results for au:Cirac_J in:quant-ph

- We devise a unitary transformation that replaces the fermionic degrees of freedom of lattice gauge theories by (hard-core) bosonic ones. The resulting theory is local and gauge invariant, with the same symmetry group. The method works in any spatial dimensions and can be directly applied, among others, to the gauge groups $G=U(N)$ and $SU(2N)$, where $N\in\mathbb{N}$. For $SU(2N+1)$ one can also carry out the transformation after introducing an extra idle $\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge field, so that the resulting symmetry group trivially contains $\mathbb{Z}_2$ as a normal subgroup. Those results have implications in the field of quantum simulations of high-energy physics models.
- We introduce a method to investigate the static and dynamic properties of both Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge models in 1+1 dimensions. Specifically, we identify a set of transformations that disentangle different degrees of freedom, and apply a simple Gaussian variational ansatz to the resulting Hamiltonian. To demonstrate the suitability of the method, we analyze both static and dynamic aspects of string breaking for the U(1) and SU(2) gauge models. We benchmark our results against tensor network simulations and observe excellent agreement, although the number of variational parameters in the Gaussian ansatz is much smaller.
- May 11 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1805.03659v1We study Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) with continuous virtual symmetries, i.e., symmetries in the virtual degrees of freedom, through an elementary class of models with SU(2) symmetry. Discrete symmetries of that kind have previously allowed for a comprehensive explanation of topological order in the PEPS formalism. We construct local parent Hamiltonians whose ground space with open boundaries is exactly parametrized by the PEPS wavefunction, and show how the ground state can be made unique by a suitable choice of boundary conditions. We also find that these models exhibit a logarithmic correction to the entanglement entropy and an extensive ground space degeneracy on systems with periodic boundaries, which suggests that they do not describe conventional gapped topological phases, but either critical models or some other exotic phase.
- May 03 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.00712v1Photonic states with large and fixed photon numbers, such as Fock states, enable quantum-enhanced metrology but remain an experimentally elusive resource. A potentially simple, deterministic and scalable way to generate these states consists of fully exciting $N$ quantum emitters equally coupled to a common photonic reservoir, which leads to a collective decay known as Dicke superradiance. The emitted $N$-photon state turns out to be a highly entangled multimode state, and to characterise its metrological properties in this work we: (i) develop theoretical tools to compute the Quantum Fisher Information of general multimode photonic states; (ii) use it to show that Dicke superradiant photons in 1D waveguides achieve Heisenberg scaling, which can be saturated by a parity measurement; (iii) and study the robustness of these states to experimental limitations in state-of-art atom-waveguide QED setups.
- Apr 23 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1804.07644v1We propose and analyze magnetic traps and lattices for electrons in semiconductors. We provide a general theoretical framework and show that thermally stable traps can be generated by magnetically driving the particle's internal spin transition, akin to optical dipole traps for ultra-cold atoms. Next we discuss in detail periodic arrays of magnetic traps, i.e. magnetic lattices, as a platform for quantum simulation of exotic Hubbard models, with lattice parameters that can be tuned in real time. Our scheme can be readily implemented in state-of-the-art experiments, as we particularize for two specific setups, one based on a superconducting circuit and another one based on surface acoustic waves.
- In the present work, we propose a scheme for digital formulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions in 3+1 dimensions. All interactions are obtained as a stroboscopic sequence of two-body interactions with an auxiliary system. This enables quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories where the magnetic four-body interactions arising in two and more spatial dimensions are obtained without the use of perturbation theory, thus resulting in stronger interactions compared with analogue approaches. The simulation scheme is applicable to lattice gauge theories with either compact or finite gauge groups. The required bounds on the digitization errors in lattice gauge theories, due to the sequential nature of the stroboscopic time evolution, are provided. Furthermore, an implementation of a lattice gauge theory with a non-abelian gauge group, the dihedral group $D_{3}$, is proposed employing the aforementioned simulation scheme using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
- We provide a detailed formulation of the recently proposed variational approach [arXiv:1801.05825] to study ground-state properties and out-of-equilibrium dynamics for generic quantum spin-impurity systems. Motivated by the original ideas by Tomonaga, Lee, Low, and Pines, we construct a canonical transformation that completely decouples the impurity from the bath degrees of freedom. By combining this transformation with a Gaussian ansatz for the fermionic bath, we obtain a family of variational many-body states that can efficiently encode the strong entanglement between the impurity and fermions of the bath. We give a detailed derivation of equations of motions in the imaginary- and real-time evolutions on the variational manifold. We benchmark our approach by applying it to investigate ground-state and dynamical properties of the anisotropic Kondo model and compare results with those obtained using matrix-product state (MPS) ansatz. We show that our approach can achieve an accuracy comparable to MPS-based methods with several orders of magnitude fewer variational parameters than the corresponding MPS ansatz. Comparisons to the Yosida ansatz and the exact solution from the Bethe ansatz are also discussed. We use our approach to investigate the two-lead Kondo model and analyze its long-time spatiotemporal behavior and the conductance behavior at finite bias and magnetic fields. The obtained results are consistent with the previous findings in the Anderson model and the exact solutions at the Toulouse point.
- Feb 02 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.00210v1Single and two-mode multiphoton states are the cornerstone of many quantum technologies, e.g., metrology. In the optical regime these states are generally obtained combining heralded single-photons with linear optics tools and post-selection, leading to inherent low success probabilities. In a recent paper, we design several protocols that harness the long-range atomic interactions induced in waveguide QED to improve fidelities and protocols of single-mode multiphoton emission. Here, we give full details of these protocols, revisit them to simplify some of their requirements and also extend them to generate two-mode multiphoton states, such as Yurke or NOON states.
- A versatile and efficient variational approach is developed to solve in- and out-of-equilibrium problems of generic quantum spin-impurity systems. Employing the discrete symmetry hidden in spin-impurity models, we present a new canonical transformation that completely decouples the impurity and bath degrees of freedom. Combining it with Gaussian states, we present a family of many-body states to efficiently encode nontrivial impurity-bath correlations. We demonstrate its successful application to the anisotropic and two-lead Kondo models by studying their spatiotemporal dynamics and universal behavior in the correlations, relaxation times and the differential conductance. We compare them to previous analytical and numerical results. In particular, we apply our method to study new types of nonequilibrium phenomena that have not been studied by other methods, such as long-time crossover in the ferromagnetic easy-plane Kondo model. The present approach will be applicable to a variety of unsolved problems in solid-state and ultracold-atomic systems.
- We propose a scheme to realize the Kondo model with tunable anisotropy using alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice. The new feature of our setup is Floquet engineering of interactions using time-dependent Zeeman shifts, that can be realized either using state-dependent optical Stark shifts or magnetic fields. The properties of the resulting Kondo model strongly depend on the anisotropy of the ferromagnetic interactions. In particular, easy-plane couplings give rise to Kondo singlet formation even though microscopic interactions are all ferromagnetic. We discuss both equilibrium and dynamical properties of the system that can be measured with ultracold atoms, including the impurity spin susceptibility, the impurity spin relaxation rate, as well as the equilibrium and dynamical spin correlations between the impurity and the ferromagnetic bath atoms. We analyze the non-equilibrium time evolution of the system using a variational non-Gaussian approach, which allows us to explore coherent dynamics over both short and long timescales, as set by the bandwidth and the Kondo singlet formation, respectively. In the quench-type experiments, when the Kondo interaction is suddenly switched on, we find that real-time dynamics shows crossovers reminiscent of poor man's renormalization group flow used to describe equilibrium systems. For bare easy-plane ferromagnetic couplings, this allows us to follow the formation of the Kondo screening cloud as the dynamics crosses over from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic behavior. On the other side of the phase diagram, our scheme makes it possible to measure quantum corrections to the well-known Korringa law describing the temperature dependence of the impurity spin relaxation rate. Theoretical results discussed in our paper can be measured using currently available experimental techniques.
- Jan 04 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1801.00999v2We present a general framework for the generation of random unitaries based on random quenches in atomic Hubbard and spin models, forming approximate unitary $n$-designs, and their application to the measurement of Rényi entropies. We generalize our protocol presented in [Elben2017: arXiv:1709.05060, to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.] to a broad class of atomic and spin lattice models. We further present an in-depth numerical and analytical study of experimental imperfections, including the effect of decoherence and statistical errors, and discuss connections of our approach with many-body quantum chaos.
- Dec 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.03193v2We propose a general-purpose quantum algorithm for preparing ground states of quantum Hamiltonians from a given trial state. The algorithm is based on techniques recently developed in the context of solving the quantum linear systems problem [Childs,Kothari,Somma'15]. We show that, compared to algorithms based on phase estimation, the runtime of our algorithm is exponentially better as a function of the allowed error, and at least quadratically better as a function of the overlap with the trial state. We also show that our algorithm requires fewer ancilla qubits than existing algorithms, making it attractive for early applications of small quantum computers. Additionally, it can be used to determine an unknown ground energy faster than with phase estimation if a very high precision is required.
- Gauged gaussian Projected Entangled Pair States are particular tensor network constructions that describe lattice states of fermionic matter interacting with dynamical gauge fields. We show how one can efficiently compute, using Monte-Carlo techniques, expectation values of physical observables in that class of states. This opens up the possibility of using tensor network techniques to investigate lattice gauge theories in two and three spatial dimensions.
- Neural-Network Quantum States have been recently introduced as an Ansatz for describing the wave function of quantum many-body systems. We show that there are strong connections between Neural-Network Quantum States in the form of Restricted Boltzmann Machines and some classes of Tensor-Network states in arbitrary dimensions. In particular we demonstrate that short-range Restricted Boltzmann Machines are Entangled Plaquette States, while fully connected Restricted Boltzmann Machines are String-Bond States with a nonlocal geometry and low bond dimension. These results shed light on the underlying architecture of Restricted Boltzmann Machines and their efficiency at representing many-body quantum states. String-Bond States also provide a generic way of enhancing the power of Neural-Network Quantum States and a natural generalization to systems with larger local Hilbert space. We compare the advantages and drawbacks of these different classes of states and present a method to combine them together. This allows us to benefit from both the entanglement structure of Tensor Networks and the efficiency of Neural-Network Quantum States into a single Ansatz capable of targeting the wave function of strongly correlated systems. While it remains a challenge to describe states with chiral topological order using traditional Tensor Networks, we show that Neural-Network Quantum States and their String-Bond States extension can describe a lattice Fractional Quantum Hall state exactly. In addition, we provide numerical evidence that Neural-Network Quantum States can approximate a chiral spin liquid with better accuracy than Entangled Plaquette States and local String-Bond States. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of neural networks to describe complex quantum wave functions and pave the way towards the use of String-Bond States as a tool in more traditional machine-learning applications.
- We construct almost conserved local operators, that possess a minimal commutator with the Hamiltonian of the system, near the many-body localization transition of a one-dimensional disordered spin chain. We collect statistics of these slow operators for different support sizes and disorder strengths, both using exact diagonalization and tensor networks. Our results show that the scaling of the average of the smallest commutators with the support size is sensitive to Griffiths effects in the thermal phase and the onset of many-body localization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of the commutators can be analyzed using extreme value theory and that their tails reveal the difference between diffusive and sub-diffusive dynamics in the thermal phase.
- Sep 18 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1709.05060v2We present a scheme for measuring Rényi entropies in generic atomic Hubbard and spin models using single copies of a quantum state and for partitions in arbitrary spatial dimension. Our approach is based on the generation of random unitaries from random quenches, implemented using engineered time-dependent disorder potentials, and standard projective measurements, as realized by quantum gas microscopes. By analyzing the properties of the generated unitaries and the role of statistical errors, with respect to the size of the partition, we show that the protocol can be realized in exisiting AMO quantum simulators, and used to measure for instance area law scaling of entanglement in two-dimensional spin models or the entanglement growth in many-body localized systems.
- Aug 04 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1708.00880v1We determine which translationally invariant matrix product states have a continuum limit, that is, which can be considered as discretized versions of states defined in the continuum. To do this, we analyse a fine-graining renormalization procedure in real space, characterise the set of limiting states of its flow, and find that it strictly contains the set of continuous matrix product states. We also analyse which states have a continuum limit after a finite number of a coarse-graining renormalization steps. We give several examples of states with and without the different kinds of continuum limits.
- Matrix Product States (MPS) are a particular type of one dimensional tensor network states, that have been applied to the study of numerous quantum many body problems. One of their key features is the possibility to describe and encode symmetries on the level of a single building block (tensor), and hence they provide a natural playground for the study of symmetric systems. In particular, recent works have proposed to use MPS (and higher dimensional tensor networks) for the study of systems with local symmetry that appear in the context of gauge theories. In this work we classify MPS which exhibit local invariance under arbitrary gauge groups. We study the respective tensors and their structure, revealing known constructions that follow known gauging procedures, as well as different, other types of possible gauge invariant states.
- Aug 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.00029v1The canonical form of Matrix Product States (MPS) and the associated fundamental theorem, which relates different MPS representations of a state, are the theoretical framework underlying many of the analytical results derived through MPS, such as the classification of symmetry-protected phases in one dimension. Yet, the canonical form is only defined for MPS without non-trivial periods, and thus cannot fully capture paradigmatic states such as the antiferromagnet. Here, we introduce a new standard form for MPS, the irreducible form, which is defined for arbitrary MPS, including periodic states, and show that any tensor can be transformed into a tensor in irreducible form describing the same MPS. We then prove a fundamental theorem for MPS in irreducible form: If two tensors in irreducible form give rise to the same MPS, then they must be related by a similarity transform, together with a matrix of phases. We provide two applications of this result: an equivalence between the refinement properties of a state and the divisibility properties of its transfer matrix, and a more general characterisation of tensors that give rise to matrix product states with symmetries.
- We propose an explicit formulation of the physical subspace for a (1+1)-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory, where the gauge degrees of freedom are integrated out. Our formulation is completely general, and might be potentially suited for the design of future quantum simulators. Additionally, it allows for addressing the theory numerically with matrix product states. We apply this technique to explore the spectral properties of the model and the effect of truncating the gauge degrees of freedom to a small finite dimension. In particular, we determine the scaling exponents for the vector mass. Furthermore, we also compute the entanglement entropy in the ground state and study its scaling towards the continuum limit.
- Variational Study of Fermionic and Bosonic Systems with Non-Gaussian States: Theory and ApplicationsJul 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1707.05902v1We present a new variational method for investigating the ground state and out of equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body bosonic and fermionic systems. Our approach is based on constructing variational wavefunctions which extend Gaussian states by including generalized canonical transformations between the fields. The key advantage of such states compared to simple Gaussian states is presence of non-factorizable correlations and the possibility of describing states with strong entanglement between particles. In contrast to the commonly used canonical transformations, such as the polaron or Lang-Firsov transformations, we allow parameters of the transformations to be time dependent, which extends their regions of applicability. We derive equations of motion for the parameters characterizing the states both in real and imaginary time using the differential structure of the variational manifold. The ground state can be found by following the imaginary time evolution until it converges to a steady state. Collective excitations in the system can be obtained by linearizing the real-time equations of motion in the vicinity of the imaginary time steady-state solution. Our formalism allows us not only to determine the energy spectrum of quasiparticles and their lifetime, but to obtain the complete spectral functions and to explore far out of equilibrium dynamics such as coherent evolution following a quantum quench. We illustrate and benchmark this framework with several examples: a single polaron in the Holstein and Su-Schrieer-Heeger models, non-equilibrium dynamics in the spin-boson and Kondo models, the superconducting to charge density wave phase transitions in the Holstein model.
- We characterize the information dynamics of strongly disordered systems using a combination of analytics, exact diagonalization, and matrix product operator simulations. More specifically, we study the spreading of quantum information in three different scenarios: thermalizing, Anderson localized, and many-body localized. We qualitatively distinguish these cases by quantifying the amount of remnant information in a local region. The nature of the dynamics is further explored by computing the propagation of mutual information with respect to varying partitions. Finally, we demonstrate that classical simulability, as captured by the magnitude of MPO truncation errors, exhibits enhanced fluctuations near the localization transition, suggesting the possibility of its use as a diagnostic of the critical point.
- Jun 23 2017 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1706.07329v1We introduce a family of tensor network states that we term quasi-injective Projected Entangled-Pair States (PEPS). They extend the class of injective PEPS and include other states, like the ground states of the AKLT and the CZX models in square lattices. We construct parent Hamiltonians for which quasi-injective PEPS are unique ground states. We also determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for two tensors to generate the same family of such states in two spatial dimensions. Using this result, we show that the third cohomology labeling of Symmetry Protected Topological phases extends to quasi-injective PEPS.
- Jun 13 2017 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1706.03574v2We study states of one- and two-dimensional spin systems that are constructed as correlators within the conformal field theory of a massless, free boson. In one dimension, these are good variational wave functions for XXZ spin chains and they are similar to lattice Laughlin states in two dimensions. We show that their zz correlations are determined by a modification of the original free-boson theory. An expansion to quadratic order leads to a solvable, effective theory for the correlations in these states. Compared to the massless boson, there is an additional term in this effective theory that explains the behavior of the correlations: a polynomial decay in one dimension and at the edge of a two-dimensional system and an exponential decay in the bulk of a two-dimensional system. We test the validity of our approximation by comparing it to Monte Carlo computations.
- May 30 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.10242v2In this work we study the quantum dynamics emerging when quantum emitters exchange excitations with a two-dimensional bosonic bath with hexagonal symmetry. We show that a single quantum emitter spectrally tuned to the middle of the band relaxes following a logarithmic law in time due to the existence of a singular point with vanishing density of states, i.e., the Dirac point. Moreover, when several emitters are coupled to the bath at that frequency, long-range coherent interactions between them appear which decay inversely proportional to their distance without exponential attenuation. We analyze both the finite and infinite system situation using both perturbative and non-perturbative methods.
- May 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.06677v3The interaction of quantum emitters with structured baths modifies both their individual and collective dynamics. In González-Tudela \emphet al we show how exotic quantum dynamics emerge when QEs are spectrally tuned around the middle of the band of a two-dimensional structured reservoir, where we predict the failure of perturbative treatments, anisotropic interactions and novel super and subradiant behaviour. In this work, we provide further analysis of that situation, together with a complete analysis for the quantum emitter dynamics in spectral regions different from the center of the band.
- May 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.06673v3We show that the coupling of quantum emitters to a two-dimensional reservoir with a simple band structure gives rise to exotic quantum dynamics with no analogue in other scenarios and which can not be captured by standard perturbative treatments. In particular, for a single quantum emitter with its transition frequency in the middle of the band we predict an exponential relaxation at a rate different from that predicted by the Fermi's Golden rule, followed by overdamped oscillations and slow relaxation decay dynamics. This is accompanied by directional emission into the reservoir. This directionality leads to a modification of the emission rate for few emitters and even perfect subradiance, i.e., suppression of spontaneous emission, for four quantum emitters.
- May 16 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1705.04860v2We propose and analyze a solid-state platform based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) for trapping, cooling and controlling (charged) particles, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. We develop a general theoretical framework demonstrating the emergence of effective time-independent acoustic trapping potentials for particles in two- or one-dimensional structures. As our main example we discuss in detail the generation and applications of a stationary, but movable acoustic pseudo-lattice (AL) with lattice parameters that are reconfigurable in situ. We identify the relevant figures of merit, discuss potential experimental platforms for a faithful implementation of such an acoustic lattice, and provide estimates for typical system parameters. With a projected lattice spacing on the scale of 100nm, this approach allows for relatively large energy scales in the realization of fermionic Hubbard models, with the ultimate prospect of entering the low temperature, strong interaction regime. Experimental imperfections as well as read-out schemes are discussed.
- Apr 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.02331v1WaveguideQEDoffers the possibility of generating strong coherent atomic interactions either through appropriate atomic configurations in the dissipative regime or in the bandgap regime. In this work, we show how to harness these interactions in order to herald the generation of highly entangled atomic states, which afterwards can be mapped to generate single mode multi-photonic states with high fidelities.Weintroduce two protocols for the preparation of the atomic states, we discuss their performance and compare them to previous proposals. In particular, we show that one of them reaches high probability of success for systems with many atoms but low Purcell factors.
- Mar 29 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1703.09346v2We theoretically show that, despite Earnshaw's theorem, a non-rotating single magnetic domain nanoparticle can be stably levitated in an external static magnetic field. The stabilization relies on the quantum spin origin of magnetization, namely the gyromagnetic effect. We predict the existence of two stable phases related to the Einstein--de Haas effect and the Larmor precession. At a stable point, we derive a quadratic Hamiltonian that describes the quantum fluctuations of the degrees of freedom of the system. We show that in the absence of thermal fluctuations, the quantum state of the nanomagnet at the equilibrium point contains entanglement and squeezing.
- Mar 28 2017 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1703.09188v2Matrix Product Vectors form the appropriate framework to study and classify one-dimensional quantum systems. In this work, we develop the structure theory of Matrix Product Unitary operators (MPUs) which appear e.g. in the description of time evolutions of one-dimensional systems. We prove that all MPUs have a strict causal cone, making them Quantum Cellular Automata (QCAs), and derive a canonical form for MPUs which relates different MPU representations of the same unitary through a local gauge. We use this canonical form to prove an Index Theorem for MPUs which gives the precise conditions under which two MPUs are adiabatically connected, providing an alternative derivation to that of [Commun. Math. Phys. 310, 419 (2012), arXiv:0910.3675] for QCAs. We also discuss the effect of symmetries on the MPU classification. In particular, we characterize the tensors corresponding to MPU that are invariant under conjugation, time reversal, or transposition. In the first case, we give a full characterization of all equivalence classes. Finally, we give several examples of MPU possessing different symmetries.
- We present a quantum simulation scheme for the Abelian-Higgs lattice gauge theory using ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. The model contains both gauge and Higgs scalar fields, and exhibits interesting phases related to confinement and the Higgs mechanism. The model can be simulated by an atomic Hamiltonian, by first mapping the local gauge symmetry to an internal symmetry of the atomic system, the conservation of hyperfine angular momentum in atomic collisions. By including auxiliary bosons in the simulation, we show how the Abelian-Higgs Hamiltonian emerges effectively. We analyze the accuracy of our method in terms of different experimental parameters, as well as the effect of the finite number of bosons on the quantum simulator. Finally, we propose possible experiments for studying the ground state of the system in different regimes of the theory, and measuring interesting high energy physics phenomena in real time.
- Feb 02 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1702.00371v2We study correlations in fermionic lattice systems with long-range interactions in thermal equilibrium. We prove a bound on the correlation decay between anti-commuting operators and generalize a long-range Lieb-Robinson type bound. Our results show that in these systems of spatial dimension $D$ with, not necessarily translation invariant, two-site interactions decaying algebraically with the distance with an exponent $\alpha \geq 2\,D$, correlations between such operators decay at least algebraically with an exponent arbitrarily close to $\alpha$ at any non-zero temperature. Our bound is asymptotically tight, which we demonstrate by a high temperature expansion and by numerically analyzing density-density correlations in the 1D quadratic (free, exactly solvable) Kitaev chain with long-range pairing.
- Jan 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1701.05410v3We theoretically study the levitation of a single magnetic domain nanosphere in an external static magnetic field. We show that apart from the stability provided by the mechanical rotation of the nanomagnet (as in the classical Levitron), the quantum spin origin of its magnetization provides two additional mechanisms to stably levitate the system. Despite of the Earnshaw theorem, such stable phases are present even in the absence of mechanical rotation. For large magnetic fields, the Larmor precession of the quantum magnetic moment stabilizes the system in full analogy with magnetic trapping of a neutral atom. For low magnetic fields, the magnetic anisotropy stabilizes the system via the Einstein-de Haas effect. These results are obtained with a linear stability analysis of a single magnetic domain rigid nanosphere with uniaxial anisotropy in a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field.
- The study of lattice gauge theories with Monte Carlo simulations is hindered by the infamous sign problem that appears under certain circumstances, in particular at non-zero chemical potential. So far, there is no universal method to overcome this problem. However, recent years brought a new class of non-perturbative Hamiltonian techniques named tensor networks, where the sign problem is absent. In previous work, we have demonstrated that this approach, in particular matrix product states in 1+1 dimensions, can be used to perform precise calculations in a lattice gauge theory, the massless and massive Schwinger model. We have computed the mass spectrum of this theory, its thermal properties and real-time dynamics. In this work, we review these results and we extend our calculations to the case of two flavours and non-zero chemical potential. We are able to reliably reproduce known analytical results for this model, thus demonstrating that tensor networks can tackle the sign problem of a lattice gauge theory at finite density.
- During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the application of matrix product states, and more generally tensor networks, to lattice gauge theories. This non-perturbative method is sign problem free and has already been successfully used to compute mass spectra, thermal states and phase diagrams, as well as real-time dynamics for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge models. In previous work we showed the suitability of the method to explore the zero-temperature phase structure of the multi-flavor Schwinger model at non-zero chemical potential, a regime where the conventional Monte Carlo approach suffers from the sign problem. Here we extend our numerical study by looking at the spatially resolved chiral condensate in the massless case. We recover spatial oscillations, similar to the theoretical predictions for the single-flavor case, with a chemical potential dependent frequency and an amplitude approximately given by the homogeneous zero density condensate value.
- We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.
- Sep 09 2016 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1609.02435v2We investigate lattice effects on wave functions that are lattice analogues of bosonic and fermionic Laughlin wave functions with number of particles per flux $\nu=1/q$ in the Landau levels. These wave functions are defined analytically on lattices with $\mu$ particles per lattice site, where $\mu$ may be different than $\nu$. We give numerical evidence that these states have the same topological properties as the corresponding continuum Laughlin states for different values of $q$ and for different fillings $\mu$. These states define, in particular, particle-hole symmetric lattice Fractional Quantum Hall states when the lattice is half-filled. On the square lattice it is observed that for $q\leq 4$ this particle-hole symmetric state displays the topological properties of the continuum Laughlin state at filling fraction $\nu=1/q$, while for larger $q$ there is a transition towards long-range ordered anti-ferromagnets. This effect does not persist if the lattice is deformed from a square to a triangular lattice, or on the Kagome lattice, in which case the topological properties of the state are recovered. We then show that changing the number of particles while keeping the expression of these wave functions identical gives rise to edge states that have the same correlations in the bulk as the reference lattice Laughlin states but a different density at the edge. We derive an exact parent Hamiltonian for which all these edge states are ground states with different number of particles. In addition this Hamiltonian admits the reference lattice Laughlin state as its unique ground state of filling factor $1/q$. Parent Hamiltonians are also derived for the lattice Laughlin states at other fillings of the lattice, when $\mu\leq 1/q$ or $\mu\geq 1-1/q$ and when $q=4$ also at half-filling.
- Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
- We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with $2+1$ dimensions and higher, are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through pertubative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a $\mathbb{Z}_{3}$ lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in $2+1$ dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
- Jul 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.06090v2We present a method to show that low-energy states of quantum many-body interacting systems in one spatial dimension are nonlocal. We assign a Bell inequality to the Hamiltonian of the system in a natural way and we efficiently find its classical bound using dynamic programming. The Bell inequality is such that its quantum value for a given state, and for appropriate observables, corresponds to the energy of the state. Thus, the presence of nonlocal correlations can be certified for states of low enough energy. The method can also be used to optimize certain Bell inequalities: in the translationally invariant (TI) case, we provide an exponentially faster computation of the classical bound and analytically closed expressions of the quantum value for appropriate observables and Hamiltonians. The power and generality of our method is illustrated through four representative examples: a tight TI inequality for 8 parties, a quasi TI uniparametric inequality for any even number of parties, ground states of spin-glass systems, and a non-integrable interacting XXZ-like Hamiltonian. Our work opens the possibility for the use of low-energy states of commonly studied Hamiltonians as multipartite resources for quantum information protocols that require nonlocality.
- We propose a scheme for digital quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. Using a layered optical lattice with ancilla atoms that can move and interact with the other atoms (simulating the physical degrees of freedom), we obtain a stroboscopic dynamics which yields the four-body plaquette interactions, arising in models with $2+1$ and higher dimensions, without the use of perturbation theory. As an example we show how to simulate a $\mathbb{Z}_2$ model in $2+1$ dimensions.
- Jul 07 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1607.01614v2We propose and analyze a high-fidelity hot gate for generic spin-resonator systems which allows for coherent spin-spin coupling, in the presence of a thermally populated resonator mode. Our scheme is non-perturbative, applies to a broad class of physical systems, including for example spins coupled to circuit-QED and surface acoustic wave resonators as well as nanomechanical oscillators, and can be implemented readily with state-of-the-art experimental setups. We provide and numerically verify simple expressions for the fidelity of creating maximally entangled states under realistic conditions.
- Jun 03 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1606.00608v3We consider the tensors generating matrix product states and density operators in a spin chain. For pure states, we revise the renormalization procedure introduced by F. Verstraete et al. in 2005 and characterize the tensors corresponding to the fixed points. We relate them to the states possessing zero correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate ground states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. For mixed states, we introduce the concept of renormalization fixed points and characterize the corresponding tensors. We also relate them to concepts like finite correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate Gibbs states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. One of the main result of this work is that the resulting fixed points can be associated to the boundary theories of two-dimensional topological states, through the bulk-boundary correspondence introduced by Cirac et al. in 2011.
- We present a platform for the simulation of quantum magnetism with full control of interactions between pairs of spins at arbitrary distances in one- and two-dimensional lattices. In our scheme, two internal atomic states represent a pseudo-spin for atoms trapped within a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). With the atomic transition frequency aligned inside a band gap of the PCW, virtual photons mediate coherent spin-spin interactions between lattice sites. To obtain full control of interaction coefficients at arbitrary atom-atom separations, ground-state energy shifts are introduced as a function of distance across the PCW. In conjunction with auxiliary pump fields, spin-exchange versus atom-atom separation can be engineered with arbitrary magnitude and phase, and arranged to introduce non-trivial Berry phases in the spin lattice, thus opening new avenues for realizing novel topological spin models. We illustrate the broad applicability of our scheme by explicit construction for several well known spin models.
- Mar 11 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1603.03266v1We propose a scheme to realize a topological insulator with optical-passive elements, and analyze the effects of Kerr-nonlinearities in its topological behavior. In the linear regime, our design gives rise to an optical spectrum with topological features and where the bandwidths and bandgaps are dramatically broadened. The resulting edge modes cover a very wide frequency range. We relate this behavior to the fact that the effective Hamiltonian describing the system's amplitudes is long-range. We also develop a method to analyze the scheme in the presence of a Kerr medium. We assess robustness and stability of the topological features, and predict the presence of chiral squeezed fluctuations at the edges in some parameter regimes.
- Mar 04 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1603.01130v2We propose a scheme for deterministic generation and long-term stabilization of entanglement between two electronic spin qubits confined in spatially separated quantum dots. Our approach relies on an electronic quantum bus, consisting either of quantum Hall edge channels or surface acoustic waves, that can mediate long-range coupling between localized spins over distances of tens of micrometers. Since the entanglement is actively stabilized by dissipative dynamics, our scheme is inherently robust against noise and imperfections.
- Mar 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1603.01243v2In spite of decades of effort, it has not yet been possible to create single-mode multiphoton states of light with high success probability and near unity fidelity. Complex quantum states of propagating optical photons would be an enabling resource for diverse protocols in quantum information science, including for interconnecting quantum nodes in quantum networks. Here, we propose several methods to generate heralded mutipartite entangled atomic and photonic states by using the strong and long-range dissipative couplings between atoms emerging in waveguide QED setups. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates high success probabilities and fidelities are possible exploiting waveguide QED properties.
- We show that ultrashort pulses can be focused, in a particular instant, to a spot size given by the wavelength associated with its spectral width. For attosecond pulses this spot size is within the nanometer scale. Then we show that a two-level system can be left excited after interacting with an ultrashort pulse whose spectral width is larger than the transition frequency, and that the excitation probability depends not on the field amplitude but on the field intensity. The latter makes the excitation profile have the same spot size as the ultrashort pulse. This unusual phenomenon is caused by quantum electrodynamics in the ultrafast light-matter interaction regime since the usually neglected counterrotating terms describing the interaction with the free electromagnetic modes are crucial for making the excitation probability nonzero and depend on the field intensity. These results suggest that a train of coherent attosecond pulses could be used to excite fluorescent markers with nanoscale resolution. The detection of the light emitted after fluorescence -or any other method used to detect the excitation- could then lead to a new scheme for far-field light nanoscopy.
- The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wavefunctions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities such as the ground state energy and localization length, and find a non-analytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.
- Dec 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.05709v2We show a fundamental limitation in the description of quantum many-body mixed states with tensor networks in purification form. Namely, we show that there exist mixed states which can be represented as a translationally invariant (TI) matrix product density operator (MPDO) valid for all system sizes, but for which there does not exist a TI purification valid for all system sizes. The proof is based on an undecidable problem and on the uniqueness of canonical forms of matrix product states. The result also holds for classical states.
- The Schwinger model, or 1+1 dimensional QED, offers an interesting object of study, both at zero and non-zero temperature, because of its similarities to QCD. In this proceeding, we present the a full calculation of the temperature dependent chiral condensate of this model in the continuum limit using Matrix Product States (MPS). MPS methods, in general tensor networks, constitute a very promising technique for the non-perturbative study of Hamiltonian quantum systems. In the last few years, they have shown their suitability as ansatzes for ground states and low-lying excita- tions of lattice gauge theories. We show the feasibility of the approach also for finite temperature, both in the massless and in the massive case.
- We study lattice wave functions obtained from the SU(2)$_1$ Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theory. Following Moore and Read's construction, the Kalmeyer-Laughlin fractional quantum Hall state is defined as a correlation function of primary fields. By an additional insertion of Kac-Moody currents, we associate a wave function to each state of the conformal field theory. These wave functions span the complete Hilbert space of the lattice system. On the cylinder, we study global properties of the lattice states analytically and correlation functions numerically using a Metropolis Monte Carlo method. By comparing short-range bulk correlations, numerical evidence is provided that the states with one current operator represent edge states in the thermodynamic limit. We show that the edge states with one Kac-Moody current of lowest order have a good overlap with low-energy excited states of a local Hamiltonian, for which the Kalmeyer-Laughlin state approximates the ground state. For some states, exact parent Hamiltonians are derived on the cylinder. These Hamiltonians are SU(2) invariant and nonlocal with up to four-body interactions.
- Aug 05 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.00570v2We propose a quantum algorithm for many-body state preparation. It is especially suited for injective PEPS and thermal states of local commuting Hamiltonians on a lattice. We show that for a uniform gap and sufficiently smooth paths, an adiabatic runtime and circuit depth of $O(\operatorname{polylog}N)$ can be achieved for $O(N)$ spins. This is an almost exponential improvement over previous bounds. The total number of elementary gates scales as $O(N\operatorname{polylog}N)$. This is also faster than the best known upper bound of $O(N^2)$ on the mixing times of Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms for sampling classical systems in thermal equilibrium.
- Tensor networks, and in particular Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS), are a powerful tool for the study of quantum many body physics, thanks to both their built-in ability of classifying and studying symmetries, and the efficient numerical calculations they allow. In this work, we introduce a way to extend the set of symmetric PEPS in order to include local gauge invariance and investigate lattice gauge theories with fermionic matter. To this purpose, we provide as a case study and first example, the construction of a fermionic PEPS, based on Gaussian schemes, invariant under both global and local U(1) gauge transformations. The obtained states correspond to a truncated U(1) lattice gauge theory in 2 + 1 dimensions, involving both the gauge field and fermionic matter. For the global symmetry (pure fermionic) case, these PEPS can be studied in terms of spinless fermions subject to a p-wave superconducting pairing. For the local symmetry (fermions and gauge fields) case, we find confined and deconfined phases in the pure gauge limit, and we discuss the screening properties of the phases arising in the presence of dynamical matter.
- Aug 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1507.08699v1We develop a scattering theory to investigate the multi-photon transmission in a one-dimensional waveguide in the presence of quantum emitters. It is based on a path integral formalism, uses displacement transformations, and does not require the Markov approximation. We obtain the full time-evolution of the global system, including the emitters and the photonic field. Our theory allows us to compute the transition amplitude between arbitrary initial and final states, as well as the S-matrix of the asymptotic in- and out- states. For the case of few incident photons in the waveguide, we also re-derive a generalized master equation in the Markov limit. We compare the predictions of the developed scattering theory and that with the Markov approximation. We illustrate our methods with five examples of few-photon scattering: (i) by a two-level emitter, (ii) in the Jaynes-Cummings model; (iii) by an array of two-level emitters; (iv) by a two-level emitter in the half-end waveguide; (v) by an array of atoms coupled to Rydberg levels. In the first two, we show the application of the scattering theory in the photon scattering by a single emitter, and examine the correctness of our theory with the well-known results. In the third example, we analyze the condition of the Markov approximation for the photon scattering in the array of emitters. In the forth one, we show how a quantum emitter can generate entanglement of out-going photons. Finally, we highlight the interplay between the phenomenon of electromagnetic-induced transparency and the Rydberg interaction, and show how this results in a rich variety of possibilities in the quantum statistics of the scattering photons.
- We introduce a family of strongly-correlated spin wave functions on arbitrary spin-1/2 and spin-1 lattices in one and two dimensions. These states are lattice analogues of Moore-Read states of particles at filling fraction 1/q, which are non-Abelian Fractional Quantum Hall states in 2D. One parameter enables us to perform an interpolation between the continuum limit, where the states become continuum Moore-Read states of bosons (odd q) and fermions (even q), and the lattice limit. We show numerical evidence that the topological entanglement entropy stays the same along the interpolation for some of the states we introduce in 2D, which suggests that the topological properties of the lattice states are the same as in the continuum, while the 1D states are critical states. We then derive exact parent Hamiltonians for these states on lattices of arbitrary size. By deforming these parent Hamiltonians, we construct local Hamiltonians that stabilize some of the states we introduce in 1D and in 2D.
- Using matrix product states, we explore numerically the phenomenology of string breaking in a non-Abelian lattice gauge theory, namely 1+1 dimensional SU(2). The technique allows us to study the static potential between external heavy charges, as traditionally explored by Monte Carlo simulations, but also to simulate the real-time dynamics of both static and dynamical fermions, as the latter are fully included in the formalism. We propose a number of observables that are sensitive to the presence or breaking of the flux string, and use them to detect and characterize the phenomenon in each of these setups.
- We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.
- Apr 29 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.07600v1A scheme to utilize atom-like emitters coupled to nanophotonic waveguides is proposed for the generation of many-body entangled states and for the reversible mapping of these states of matter to photonic states of an optical pulse in the waveguide. Our protocol makes use of decoherence-free subspaces (DFS) for the atomic emitters with coherent evolution within the DFS enforced by strong dissipative coupling to the waveguide. By switching from subradiant to superradiant states, entangled atomic states are mapped to photonic states with high fidelity. An implementation using ultracold atoms coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide is discussed.
- Apr 21 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1504.05127v2We propose a universal, on-chip quantum transducer based on surface acoustic waves in piezo-active materials. Because of the intrinsic piezoelectric (and/or magnetostrictive) properties of the material, our approach provides a universal platform capable of coherently linking a broad array of qubits, including quantum dots, trapped ions, nitrogen-vacancy centers or superconducting qubits. The quantized modes of surface acoustic waves lie in the gigahertz range, can be strongly confined close to the surface in phononic cavities and guided in acoustic waveguides. We show that this type of surface acoustic excitations can be utilized efficiently as a quantum bus, serving as an on-chip, mechanical cavity-QED equivalent of microwave photons and enabling long-range coupling of a wide range of qubits.
- Can high energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems, such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective, low energy, symmetry, or as an "exact" symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to new type of (table-top) experiments, that shall be used to study various QCD phenomena, as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions, and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
- We present a new variational method, based on the matrix product operator (MPO) ansatz, for finding the steady state of dissipative quantum chains governed by master equations of the Lindblad form. Instead of requiring an accurate representation of the system evolution until the stationary state is attained, the algorithm directly targets the final state, thus allowing for a faster convergence when the steady state is a MPO with small bond dimension. Our numerical simulations for several dissipative spin models over a wide range of parameters illustrate the performance of the method and show that indeed the stationary state is often well described by a MPO of very moderate dimensions.
- We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi) one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.
- Jan 20 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1501.04427v1There has been rapid development of systems that yield strong interactions between freely propagating photons in one dimension via controlled coupling to quantum emitters. This raises interesting possibilities such as quantum information processing with photons or quantum many-body states of light, but treating such systems generally remains a difficult task theoretically. Here, we describe a novel technique in which the dynamics and correlations of a few photons can be exactly calculated, based upon knowledge of the initial photonic state and the solution of the reduced effective dynamics of the quantum emitters alone. We show that this generalized "input-output" formalism allows for a straightforward numerical implementation regardless of system details, such as emitter positions, external driving, and level structure. As a specific example, we apply our technique to show how atomic systems with infinite-range interactions and under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency enable the selective transmission of correlated multi-photon states.
- Nov 25 2014 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1411.6618v1We show that projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) can describe chiral topologically ordered phases. For that, we construct a simple PEPS for spin-1/2 particles in a two-dimensional lattice. We reveal a symmetry in the local projector of the PEPS that gives rise to the global topological character. We also extract characteristic quantities of the edge conformal field theory using the bulk-boundary correspondence.
- Oct 29 2014 cond-mat.dis-nn cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1410.7407v1It is typically assumed that disorder is essential to realize Anderson localization. Recently, a number of proposals have suggested that an interacting, translation invariant system can also exhibit localization. We examine these claims in the context of a one-dimensional spin ladder. At intermediate time scales, we find slow growth of entanglement entropy consistent with the phenomenology of many-body localization. However, at longer times, all finite wavelength spin polarizations decay in a finite time, independent of system size. We identify a single length scale which parametrically controls both the eventual spin transport times and the divergence of the susceptibility to spin glass ordering. We dub this long pre-thermal dynamical behavior, intermediate between full localization and diffusion, quasi-many body localization.
- We numerically construct slowly relaxing local operators in a nonintegrable spin-1/2 chain. Restricting the support of the operator to $M$ consecutive spins along the chain, we exhaustively search for the operator that minimizes the Frobenius norm of the commutator with the Hamiltonian. We first show that the Frobenius norm bounds the time scale of relaxation of the operator at high temperatures. We find operators with significantly slower relaxation than the slowest simple "hydrodynamic" mode due to energy diffusion. Then, we examine some properties of the nontrivial slow operators. Using both exhaustive search and tensor network techniques, we find similar slowly relaxing operators for a Floquet spin chain; this system is hydrodynamically "trivial", with no conservation laws restricting their dynamics. We argue that such slow relaxation may be a generic feature following from locality and unitarity.
- Jul 29 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1407.7336v1We propose the use of photonic crystal structures to design subwavelength optical lattices in two dimensions for ultracold atoms by using both Guided Modes and Casimir-Polder forces. We further show how to use Guided Modes for photon-induced large and strongly long-range interactions between trapped atoms. Finally, we analyze the prospects of this scheme to implement spin models for quantum simulation
- We analyze some crucial questions regarding the practical feasibility of quantum simulation for lattice gauge models. Our analysis focuses on two models suitable for the quantum simulation of the Schwinger Hamiltonian, or QED in 1+1 dimensions, which we investigate numerically using tensor networks. In particular, we explore the effect of representing the gauge degrees of freedom with finite-dimensional systems and show that the results converge rapidly; thus even with small dimensions it is possible to obtain a reasonable accuracy. We also discuss the time scales required for the adiabatic preparation of the interacting vacuum state and observe that for a suitable ramping of the interaction the required time is almost insensitive to the system size and the dimension of the physical systems. Finally, we address the possible presence of noninvariant terms in the Hamiltonian that is realized in the experiment and show that for low levels of noise it is still possible to achieve a good precision for some ground-state observables, even if the gauge symmetry is not exact in the implemented model.