WIPT) and identifying the fundamental tradeoff between conveying information and power wirelessly. We start with an overview of WIPT challenges and technologies, namely Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT),Wirelessly Powered Communication Network (WPCN), and Wirelessly Powered Backscatter Communication (WPBC). We then characterize energy harvesters and show how WIPT signal and system designs crucially revolve around the underlying energy harvester model. To that end, we highlight three different energy harvester models, namely one linear model and two nonlinear models, and show how WIPT designs differ for each of them in single-user and multi-user deployments. Topics discussed include rate-energy region characterization, transmitter and receiver architecture, waveform design, modulation, beamforming and input distribution optimizations, resource allocation, and RF spectrum use. We discuss and check the validity of the different energy harvester models and the resulting signal theory and design based on circuit simulations, prototyping and experimentation. We also point out numerous directions that are promising for future research.
- Far-field wireless power transfer (WPT) and simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) have become increasingly important in radio frequency (RF) and communication communities recently. The problem of modulation design for SWIPT has however been scarcely addressed. In this paper, a modulation scheme based on asymmetric phase-shift keying (PSK) is considered, which improves the SWIPT rate-energy tradeoff region significantly. The nonlinear rectifier model, which accurately models the energy harvester, is adopted for evaluating the output direct current (DC) power at the receiver. The harvested DC power is maximized under an average power constraint at the transmitter and a constraint on the rate of information transmitted via a multi-carrier signal over a flat fading channel. As a consequence of the rectifier nonlinearity, this work highlights that asymmetric PSK modulation provides benefits over conventional symmetric PSK modulation in SWIPT and opens the door to systematic modulation design tailored for SWIPT.
- In a superimposed unicast and multicast transmission system, one layer of Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) is required at each receiver to remove the multicast stream before decoding the unicast stream. In this paper, we show that a linearly-precoded Rate-Splitting (RS) strategy at the transmitter can efficiently exploit this existing SIC receiver architecture. By splitting the unicast message into common and private parts and encoding the common parts along with the multicast message into a super-common stream decoded by all users, the SIC is used for the dual purpose of separating the unicast and multicast streams as well as better managing the multi-user interference between the unicast streams. The precoders are designed with the objective of maximizing the Weighted Sum Rate (WSR) of the unicast messages subject to a Quality of Service (QoS) requirement of the multicast message and a sum power constraint. Numerical results show that RS outperforms existing Multi-User Linear-Precoding (MU-LP) and power-domain Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) in a wide range of user deployments (with a diversity of channel directions and channel strengths). Moreover, since one layer of SIC is required to separate the unicast and multicast streams, the performance gain of RS comes without any increase in the receiver complexity compared with MU-LP. Hence, in such non-orthogonal unicast and multicast transmissions, RS provides rate and QoS enhancements at no extra cost for the receivers.
- This article reviews some recent promising approaches to make mobile power closer to reality. In contrast with articles commonly published by the microwave community and the communication/signal processing community that separately emphasize RF, circuit and antenna solutions for WPT on one hand and communications, signal and system designs for WPT on the other hand, this review article uniquely bridges RF, signal and system designs in order to bring those communities closer to each other and get a better understanding of the fundamental building blocks of an efficient WPT network architecture. We start by reviewing the engineering requirements and design challenges of making mobile power a reality. We then review the state-of-the-art in a wide range of areas spanning sensors and devices, RF design for wireless power and wireless communications. We identify their limitations and make critical observations before providing some fresh new look and promising avenues on signal and system designs for WPT.
- We consider a wireless network in which $K$ transmitters, each equipped with a single antenna, fully cooperate to serve $K$ single antenna receivers, each equipped with a cache memory. The transmitters have access to partial knowledge of the channel state information. For a symmetric setting, in terms of channel strength levels, partial channel knowledge levels and cache sizes, we characterize the generalized degrees of freedom (GDoF) up to a constant multiplicative factor. The achievability scheme exploits the interplay between spatial multiplexing gains and coded-multicasting gain. On the other hand, a cut-set argument in conjunction with a new application of the aligned image sets approach are used to derive the outer bound. We further show that the characterized order-optimal GDoF is also attained in a decentralized setting, where no coordination is required for content placement in the caches.
- The capacity of deterministic, complex and discrete time memoryless Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel under three constraints, namely, channel input average power, channel input amplitude and delivered power at the channel output is considered. The delivered power constraint is modelled as a linear combination of even-moment statistics of the channel input being larger than a threshold. It is shown that the capacity of an AWGN channel under transmit average power and receiver delivered power constraints is the same as the capacity of an AWGN channel under an average power constraint, however, depending on the two constraints, it can be either achieved or arbitrarily approached. It is also shown that under average power, amplitude and delivered power constraints, the optimal capacity achieving distributions are discrete with a finite number of mass points. To establish the results, the confluent hypergeometric functions as well as the output rate of decay of complex Gaussian channels are utilized extensively. As an application, a simultaneous information and power transfer (SWIPT) problem is studied, where an experimentally-validated nonlinear model of the harvester is used. Relying on small signal analysis approximation, a general form of the delivered Direct-Current (DC) power in terms of system baseband parameters is derived for independent and identically distributed (iid) inputs. It is shown that the delivered power depends on higher order statistics of the channel input. By defining the rate-power (RP) region, two inner bounds, one based on complex Gaussian inputs and the other based on convexifying the optimization probability space, are obtained.
- Powering the massive number of small computing devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a major challenge because replacing their batteries or powering them with wires is very expensive and impractical. A viable option to enable a perpetual network operation is through the use of far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). We study a large network architecture that uses a combination of WPT and backscatter communication. The network consists of power beacons (PBs) and passive backscatter nodes (BNs), and their locations are modeled as points of independent Poisson point processes (PPPs). The PBs transmit a sinusoidal continuous wave (CW) and the BNs reflect back a portion of this signal while harvesting the remaining part. A BN harvests energy from multiple nearby PBs and modulates its information bits on the composite CW through backscatter modulation. The analysis poses real challenges due to the double fading channel, and its dependence on the PPPs of both BNs and PBs. With the help of stochastic geometry, we derive the coverage probability and the capacity of the network in tractable and easily computable expressions. These expressions depend on the density of both PB and BN, both forward and backward path loss exponents, transmit power of the PB, backscattering efficiency, and number of PBs in a harvesting region. We observe that the coverage probability decreases with an increase in the density of the BNs, while the capacity of the network improves. We compare the performance of this network with a regular powered network in which the BNs have a reliable power source and show that for certain parameters the coverage of the former network approaches that of the regular powered network.
- Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) utilizes linear precoding to separate users in the spatial domain and relies on fully treating any residual multi-user interference as noise. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) uses linearly precoded superposition coding with successive interference cancellation (SIC) and relies on user grouping and ordering to enforce some users to fully decode and cancel interference created by other users. In this paper, we argue that to efficiently cope with the high throughput, heterogeneity of Quality-of-Service (QoS), and massive connectivity requirements of future multi-antenna wireless networks, multiple access design needs to depart from SDMA and NOMA. We develop a novel multiple access framework, called Rate-Splitting Multiple Access (RSMA). RSMA is a more general and powerful multiple access for downlink multi-antenna systems that contains SDMA and NOMA as special cases. RSMA relies on linearly precoded rate-splitting with SIC to decode part of the interference and treat the remaining part of the interference as noise. This capability of RSMA to partially decode interference and partially treat interference as noise enables to softly bridge the two extremes of fully decoding interference and treating interference as noise, and provide room for rate and QoS enhancements, and complexity reduction. The three multiple access schemes are compared and extensive numerical results show that RSMA provides a smooth transition between SDMA and NOMA and outperforms them both in a wide range of network loads (underloaded and overloaded regimes) and user deployments (with a diversity of channel directions, channel strengths and qualities of Channel State Information at the Transmitter). Moreover, RSMA provides rate and QoS enhancements over NOMA at a lower computational complexity for the transmit scheduler and the receivers (number of SIC layers).
- In this paper, we consider the problem of achieving max-min fairness amongst multiple co-channel multicast groups through transmit beamforming. We explicitly focus on overloaded scenarios in which the number of transmitting antennas is insufficient to neutralize all inter-group interference. Such scenarios are becoming increasingly relevant in the light of growing low-latency content delivery demands, and also commonly appear in multibeam satellite systems. We derive performance limits of classical beamforming strategies using DoF analysis unveiling their limitations; for example, rates saturate in overloaded scenarios due to inter-group interference. To tackle interference, we propose a strategy based on degraded beamforming and successive interference cancellation. While the degraded strategy resolves the rate-saturation issue, this comes at a price of sacrificing all spatial multiplexing gains. This motivates the development of a unifying strategy that combines the benefits of the two previous strategies. We propose a beamforming strategy based on rate-splitting (RS) which divides the messages intended to each group into a degraded part and a designated part, and transmits a superposition of both degraded and designated beamformed streams. The superiority of the proposed strategy is demonstrated through DoF analysis. Finally, we solve the RS beamforming design problem and demonstrate significant performance gains through simulations.
- Simultaneous transmission of information and power over a point-to-point flat-fading complex Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel is studied. In contrast with the literature that relies on an inaccurate linear model of the energy harvester, an experimentally-validated nonlinear model is considered. A general form of the delivered Direct Current (DC) power in terms of system baseband parameters is derived, which demonstrates the dependency of the delivered DC power on higher order statistics of the channel input distribution. The optimization problem of maximizing Rate-Power (R-P) region is studied. Assuming that the Channel gain is available at both the receiver and the transmitter, and constraining to independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel inputs determined only by their first and second moment statistics, an inner bound for the general problem is obtained. Notably, as a consequence of the harvester nonlinearity, the studied inner bound exhibits a tradeoff between the delivered power and the rate of received information. It is shown that the tradeoff-characterizing input distribution is with mean zero and with asymmetric power allocations to the real and imaginary dimensions.
- Rate-Splitting (RS) has recently been shown to provide significant performance benefits in various multi-user transmission scenarios. In parallel, the huge degrees-of-freedom provided by the appealing massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) necessitate the employment of inexpensive hardware, being more prone to hardware imperfections, in order to be a cost-efficient technology. Hence, in this work, we focus on a realistic massive Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) Broadcast Channel (BC) hampered by the inevitable hardware impairments. We consider a general experimentally validated model of hardware impairments, accounting for the presence of \textitmultiplicative distortion due to phase noise, \textitadditive distortion noise and \textitthermal noise amplification. Under both scenarios with perfect and imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), we analyze the potential robustness of RS to each separate hardware imperfection. We analytically assess the sum-rate degradation due to hardware imperfections. Interestingly, in the case of imperfect CSIT, we demonstrate that RS is a robust strategy for multiuser MIMO in the presence of phase and amplified thermal noise, since its sum-rate does not saturate at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrary to conventional techniques. On the other hand, the additive impairments always lead to a sum-rate saturation at high SNR, even after the application of RS. However, RS still enhances the performance. Furthermore, as the number of users increases, the gains provided by RS decrease not only in ideal conditions, but in practical conditions with RTHIs as well.
- We study the degrees of freedom (DoF) of a $K$-user parallel MISO broadcast channel with arbitrary levels of partial CSIT over each subchannel. We derive a sum-DoF upperbound which depends on the average CSIT quality of each user. This upperbound is shown to be tight under total order, i.e. when the order of users with respect to their CSIT qualities is preserved over all subchannels. In this case, it is shown that separate coding over each subchannel is optimum in a sum-DoF sense.
- Waveform design is a key technique to jointly exploit a beamforming gain, the channel frequency-selectivity and the rectifier nonlinearity, so as to enhance the end-to-end power transfer efficiency of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). Those waveforms have been designed assuming perfect channel state information at the transmitter. This paper proposes two waveform strategies relying on limited feedback for multi-antenna multi-sine WPT over frequency-selective channels. In the waveform selection strategy, the Energy Transmitter (ET) transmits over multiple timeslots with every time a different waveform precoder within a codebook, and the Energy Receiver (ER) reports the index of the precoder in the codebook that leads to the largest harvested energy. In the waveform refinement strategy, the ET sequentially transmits two waveforms in each stage, and the ER reports one feedback bit indicating an increase/decrease in the harvested energy during this stage. Based on multiple one-bit feedback, the ET successively refines waveform precoders in a tree-structured codebook over multiple stages. By employing the framework of the generalized Lloyd's algorithm, novel algorithms are proposed for both strategies to optimize the codebooks in both space and frequency domains. The proposed limited feedback-based waveform strategies are shown to outperform a set of baselines, achieving higher harvested energy.
- A systematic design of adaptive waveform for Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has recently been proposed and shown through simulations to lead to significant performance benefits compared to traditional non-adaptive and heuristic waveforms. In this study, we design the first prototype of a closed-loop wireless power transfer system with adaptive waveform optimization based on Channel State Information acquisition. The prototype consists of three important blocks, namely the channel estimator, the waveform optimizer, and the energy harvester. Software Defined Radio (SDR) prototyping tools are used to implement a wireless power transmitter and a channel estimator, and a voltage doubler rectenna is designed to work as an energy harvester. A channel adaptive waveform with 8 sinewaves is shown through experiments to improve the average harvested DC power at the rectenna output by 9.8% to 36.8% over a non-adaptive design with the same number of sinewaves.
- We consider the $K$-User Multiple-Input-Single-Output (MISO) Broadcast Channel (BC) where the transmitter, equipped with $M$ antennas, serves $K$ users, with $K \leq M$. The transmitter has access to a partial channel state information of the users. This is modelled by letting the variance of the Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) error of user $i$ scale as $O(P^{-\alpha_i}$) for the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) $P$ and some constant $\alpha_i \geq 0$. In this work we derive the optimal Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF) region in such setting and we show that Rate-Splitting (RS) is the key scheme to achieve such a region.
- This paper shows that wirelessly powered backscatter communications is subject to a fundamental tradeoff between the harvested energy at the tag and the reliability of the backscatter communication, measured in terms of SNR at the reader. Assuming the RF transmit signal is a multisine waveform adaptive to the channel state information, we derive a systematic approach to optimize the transmit waveform weights (amplitudes and phases) in order to enlarge as much as possible the SNRenergy region. Performance evaluations confirm the significant benefits of using multiple frequency components in the adaptive transmit multisine waveform to exploit the nonlinearity of the rectifier and a frequency diversity gain.
- Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in the last decade. Recently, channel-adaptive waveforms have been shown to significantly increase the DC power level at the output of the rectifier. However the design of those waveforms is generally computationally complex and does not lend itself easily to practical implementation. We here propose a low-complexity channel-adaptive multisine waveform design whose performance is very close to that of the optimal design. Performance evaluations confirm the benefits of the new design in various rectifier topologies.
- To alleviate the high cost of hardware in mmWave systems, hybrid analog/digital precoding is typically employed. In the conventional two-stage feedback scheme, the analog beamformer is determined by beam search and feedback to maximize the desired signal power of each user. The digital precoder is designed based on quantization and feedback of effective channel to mitigate multiuser interference. Alternatively, we propose a one-stage feedback scheme which effectively reduces the complexity of the signalling and feedback procedure. Specifically, the second-order channel statistics are leveraged to design digital precoder for interference mitigation while all feedback overhead is reserved for precise analog beamforming. Under a fixed total feedback constraint, we investigate the conditions under which the one-stage feedback scheme outperforms the conventional two-stage counterpart. Moreover, a rate splitting (RS) transmission strategy is introduced to further tackle the multiuser interference and enhance the rate performance. Consider (1) RS precoded by the one-stage feedback scheme and (2) conventional transmission strategy precoded by the two-stage scheme with the same first-stage feedback as (1) and also certain amount of extra second-stage feedback. We show that (1) can achieve a sum rate comparable to that of (2). Hence, RS enables remarkable saving in the second-stage training and feedback overhead.
- This work investigates the interplay of coded caching and spatial multiplexing in an overloaded Multiple-Input-Single-Output (MISO) Broadcast Channel (BC), i.e. a system where the number of users is greater than the number of transmitting antennas. On one hand, coded caching uses the aggregate global cache memory of the users to create multicasting opportunities. On the other hand, multiple antennas at the transmitter leverage the available CSIT to transmit multiple streams simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce a novel scheme which combines both the gain derived from coded-caching and spatial multiplexing and outperforms existing schemes in terms of delivery time and CSIT requirement.
- This work encompasses Rate-Splitting (RS), providing significant benefits in multi-user settings in the context of huge degrees of freedom promised by massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO). However, the requirement of massive MIMO for cost-efficient implementation makes them more prone to hardware imperfections such as phase noise (PN). As a result, we focus on a realistic broadcast channel with a large number of antennas and hampered by the unavoidable PN. Moreover, we employ the RS transmission strategy, and we show its robustness against PN, since the sum-rate does not saturate at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Although, the analytical results are obtained by means of the deterministic equivalent analysis, they coincide with simulation results even for finite system dimensions.
- In order to improve the uplink performance of future cellular networks, the idea to decouple the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) association has recently been shown to provide significant gain in terms of both coverage and rate performance. However, all the work is limited to SISO network. Therefore, to study the gain provided by the DL and UL decoupling in multi-antenna base stations (BSs) setup, we study a two tier heterogeneous network consisting of multi-antenna BSs, and single antenna user equipments (UEs). We use maximal ratio combining (MRC) as a linear receiver at the BSs and using tools from stochastic geometry, we derive tractable expressions for both signal to interference ratio (SIR) coverage probability and rate coverage probability. We observe that as the disparity in the beamforming gain of both tiers increases, the gain in term of SIR coverage probability provided by the decoupled association over non-decoupled association decreases. We further observe that when there is asymmetry in the number of antennas of both tier, then we need further biasing towards femto-tier on the top of decoupled association to balance the load and get optimal rate coverage probability.
- A required feature for the next generation of wireless communication networks will be the capability to serve simultaneously a large number of devices with heterogeneous CSIT qualities and demands. In this paper, we consider the overloaded MISO BC with two groups of CSIT qualities. We propose a transmission scheme where degraded symbols are superimposed on top of spatially-multiplexed symbols. The developed strategy allows to serve all users in a non-orthogonal manner and the analysis shows an enhanced perfomance compared to existing schemes. Moreover, optimality in a DoF sense is shown.
- Radiative wireless power transfer (WPT) is a promising technology to provide cost-effective and real-time power supplies to wireless devices. Although radiative WPT shares many similar characteristics with the extensively studied wireless information transfer or communication, they also differ significantly in terms of design objectives, transmitter/receiver architectures and hardware constraints, etc. In this article, we first give an overview on the various WPT technologies, the historical development of the radiative WPT technology and the main challenges in designing contemporary radiative WPT systems. Then, we focus on discussing the new communication and signal processing techniques that can be applied to tackle these challenges. Topics discussed include energy harvester modeling, energy beamforming for WPT, channel acquisition, power region characterization in multi-user WPT, waveform design with linear and non-linear energy receiver model, safety and health issues of WPT, massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) and millimeter wave (mmWave) enabled WPT, wireless charging control, and wireless power and communication systems co-design. We also point out directions that are promising for future research.
- Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is expected to be a technology reshaping the landscape of low-power applications such as the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency identification (RFID) networks, etc. Although there has been some progress towards multi-antenna multi-sine WPT design, the large-scale design of WPT, reminiscent of massive MIMO in communications, remains an open challenge. In this paper, we derive efficient multiuser algorithms based on a generalizable optimization framework, in order to design transmit sinewaves that maximize the weighted-sum/minimum rectenna output DC voltage. The study highlights the significant effect of the nonlinearity introduced by the rectification process on the design of waveforms in multiuser systems. Interestingly, in the single-user case, the optimal spatial domain beamforming, obtained prior to the frequency domain power allocation optimization, turns out to be Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT). In contrast, in the general weighted sum criterion maximization problem, the spatial domain beamforming optimization and the frequency domain power allocation optimization are coupled. Assuming channel hardening, low-complexity algorithms are proposed based on asymptotic analysis, to maximize the two criteria. The structure of the asymptotically optimal spatial domain precoder can be found prior to the optimization. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated. Numerical results confirm the inefficiency of the linear model-based design for the single and multi-user scenarios. It is also shown that as nonlinear model-based designs, the proposed algorithms can benefit from an increasing number of sinewaves.
- The design of Wireless Information and Power Transfer (WIPT) has so far relied on an oversimplified and inaccurate linear model of the energy harvester. In this paper, we depart from this linear model and design WIPT considering the rectifier nonlinearity. We develop a tractable model of the rectifier nonlinearity that is flexible enough to cope with general multicarrier modulated input waveforms. Leveraging that model, we motivate and introduce a novel WIPT architecture relying on the superposition of multi-carrier unmodulated and modulated waveforms at the transmitter. The superposed WIPT waveforms are optimized as a function of the channel state information so as to characterize the rate-energy region of the whole system. Analysis and numerical results illustrate the performance of the derived waveforms and WIPT architecture and highlight that nonlinearity radically changes the design of WIPT. We make key and refreshing observations. First, analysis (confirmed by circuit simulations) shows that modulated and unmodulated waveforms are not equally suitable for wireless power delivery, namely modulation being beneficial in single-carrier transmissions but detrimental in multi-carrier transmissions. Second, a multicarrier unmodulated waveform (superposed to a multi-carrier modulated waveform) is useful to enlarge the rate-energy region of WIPT. Third, a combination of power splitting and time sharing is in general the best strategy. Fourth, a non-zero mean Gaussian input distribution outperforms the conventional capacity-achieving zero-mean Gaussian input distribution in multi-carrier transmissions. Fifth, the rectifier nonlinearity is beneficial to system performance and is essential to efficient WIPT design.
- The capacity of the point-to-point vector Gaussian channel under the peak power constraint is not known in general. This paper considers a simpler scenario in which the input signal vector is forced to have a constant envelope (or norm). The capacity-achieving distribution for the non-identity $2\times 2$ MIMO channel when the input vector lies on a circle in $\mathbb{R}^2$ is obtained and is shown to have a finite number of mass points on the circle. Subsequently, it is shown that the degrees of freedom (DoF) of a full-rank $n$ by $n$ channel with constant envelope signaling is $n-1$ and it can be achieved by a uniform distribution over the surface of the hypersphere whose radius is defined by the constant envelope. Finally, for the 2 by 2 channel, the power allocation scheme of the constant envelope signaling is compared with that of the conventional case, in which the constraint is on the average transmitted power. It is observed that when the condition number of the channel is close to one, both schemes have a similar trend while this is not the case as the condition number grows.
- We consider the problem of transmit beamforming to multiple cochannel multicast groups. The conventional approach is to beamform a designated data stream to each group, while treating potential inter-group interference as noise at the receivers. In overloaded systems where the number of transmit antennas is insufficient to perform interference nulling, we show that inter-group interference dominates at high SNRs, leading to a saturating max-min fair performance. We propose a rather unconventional approach to cope with this issue based on the concept of Rate-Splitting (RS). In particular, part of the interference is broadcasted to all groups such that it is decoded and canceled before the designated beams are decoded. We show that the RS strategy achieves significant performance gains over the conventional multigroup multicast beamforming strategy.
- This paper investigates relaying schemes in an amplify-and-forward multiple-input multiple-output relay network, where an energy-constrained relay harvests wireless power from the source information flow and can be further aided by an energy flow (EF) in the form of a wireless power transfer at the destination. However, the joint optimization of the relay matrix and the source precoder for the energy-flow-assisted (EFA) and the non-EFA (NEFA) schemes is intractable. The original rate maximization problem is transformed into an equivalent weighted mean square error minimization problem and optimized iteratively, where the global optimum of the nonconvex source precoder subproblem is achieved by semidefinite relaxation and rank reduction. The iterative algorithm finally converges. Then, the simplified EFA and NEFA schemes are proposed based on channel diagonalization, such that the matrices optimizations can be simplified to power optimizations. Closed-form solutions can be achieved. Simulation results reveal that the EFA schemes can outperform the NEFA schemes. Additionally, deploying more antennas at the relay increases the dimension of the signal space at the relay. Exploiting the additional dimension, the EF leakage in the information detecting block can be nearly separated from the information signal, such that the EF leakage can be amplified with a small coefficient.
- This paper considers a $K$-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) interference channel (IC) where 1) the channel state information obtained by the transmitters (CSIT) is completely outdated, and 2) the number of transmit antennas at each transmitter, i.e., $M$, is greater than the number of receive antennas at each user, i.e., $N$. The usefulness of the delayed CSIT was firstly identified in a $K$-phase Retrospective Interference Alignment (RIA) scheme proposed by Maddah-Ali et al for the Multiple-Input-Single-Output Broadcast Channel, but the extension to the MIMO IC is a non-trivial step as each transmitter only has the message intended for the corresponding user. Recently, Abdoli et al focused on a Single-Input-Single-Output IC and solved such bottleneck by inventing a $K$-phase RIA with distributed overheard interference retransmission. In this paper, we propose two $K$-phase RIA schemes suitable for the MIMO IC by generalizing and integrating some key features of both Abdoli's and Maddah-Ali's works. The two schemes jointly yield the best known sum Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF) performance so far. For the case $\frac{M}{N}{\geq}K$, the achieved sum DoF is asymptotically given by $\frac{64}{15}N$ when $K{\to}\infty$.
- Wireless power transfer (WPT) is expected to be a technology reshaping the landscape of low-power applications such as the Internet of Things, machine-to-machine communications and radio frequency identification networks. Although there has been some progress towards multi-antenna multi-sine WPT design, the large-scale design of WPT, reminiscent of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) in communications, remains an open problem. Considering the nonlinear rectifier model, a multiuser waveform optimization algorithm is derived based on successive convex approximation (SCA). A lower-complexity algorithm is derived based on asymptotic analysis and sequential approximation (SA). It is shown that the difference between the average output voltage achieved by the two algorithms can be negligible provided the number of antennas is large enough. The performance gain of the nonlinear model based design over the linear model based design can be large, in the presence of a large number of tones.
- This paper slightly improves the upper bound in Thangaraj et al. for the capacity of the amplitude-constrained scalar AWGN channel. This improvement makes the upper bound within 0.002 bits of the capacity for $\frac{E_b}{N_0}\leq 2.5$ dB.
- Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity of the rectenna and compare with a linear model conventionally used in the literature. We then use those models to design novel multisine waveforms that are adaptive to the channel state information (CSI). Interestingly, while the linear model favours narrowband transmission with all the power allocated to a single frequency, the non-linear model favours a power allocation over multiple frequencies. Through realistic simulations, waveforms designed based on the non-linear model are shown to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over those designed based on the linear model and over non-adaptive waveforms. We also compute analytically the theoretical scaling laws of the harvested energy for various waveforms as a function of the number of sinewaves and transmit antennas. Those scaling laws highlight the benefits of CSI knowledge at the transmitter in WPT and of a WPT design based on a non-linear rectenna model over a linear model. Results also motivate the study of a promising architecture relying on large-scale multisine multi-antenna waveforms for WPT. As a final note, results stress the importance of modeling and accounting for the non-linearity of the rectenna in any system design involving wireless power.
- We focus on a two-receiver Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) Broadcast Channel (BC) and Interference Channel (IC) with an arbitrary number of antennas at each node. We assume an imperfect knowledge of local Channel State Information at the Transmitters (CSIT), whose error decays with the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio. With such configuration, we characterize the achievable Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF) regions in both BC and IC, by proposing a Rate-Splitting approach, which divides each receiver's message into a common part and a private part. Compared to the RS scheme designed for the symmetric MIMO case, this scheme is suitable for the general asymmetric deployment with an arbitrary number of antennas at each node. In BC, the proposed block 1) employs an unequal power allocation to the private messages of the two receivers, 2) exploits the benefit of having an extra spatial dimension at one receiver, and 3) is carried out with a Space-Time transmission. These features enable the scheme to yield a greater DoF region than trivially extending the scheme designed for the symmetric case. In IC, we modify the scheme proposed for the BC case by applying a linear transformation to the channel matrices. Such a linear transformation allows us to identify the signal space where the two transmitted signals interfere with each other and propose a proper power allocation policy. The achievable DoF regions are shown to be optimal for some antenna configurations.
- MIMO processing plays a central part towards the recent increase in spectral and energy efficiencies of wireless networks. MIMO has grown beyond the original point-to-point channel and nowadays refers to a diverse range of centralized and distributed deployments. The fundamental bottleneck towards enormous spectral and energy efficiency benefits in multiuser MIMO networks lies in a huge demand for accurate channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). This has become increasingly difficult to satisfy due to the increasing number of antennas and access points in next generation wireless networks relying on dense heterogeneous networks and transmitters equipped with a large number of antennas. CSIT inaccuracy results in a multi-user interference problem that is the primary bottleneck of MIMO wireless networks. Looking backward, the problem has been to strive to apply techniques designed for perfect CSIT to scenarios with imperfect CSIT. In this paper, we depart from this conventional approach and introduce the readers to a promising strategy based on rate-splitting. Rate-splitting relies on the transmission of common and private messages and is shown to provide significant benefits in terms of spectral and energy efficiencies, reliability and CSI feedback overhead reduction over conventional strategies used in LTE-A and exclusively relying on private message transmissions. Open problems, impact on standard specifications and operational challenges are also discussed.
- This paper considers the Sum-Rate (SR) maximization problem in downlink MU-MISO systems under imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT). Contrary to existing works, we consider a rather unorthodox transmission scheme. In particular, the message intended to one of the users is split into two parts: a common part which can be recovered by all users, and a private part recovered by the corresponding user. On the other hand, the rest of users receive their information through private messages. This Rate-Splitting (RS) approach was shown to boost the achievable Degrees of Freedom (DoF) when CSIT errors decay with increased SNR. In this work, the RS strategy is married with linear precoder design and optimization techniques to achieve a maximized Ergodic SR (ESR) performance over the entire range of SNRs. Precoders are designed based on partial CSIT knowledge by solving a stochastic rate optimization problem using means of Sample Average Approximation (SAA) coupled with the Weighted Minimum Mean Square Error (WMMSE) approach. Numerical results show that in addition to the ESR gains, the benefits of RS also include relaxed CSIT quality requirements and enhanced achievable rate regions compared to conventional transmission with NoRS.
- We consider a downlink multiuser MISO system with bounded errors in the Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT). We first look at the robust design problem of achieving max-min fairness amongst users (in the worst-case sense). Contrary to the conventional approach adopted in literature, we propose a rather unorthodox design based on a Rate-Splitting (RS) strategy. Each user's message is split into two parts, a common part and a private part. All common parts are packed into one super common message encoded using a public codebook, while private parts are independently encoded. The resulting symbol streams are linearly precoded and simultaneously transmitted, and each receiver retrieves its intended message by decoding both the common stream and its corresponding private stream. For CSIT uncertainty regions that scale with SNR (e.g. by scaling the number of feedback bits), we prove that a RS-based design achieves higher max-min (symmetric) Degrees of Freedom (DoF) compared to conventional designs (NoRS). For the special case of non-scaling CSIT (e.g. fixed number of feedback bits), and contrary to NoRS, RS can achieve a non-saturating max-min rate. We propose a robust algorithm based on the cutting-set method coupled with the Weighted Minimum Mean Square Error (WMMSE) approach, and we demonstrate its performance gains over state-of-the art designs. Finally, we extend the RS strategy to address the Quality of Service (QoS) constrained power minimization problem, and we demonstrate significant gains over NoRS-based designs.
- Recently, the Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF) region of multiple-input-single-output (MISO) networks with imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) has attracted significant attentions. An achievable scheme is known as rate-splitting (RS) that integrates common-message-multicasting and private-message-unicasting. In this paper, focusing on the general $K$-cell MISO IC where the CSIT of each interference link has an arbitrary quality of imperfectness, we firstly identify the DoF region achieved by RS. Secondly, we introduce a novel scheme, so called Topological RS (TRS), whose novelties compared to RS lie in a multi-layer structure and transmitting multiple common messages to be decoded by groups of users rather than all users. The design of TRS is motivated by a novel interpretation of the $K$-cell IC with imperfect CSIT as a weighted-sum of a series of partially connected networks. We show that the DoF region achieved by TRS covers that achieved by RS. Also, we find the maximal sum DoF achieved by TRS via hypergraph fractional packing, which yields the best sum DoF so far. Lastly, for a realistic scenario where each user is connected to three dominant transmitters, we identify the sufficient condition where TRS strictly outperforms conventional schemes.
- Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) has attracted significant attention in the communication community. The problem of waveform design for SWIPT has however never been addressed so far. In this paper, a novel SWIPT transceiver architecture is introduced relying on the superposition of multisine and OFDM waveforms at the transmitter and a power-splitter receiver equipped with an energy harvester and an information decoder capable of cancelling the multisine waveforms. The SWIPT multisine/OFDM waveforms are optimized so as to maximize the rate-energy region of the whole system. They are adaptive to the channel state information and result from a posynomial maximization problem that originates from the non-linearity of the energy harvester. Numerical results illustrate the performance of the derived waveforms and SWIPT architecture.
- We consider a $K$-user multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast channel (BC) where the channel state information (CSI) of user $i(i=1,2,\ldots,K)$ may be instantaneously perfect (P), delayed (D) or not known (N) at the transmitter with probabilities $\lambda_P^i$, $\lambda_D^i$ and $\lambda_N^i$, respectively. In this setting, according to the three possible CSIT for each user, knowledge of the joint CSIT of the $K$ users could have at most $3^K$ states. In this paper, given the marginal probabilities of CSIT (i.e., $\lambda_P^i$, $\lambda_D^i$ and $\lambda_N^i$), we derive an outer bound for the DoF region of the $K$-user MISO BC. Subsequently, we tighten this outer bound by taking into account a set of inequalities that capture some of the $3^K$ states of the joint CSIT. One of the consequences of this set of inequalities is that for $K\geq3$, it is shown that the DoF region is not completely characterized by the marginal probabilities in contrast to the two-user case. Afterwards, the tightness of these bounds are investigated through the discussion on the achievability. Finally, a two user MIMO BC having CSIT among P and N is considered in which an outer bound for the DoF region is provided and it is shown that in some scenarios it is tight.
- For multiuser MISO systems with bounded uncertainties in the Channel State Information (CSI), we consider two classical robust design problems: maximizing the minimum rate subject to a transmit power constraint, and power minimization under a rate constraint. Contrary to conventional strategies, we propose a Rate-Splitting (RS) strategy where each message is divided into two parts, a common part and a private part. All common parts are packed into one super common message encoded using a shared codebook and decoded by all users, while private parts are independently encoded and retrieved by their corresponding users. We prove that RS-based designs achieve higher max-min Degrees of Freedom (DoF) compared to conventional designs (NoRS) for uncertainty regions that scale with SNR. For the special case of non-scaling uncertainty regions, RS contrasts with NoRS and achieves a non-saturating max-min rate. In the power minimization problem, RS is shown to combat the feasibility problem arising from multiuser interference in NoRS. A robust design of precoders for RS is proposed, and performance gains over NoRS are demonstrated through simulations.
- In heterogeneous networks (HetNets), strong interference due to spectrum reuse affects each user's signal-to-interference ratio (SIR), and hence is one limiting factor of network performance. In this paper, we propose a user-centric interference nulling (IN) scheme in a downlink large-scale HetNet to improve coverage/outage probability by improving each user's SIR. This IN scheme utilizes at most maximum IN degree of freedom (DoF) at each macro-BS to avoid interference to uniformly selected macro (pico) users with signal-to-individual-interference ratio (SIIR) below a macro (pico) IN threshold, where the maximum IN DoF and the two IN thresholds are three design parameters. Using tools from stochastic geometry, we first obtain a tractable expression of the coverage (equivalently outage) probability. Then, we analyze the asymptotic coverage/outage probability in the low and high SIR threshold regimes. The analytical results indicate that the maximum IN DoF can affect the order gain of the outage probability in the low SIR threshold regime, but cannot affect the order gain of the coverage probability in the high SIR threshold regime. Moreover, we characterize the optimal maximum IN DoF which optimizes the asymptotic coverage/outage probability. The optimization results reveal that the IN scheme can linearly improve the outage probability in the low SIR threshold regime, but cannot improve the coverage probability in the high SIR threshold regime. Finally, numerical results show that the proposed scheme can achieve good gains in coverage/outage probability over a maximum ratio beamforming scheme and a user-centric almost blank subframes (ABS) scheme.
- In a multiuser MIMO broadcast channel, the rate performance is affected by the multiuser interference when the Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) is imperfect. To tackle the detrimental effect of the multiuser interference, a Rate-Splitting (RS) approach has been proposed recently, which splits one selected user's message into a common and a private part, and superimposes the common message on top of the private messages. The common message is drawn from a public codebook and should be decoded by all users. In this paper, we generalize the idea of RS into the large-scale array regime with imperfect CSIT. By further exploiting the channel second-order statistics, we propose a novel and general framework Hierarchical-Rate-Splitting (HRS) that is particularly suited to massive MIMO systems. HRS simultaneously transmits private messages intended to each user and two kinds of common messages that can be decoded by all users and by a subset of users, respectively. We analyse the asymptotic sum rate of RS and HRS and optimize the precoders of the common messages. A closed-form power allocation is derived which provides insights into the effects of system parameters. Finally, simulation results validate the significant sum rate gain of RS and HRS over various baselines.
- This work investigates the problem of downlink transmit precoding for physical layer multicasting with a limited number of radio-frequency (RF) chains. To tackle the RF hardware constraint, we consider a hybrid precoder that is partitioned into a high-dimensional RF precoder and a low-dimensional baseband precoder. Considering a total transmit power constraint over the RF chains, the goal is to maximize the minimum (max-min) received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) among all users. We propose a low complexity algorithm to compute the RF precoder that achieves near-optimal max-min performance. Moreover, we derive a simple condition under which the hybrid precoding driven by a limited number of RF chains incurs no loss of optimality with respect to the fully digital precoding case. Finally, numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and theoretical findings.
- This paper studies multi-user wireless powered communication networks, where energy constrained users charge their energy storages by scavenging energy of the radio frequency signals radiated from a hybrid access point (H-AP). The energy is then utilized for the users' uplink information transmission to the H-AP in time division multiple access mode. In this system, we aim to maximize the uplink sum rate performance by jointly optimizing energy and time resource allocation for multiple users in both infinite capacity and finite capacity energy storage cases. First, when the users are equipped with the infinite capacity energy storages, we derive the optimal downlink energy transmission policy at the H-AP. Based on this result, analytical resource allocation solutions are obtained. Next, we propose the optimal energy and time allocation algorithm for the case where each user has finite capacity energy storage. Simulation results confirm that the proposed algorithms offer 30% average sum rate performance gain over conventional schemes.
- In a multiuser MIMO broadcast channel, the rate performance is affected by the multiuser interference when the Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) is imperfect. To tackle the interference problem, a Rate-Splitting (RS) approach has been proposed recently, which splits one user's message into a common and a private part, and superimposes the common message on top of the private messages. The common message is drawn from a public codebook and should be decoded by all users. In this paper, we propose a novel and general framework, denoted as Hierarchical Rate Splitting (HRS), that is particularly suited to FDD massive MIMO systems. HRS simultaneously transmits private messages intended to each user and two kinds of common messages that can be decoded by all users and by a subset of users, respectively. We analyse the asymptotic sum rate of HRS under imperfect CSIT. A closed-form power allocation is derived which provides insights into the effects of system parameters. Finally, simulation results validate the significant sum rate gain of HRS over various baselines.
- In this paper, we study the Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) in a Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) two-user Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Interference Channel (IFC). We assume that the transmitters are non-cooperative and have perfect knowledge of the local Channel State Information (CSI). We show that the necessary condition for the optimal transmission strategy at high SNR is for the energy transmitter to transmit its signal by allocating its transmit power on a single subcarrier. Accordingly, we propose a one-subcarrier selection method for the energy transmitter and identify the achievable rate-energy region. In addition, we further enlarge the achievable rate-energy region by enabling a basic form of transmitter cooperation where messages are exchanged to inform the energy transmitter about the subcarriers unutilized by the information transmitter.
- To enhance the multiplexing gain of two-receiver Multiple-Input-Single-Output Broadcast Channel with imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), a class of Rate-Splitting (RS) approaches has been proposed recently, which divides one receiver's message into a common and a private part, and superposes the common message on top of Zero-Forcing precoded private messages. In this paper, with quantized CSIT, we study the ergodic sum rate of two schemes, namely RS-S and RS-ST, where the common message(s) are transmitted via a space and space-time design, respectively. Firstly, we upper-bound the sum rate loss incurred by each scheme relative to Zero-Forcing Beamforming (ZFBF) with perfect CSIT. Secondly, we show that, to maintain a constant sum rate loss, RS-S scheme enables a feedback overhead reduction over ZFBF with quantized CSIT. Such reduction scales logarithmically with the constant rate loss at high Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR). We also find that, compared to RS-S scheme, RS-ST scheme offers a further feedback overhead reduction that scales with the discrepancy between the feedback overhead employed by the two receivers when there are alternating receiver-specific feedback qualities. Finally, simulation results show that both schemes offer a significant SNR gain over conventional single-user/multiuser mode switching when the feedback overhead is fixed.
- Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) and Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) have attracted significant attention in the RF and communication communities. Despite the rapid progress, the problem of waveform design to enhance the output DC power of wireless energy harvester has received limited attention so far. In this paper, we bridge communication and RF design and derive novel multisine waveforms for multi-antenna wireless power transfer. The waveforms are adaptive to the channel state information and result from a posynomial maximization problem that originates from the non-linearity of the energy harvester. They are shown through realistic simulations to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over state-of-the-art waveforms under a fixed transmit power constraint.
- Considering a three-node multiple antenna relay system, this paper proposes a two-phase amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying protocol, which enables the autonomous relay to simultaneously harvest wireless power from the source information signal and from an energy signal conveyed by the destination. We first study this energy-flow-assisted (EFA) relaying in a single-input single-output (SISO) relay system and aim at maximizing the rate. By transforming the optimization problem into an equivalent convex form, a global optimum can be found. We then extend the protocol to a multiple antenna relay system. The relay processing matrix is optimized to maximize the rate. The optimization problem can be efficiently solved by eigenvalue decomposition, after linear algebra manipulation. It is observed that the benefits of the energy flow are interestingly shown only in the multiple antenna case, and it is revealed that the received information signal and the energy leakage at the relay can be nearly separated by making use of the signal space, such that the desired signal can be amplified with a larger coefficient.
- Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) have strong interference due to spectrum reuse. This affects the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of each user, and hence is one of the limiting factors of network performance. However, in previous works, interference management approaches in HetNets are mainly based on interference level, and thus cannot effectively utilize the limited resource to improve network performance. In this paper, we propose a user-centric interference nulling (IN) scheme in downlink two-tier HetNets to improve network performance by improving each user's SIR. This scheme has three design parameters: the maximum degree of freedom for IN (IN DoF), and the IN thresholds for the macro and pico users, respectively. Using tools from stochastic geometry, we first obtain a tractable expression of the coverage (equivalently outage) probability. Then, we characterize the asymptotic behavior of the outage probability in the high reliability regime. The asymptotic results show that the maximum IN DoF can affect the order gain of the asymptotic outage probability, while the IN thresholds only affect the coefficient of the asymptotic outage probability. Moreover, we show that the IN scheme can linearly improve the outage performance, and characterize the optimal maximum IN DoF which minimizes the asymptotic outage probability.
- We consider a $K$-user multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast channel (BC) where the channel state information (CSI) of user $i(i=1,2,\ldots,K)$ may be either instantaneously perfect (P), delayed (D) or not known (N) at the transmitter with probabilities $\lambda_P^i$, $\lambda_D^i$ and $\lambda_N^i$, respectively. In this setting, according to the three possible CSIT for each user, knowledge of the joint CSIT of the $K$ users could have at most $3^K$ states. Although the results by Tandon et al. show that for the symmetric two user MISO BC (i.e., $\lambda_Q^i=\lambda_Q,\ \forall i\in \{1,2\}, Q\in \{P,D,N\}$), the Degrees of Freedom (DoF) region depends only on the marginal probabilities, we show that this interesting result does not hold in general when $K\geq3$. In other words, the DoF region is a function of all the joint probabilities. In this paper, given the marginal probabilities of CSIT, we derive an outer bound for the DoF region of the $K$-user MISO BC. Subsequently, we investigate the achievability of the outer bound in some scenarios. Finally, we show the dependence of the DoF region on the joint probabilities.
- Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) with offloading is considered as an effective way to meet the high data rate demand of future wireless service. However, the offloaded users suffer from strong inter-tier interference, which reduces the benefits of offloading and is one of the main limiting factors of the system performance. In this paper, we investigate the use of an interference nulling (IN) beamforming scheme to improve the system performance by carefully managing the inter-tier interference to the offloaded users in downlink two-tier HetNets with multi-antenna base stations. Utilizing tools from stochastic geometry, we derive a tractable expression for the rate coverage probability of the IN scheme. Then, we optimize the design parameter, i.e., the degrees of freedom that can be used for IN, to maximize the rate coverage probability. Specifically, in the asymptotic scenario where the rate threshold is small, by studying the order behavior of the rate coverage probability, we characterize the optimal design parameter. For the general scenario, we show some properties of the optimal design parameter. Finally, by numerical simulations, we show the IN scheme can outperform both the simple offloading scheme without interference management and the almost blank subframes scheme in 3GPP LTE, especially in large antenna regime.
- This paper considers a K-user Multiple-Input-Single-Output (MISO) Interference Channel (IC), where the channel state information obtained by the transmitters (CSIT) is perfect, but completely outdated. A Retrospective Interference Alignment (RIA) using such delayed CSIT was proposed by the authors of [1] for the MISO Broadcast Channel (BC), but the extension to the MISO IC is a non-trivial step as each transmitter only has the message intended for the corresponding user. Recently, [7] focused on a Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) IC and solved such bottleneck by inventing a distributed higher order symbol generation. Our main work is to extend [7] to the MISO case by integrating some features of the scheme proposed in [1]. The achieved sum Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF) performance is asymptotically given by 64/15 when $K\to\infty$, outperforming all the previously known results.
- This paper investigates a three-node amplify-and-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay network, where an autonomous relay harvests power from the source information flow and is further helped by an energy flow in the form of a wireless power transfer (WPT) at the destination. An energy-flow-assisted two-phase relaying scheme is proposed, where a source and relay joint optimization is formulated to maximize the rate. By diagonalizing the channel, the problem is simplified to a power optimization, where a relay channel pairing problem is solved by an ordering operation. The proposed algorithm, which iteratively optimizes the relay and source power, is shown to converge. Closed-form solutions can be obtained for the separate relay and source optimizations. Besides, a two-phase relaying without energy flow is also studied. Simulation results show that the energy-flow-assisted scheme is beneficial to the rate enhancement, if the transmit power of the energy flow is adequately larger than that of the information flow. Otherwise, the scheme without energy flow would be preferable.
- We address the max-min fairness design problem for a MU-MISO system with partial Channel State Information (CSI) at the Base Station (BS), consisting of an imperfect channel estimate and statistical knowledge of the estimation error, and perfect CSI at the receivers. The objective is to maximize the minimum Average Rate (AR) among users subject to a transmit power constraint. An unconventional transmission scheme is adopted where the Base Station (BS) transmits a common message in addition to the conventional private messages. In situations where the CSIT is not accurate enough to perform interference nulling, individual rates are assisted by allocating parts of the common message to different users according to their needs. The AR problem is transformed into an augmented Average Weighted Mean Square Error (AWMSE) problem, solved using Alternating Optimization (AO). The benefits of incorporating the common message are demonstrated through simulations.
- In this paper, we consider a MU-MISO system where users have highly accurate Channel State Information (CSI), while the Base Station (BS) has partial CSI consisting of an imperfect channel estimate and statistical knowledge of the CSI error. With the objective of maximizing the Average Sum Rate (ASR) subject to a power constraint, a special transmission scheme is considered where the BS transmits a common symbol in a multicast fashion, in addition to the conventional private symbols. This scheme is termed Joint Multicasting and Broadcasting (JMB). The ASR problem is transformed into an augmented Average Weighted Sum Mean Square Error (AWSMSE) problem which is solved using Alternating Optimization (AO). The enhanced rate performance accompanied with the incorporation of the multicast part is demonstrated through simulations.
- This paper focuses on linear beamforming design and power allocation strategy for ergodic rate optimization in a two-user Multiple-Input-Single-Output (MISO) system with statistical and delayed channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). We propose a transmission strategy, denoted as Statistical Alternative MAT (SAMAT), which exploits both channel statistics and delayed CSIT. Firstly, with statistical CSIT only, we focus on statistical beamforming (SBF) design that maximizes a lower bound on the ergodic sum-rate. Secondly, relying on both statistical and delayed CSIT, an iterative algorithm is proposed to compute the precoding vectors of Alternative MAT (AMAT), originally proposed by Yang et al., which maximizes an approximation of the ergodic sum-rate with equal power allocation. Finally, via proper power allocation, the SAMAT framework is proposed to softly bridge between SBF and AMAT for an arbitrary number of transmit antennas and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A necessary condition for the power allocation optimization is identified from the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions. The optimum power allocation to maximize an ergodic sum-rate approximation is computed using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). Simulation results show that the proposed SAMAT scheme yields a significant sum-rate enhancement over both SBF and AMAT.
- In this paper, a new proof for the degrees of freedom (DoF) region of the K-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) with no channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) and perfect channel state information at the receivers (CSIR) is provided. Based on this proof, the capacity region of a certain class of MIMO BC with channel distribution information at the transmitter (CDIT) and perfect CSIR is derived. Finally, an outer bound for the DoF region of the K-user MIMO interference channel (IC) with no CSIT is provided.
- Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) with offloading is considered as an effective way to meet the high data rate demand of future wireless service. However, the offloaded users suffer from strong inter-tier interference, which reduces the benefits of offloading and is one of the main limiting factors of the system performance. In this paper, we investigate an interference nulling (IN) scheme in improving the system performance by carefully managing the inter-tier interference to the offloaded users in downlink two-tier HetNets with multi-antenna base stations. Utilizing tools from stochastic geometry, we first derive a tractable expression for the rate coverage probability of the IN scheme. Then, by studying its order, we obtain the optimal design parameter, i.e., the degrees of freedom that can be used for IN, to maximize the rate coverage probability. Finally, we analyze the rate coverage probabilities of the simple offloading scheme without interference management and the multi-antenna version of the almost blank subframes (ABS) scheme in 3GPP LTE, and compare the performance of the IN scheme with these two schemes. Both analytical and numerical results show that the IN scheme can achieve good performance gains over both of these two schemes, especially in the large antenna regime.
- Studies of the MISO Broadcast Channel (BC) with delayed Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) have so far focused on the sum-rate and Degrees-of-Freedom (DoF) region analysis. In this paper, we investigate for the first time the error rate performance at finite SNR and the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) at infinite SNR of a space-time encoded transmission over a two-user MISO BC with delayed CSIT. We consider the so-called MAT protocol obtained by Maddah-Ali and Tse, which was shown to provide 33% DoF enhancement over TDMA. While the asymptotic DMT analysis shows that MAT is always preferable to TDMA, the Pairwise Error Probability analysis at finite SNR shows that MAT is in fact not always a better alternative to TDMA. Benefits can be obtained over TDMA only at very high rate or once concatenated with a full-rate full-diversity space-time code. The analysis is also extended to spatially correlated channels and the influence of transmit correlation matrices and user pairing strategies on the performance are discussed. Relying on statistical CSIT, signal constellations are further optimized to improve the error rate performance of MAT and make it insensitive to user orthogonality. Finally, other transmission strategies relying on delayed CSIT are discussed.
- The capacity of a deterministic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel under the peak and average power constraints is investigated. For the identity channel matrix, the approach of Shamai et al. is generalized to the higher dimension settings to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the optimal input probability density function. This approach prevents the usage of the identity theorem of the holomorphic functions of several complex variables which seems to fail in the multi-dimensional scenarios. It is proved that the support of the capacity-achieving distribution is a finite set of hyper-spheres with mutual independent phases and amplitude in the spherical domain. Subsequently, it is shown that when the average power constraint is relaxed, if the number of antennas is large enough, the capacity has a closed form solution and constant amplitude signaling at the peak power achieves it. Moreover, it will be observed that in a discrete-time memoryless Gaussian channel, the average power constrained capacity, which results from a Gaussian input distribution, can be closely obtained by an input where the support of its magnitude is a discrete finite set. Finally, we investigate some upper and lower bounds for the capacity of the non-identity channel matrix and evaluate their performance as a function of the condition number of the channel.
- We consider simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in MIMO Broadcast networks where one energy harvesting (EH) user and one information decoding (ID) user share the same time and frequency resource. In contrast to previous SWIPT systems based on the information rate, this paper addresses the problem in terms of the weighted minimum mean squared error (WMMSE) criterion. First, we formulate the WMMSE-SWIPT problem which minimizes the weighted sum-MSE of the message signal arrived at the ID user, while satisfying the requirement on the energy that can be harvested from the signal at the EH user. Then, we propose the optimal precoder structure of the problem and identify the best possible MSE-energy tradeoff region through the alternative update of the linear precoder at the transmitter with the linear receiver at the ID user. From the derived solution, several interesting observations are made compared to the conventional SWIPT designs.
- In this paper, we consider the design of robust linear precoders for MU-MISO systems where users have perfect Channel State Information (CSI) while the BS has partial CSI. In particular, the BS has access to imperfect estimates of the channel vectors, in addition to the covariance matrices of the estimation error vectors. A closed-form expression for the Average Minimum Mean Square Error (AMMSE) is obtained using the second order Taylor Expansion. This approximation is used to formulate two fairness-based robust design problems: a maximum AMMSE-constrained problem and a power-constrained problem. We propose an algorithm based on convex optimization techniques to address the first problem, while the second problem is tackled by exploiting the close relationship between the two problems, in addition to their monotonic natures.
- In this paper, we propose a joint beamforming algorithm for a multiuser wireless information and power transfer (MU-WIPT) system that is compatible with the conventional multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) system. The proposed joint beamforming vectors are initialized using the well established MU-MIMO zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) and are further updated to maximize the total harvested energy of energy harvesting (EH) users and guarantee the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) constraints of the co-scheduled information decoding (ID) users. When ID and EH users are simultaneously served by joint beamforming vectors, the harvested energy can be increased at the cost of an SINR loss for ID users. To characterize the SINR loss, the target SINR ratio,u, is introduced as the target SINR (i.e., SINR constraint) normalized by the received SINR achievable with ZFBF. Based on that ratio, the sum rate and harvested energy obtained from the proposed algorithm are analyzed under perfect/imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). Through simulations and numerical results, we validate the derived analyses and demonstrate the EH and ID performance compared to both state of the art and conventional schemes.
- To determine the transmission strategy for joint wireless information and energy transfer (JWIET) in the MIMO interference channel (IFC), the information access point (IAP) and energy access point (EAP) require the channel state information (CSI) of their associated links to both the information-decoding (ID) mobile stations (MSs) and energy-harvesting (EH) MSs (so-called local CSI). In this paper, to reduce th e feedback overhead of MSs for the JWIET in two-user MIMO IFC, we propose a Geodesic energy beamforming scheme that requires partial CSI at the EAP. Furthermore, in the two-user MIMO IFC, it is proved that the Geodesic energy beamforming is the optimal strategy. By adding a rank-one constraint on the transmit signal covariance of IAP, we can further reduce the feedback overhead to IAP by exploiting Geodesic information beamforming. Under the rank-one constraint of IAP's transmit signal, we prove that Geodesic information/energy beamforming approach is the optimal strategy for JWIET in the two-user MIMO IFC. We also discuss the extension of the proposed rank-one Geodesic information/energy beamforming strategies to general K-user MIMO IFC. Finally, by analyzing the achievable rate-energy performance statistically under imperfect partial CSIT, we propose an adaptive bit allocation strategy for both EH MS and ID MS.
- The space limitation and the channel acquisition prevent Massive MIMO from being easily deployed in a practical setup. Motivated by current deployments of LTE-Advanced, the use of multi-polarized antennas can be an efficient solution to address the space constraint. Furthermore, the dual-structured precoding, in which a preprocessing based on the spatial correlation and a subsequent linear precoding based on the short-term channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) are concatenated, can reduce the feedback overhead efficiently. By grouping and preprocessing spatially correlated mobile stations (MSs), the dimension of the precoding signal space is reduced and the corresponding short-term CSIT dimension is reduced. In this paper, to reduce the feedback overhead further, we propose a dual-structured multi-user linear precoding, in which the subgrouping method based on co-polarization is additionally applied to the spatially grouped MSs in the preprocessing stage. Furthermore, under imperfect CSIT, the proposed scheme is asymptotically analyzed based on random matrix theory. By investigating the behavior of the asymptotic performance, we also propose a new dual-structured precoding in which the precoding mode is switched between two dual-structured precoding strategies with 1) the preprocessing based only on the spatial correlation and 2) the preprocessing based on both the spatial correlation and polarization. Finally, we extend it to 3D dual-structured precoding.
- In this paper, a new proof for the degrees of freedom (DoF) region of the K-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) with no channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) and perfect channel state information at the receivers (CSIR) is provided. Based on this proof, the capacity region of a certain class of MIMO BC with channel distribution information at the transmitter (CDIT) and perfect CSIR is derived. Finally, an outer bound for the DoF region of the MIMO interference channel (IC) with no CSIT is provided.
- We consider a $K$-user multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast channel (BC) where the channel state information (CSI) of user $i(i=1,2,\ldots,K)$ may be either perfect (P), delayed (D) or not known (N) at the transmitter with probabilities $\lambda_P^i$, $\lambda_D^i$ and $\lambda_N^i$, respectively. In this channel, according to the three possible CSIT for each user, joint CSIT of the $K$ users could have at most $3^K$ realizations. Although the results by Tandon et al. show that the Degrees of Freedom (DoF) region for the two user MISO BC with symmetric marginal probabilities (i.e., $\lambda_Q^i=\lambda_Q \forall i\in \{1,2,\ldots,K\}, Q\in \{P,D,N\}$) depends only on the marginal probabilities, we show that this interesting result does not hold in general when the number of users is more than two. In other words, the DoF region is a function of the \textitCSIT pattern, or equivalently, all the joint probabilities. In this paper, given the marginal probabilities of CSIT, we derive an outer bound for the DoF region of the $K$-user MISO BC. Subsequently, the achievability of these outer bounds are considered in certain scenarios. Finally, we show the dependence of the DoF region on the joint probabilities.
- We consider the opportunistic multiuser diversity in the multiuser two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) relay channel. The relay, equipped with multiple antennas and a simple zero-forcing beam-forming scheme, selects a set of two way relaying user pairs to enhance the degree of freedom (DoF) and consequently the sum throughput of the system. The proposed channel aligned pair scheduling (CAPS) algorithm reduces the inter-pair interference and keeps the signal to interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) of user pairs relatively interference free in average sense when the number of user pairs become very large. For ideal situations, where the number of user pairs grows faster than the system signal to noise ratio (SNR), the DoF of $M$ per channel use can be achieved when $M$ is the relay antenna size. With a limited number of pairs, the system is overloaded and the sum rates saturate at high signal to noise ratio (SNR) though modifications of CAPS can improve the performance to a certain amount. The performance of CAPS can be further enhanced by semi-orthogonal channel aligned pair scheduling (SCAPS) algorithm, which not only aligns the pair channels but also forms semi-orthogonal inter-pair channels. Simulation results show that we provide a set of approaches based on (S)CAPS and modified (S)CAPS, which provides system performance benefit depending on the SNR and the number of user pairs in the network.
- Recently, joint wireless information and energy transfer (JWIET) methods have been proposed to relieve the battery limitation of wireless devices. However, the JWIET in a general K-user MIMO interference channel (IFC) has been unexplored so far. In this paper, we investigate for the first time the JWIET in K-user MIMO IFC, in which receivers either decode the incoming information data (information decoding, ID) or harvest the RF energy (energy harvesting, EH). In the K-user IFC, we consider three different scenarios according to the receiver mode -- i) multiple EH receivers and a single ID receiver, ii) multiple IDs and a single EH, and iii) multiple IDs and multiple EHs. For all scenarios, we have found a common necessary condition of the optimal transmission strategy and, accordingly, developed the transmission strategy that satisfies the common necessary condition, in which all the transmitters transferring energy exploit a rank-one energy beamforming. Furthermore, we have also proposed an iterative algorithm to optimize the covariance matrices of the transmitters that transfer information and the powers of the energy beamforming transmitters simultaneously, and identified the corresponding achievable rate-energy tradeoff region. Finally, we have shown that by selecting EH receivers according to their signal-to-leakage-and-harvested energy-ratio (SLER), we can improve the achievable rate-energy region further.