results for au:Chen_Y in:quant-ph

- Mar 06 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.01330v1Based on Lyapunov control, a scheme is proposed to accelerate the dissipation dynamics for the generation of high-fidelity entanglement between two Rydberg atoms in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). We first use the quantum Zeno dynamics and Rydberg antiblockade to find a unique steady state (two-atom singlet state) for the system. Then, applying additional coherent control (ACC) fields to improve the evolution speed of the dissipative system. The ACC fields are designed based on the target state and they vanish gradually along with increasing of the fidelity thus the system is guaranteed to be finally stable. Besides, the current accelerated scheme is checked to be robust against systematic and amplitude-noise errors.
- Mar 06 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.01641v1Multiphoton entanglement plays a critical role in quantum information processing, and greatly improves our fundamental understanding of the quantum world. Despite tremendous efforts in either bulk media or fiber-based devices, nonlinear interactions in integrated circuits show great promise as an excellent platform for photon pair generation with its high brightness, stability and scalability \citeCaspani2017. Here, we demonstrate the generation of bi- and multiphoton polarization entangled qubits in a single silicon nanowire waveguide, and these qubits directly compatible with the dense wavelength division multiplexing in telecommunication system. Multiphoton interference and quantum state tomography were used to characterize the quality of the entangled states. Four-photon entanglement states among two frequency channels were ascertained with a fidelity of $0.78\pm0.02$. Our work realizes the integrated multiphoton source in a relatively simple pattern and paves a way for the revolution of multiphoton quantum science.
- Feb 28 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.09890v2Based on kinematic approach in defining geometric phase for a density matrix, we define the generalized Loschmidt overlap amplitude (GLOA) for an open system in arbitrary quantum evolution. GLOA reduces to Loschmidt overlap amplitude (LOA) with modified dynamic phase for unitary evolution of a pure state, and the argument of GLOA is the well-defined geometric phase. The rate function of GLOA exhibits non-analyticity at critical time, which corresponds to dynamical quantum phase transition. We observe that dynamical quantum phase transition related with GLOA will not be destroyed under finite temperature and weak enough dissipation. In particular, we find that a new type of dynamical quantum phase transition emerges in a dissipation system. The proposed GLOA provides a powerful tool in investigating quantum dynamical quantum phase transition in arbitrary quantum system.
- Feb 28 2018 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1802.09866v1The concept of gauge field is a cornerstone of modern physics and the synthetic gauge field has emerged as a new way to manipulate neutral particles in many disciplines. In optics, several schemes have been proposed to realize Abelian synthetic gauge fields. Here, we introduce a new platform for realizing synthetic $SU(2)$ non-Abelian gauge fields acting on two-dimensional optical waves in a wide class of anisotropic materials and discover new phenomena. We show that a virtual non-Abelian Lorentz force can arise from the material anisotropy, which can induce wave packets to travel along wavy "Zitterbewegung" trajectories even in homogeneous media. We further propose an interferometry scheme to realize the non-Abelian Aharonov--Bohm effect of light, which highlights the essential non-Abelian nature of the system. We also show that the Wilson loop of an arbitrary closed optical path can be extracted from a series of gauge fixed points in the interference fringes.
- Feb 28 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1802.09847v2An on-chip photonic quantum source, especially an on-chip entangled photon source, is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Here, we report an on-chip transverse-mode entangled photon source, which is realized using spontaneous four-wave mixing processes in a multimode silicon waveguide. Transverse-mode entangled photon pairs are generated and experimentally verified with a bandwidth of $\sim 2\ THz$; a maximally transverse-mode entangled Bell state can also be produced with a fidelity of $0.92\pm0.01$. The demonstrated on-chip entangled photon source provides one of the most important key elements for developing quantum photonics using transverse-mode freedom, which can be used to encode quantum information within a high-dimensional Hilbert space. And the transverse-mode entanglement can be converted coherently to path and polarization entanglement on-chip. This paves the way to realize highly complex quantum photonic circuits with multiple degrees of freedom and plays an important role in the high-dimensional quantum information processing.
- Feb 27 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.09144v1In this paper, by invariant-based inverse engineering, we design classical driving fields to transfer quantum fluctuations between two suspended membranes in an optomechanical cavity system. The transfer can be quickly attained through a non-adiabatic evolution path determined by a so-called dynamical invariant. Such an evolution path allows one to optimize the occupancies of the unstable "intermediate" states thus the influence of cavity decays can be suppressed. Numerical simulation demonstrates that a perfect fluctuation transfer between two membranes can be rapidly achieved in one step, and the transfer is robust to both the amplitude noises and cavity decays.
- Feb 13 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.03862v1Erbium-167-doped yttrium orthosilicate is an ideal candidate for a microwave-addressed quantum memory due to its telecom wavelength optical transition and hyperfine structure with and without an applied magnetic field. However, to date there has been little investigation in coherence times for transitions around zero magnetic field, or for hyperfine structure other than from the ground state. Through the use of Raman heterodyne spectroscopy, we have identified transitions at zero magnetic field with a small dependence on field that are suitable for detecting spin echoes for both the ground and excited state. We measured coherence times of transitions at 879.4 MHz and 896.7 MHz as 370 $\mu$s and 1.4 ms respectively at 3.2 K. This is a 100-fold increase in coherence time compared to previous measurements at the same dopant concentration and 200 times greater than the even isotopes of erbium-doped yttrium orthosilicate previously used to demonstrate a microwave memory.
- In this paper, we give quantum algorithms for two fundamental computation problems: solving polynomial systems and optimization over finite fields. The quantum algorithms can solve these problems with any given probability and have complexities polynomial in the size of the input and the condition number of certain polynomial system related to the problem. So, we achieved exponential speedup for these problems when their condition numbers are small. As special cases of the optimization problem, quantum algorithms are given for the polynomial systems with noise, the short integer solution problem, cryptanalysis for the lattice based NTRU cryptosystems. The main technical contribution of the paper is how to reduce polynomial system solving and optimization over finite fields into the determination of Boolean solutions of a polynomial system over C, under the condition that the number of variables and the total sparseness of the new system is well controlled.
- We present and theoretically report the influence of a class of near-parity-time-(PT-) symmetric potentials with spectral filtering parameter $\alpha_2$ and nonlinear gain-loss coefficient $\beta_2$ on solitons in the complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation. The potentials do not admit entirely-real linear spectra any more due to the existence of coefficients $\alpha_2$ or $\beta_2$. However, we find that most stable exact solitons can exist in the second quadrant of the $(\alpha_2, \beta_2)$ space, including on the corresponding axes. More intriguingly, the centrosymmetric two points in the $(\alpha_2, \beta_2)$ space possess imaginary-axis (longitudinal-axis) symmetric linear-stability spectra. Furthermore, an unstable nonlinear mode can be excited to another stable nonlinear mode by the adiabatic change of $\alpha_2$ and $\beta_2$. Other fascinating properties associated with the exact solitons are also examined in detail, such as the interactions and energy flux. These results are useful for the related experimental designs and applications.
- Jan 24 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.07563v1We study the cooperation between coherent controls and noises in quantum metrology and show that such cooperation can create multiple paths for parametrization in quantum metrology, which goes beyond the standard scheme and opens new possibilities for achieving higher precision limits. We demonstrate the effect of the cooperative interplays between coherent controls and the noises through canonical examples in quantum metrology, and show that the cooperative scheme can beat the standard scheme, and in certain regimes the precision limit under the cooperative scheme with noises can surpass the ultimate precision limit of the standard scheme under the ideal unitary dynamics.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 11 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.03338v1In this paper, a method to accelerate population transfer by designing nonadiabatic evolution paths is proposed. We apply the method to realize robust and accelerated population transfer with a transmon qutrit. By numerical simulation, we show that this method allows a robust population transfer between the ground states in a $\Lambda$ system. Moreover, the total pulse area for the population transfer is low as 1.9$\pi$ that verifies the evolution is accelerated without increasing the pulse intensity. Therefore, the method is easily implementable based on the modern pulse shaper technology and it provides selectable schemes with interesting applications in quantum information processing.
- Jan 11 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.03330v1Based on shortcuts to adiabaticity and quantum Zeno dynamics, we present a protocol to implement quantum state transfer (QST) in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. In the protocol, the complex Hamiltonian of an $N$-site system is simplified, and a simple effective Hamiltonian is present. It is shown that only the control of the coupling strengths between the boundary spins and the bulk spins are required for QST. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the protocol possesses high efficiency and is robust against the decay and the fluctuations of the control fields. The protocol might provide an alternative choice for transferring quantum states via spin chain systems.
- Jan 03 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1801.00559v1We theoretically investigate the light scattering of the super- and subradiant states which can be prepared by the excitation of a single photon which carries an orbital angular momentum (OAM).\ With this helical phase imprinted on the stacked ring of atomic arrays, the subradiant modes show directional side scattering in the far-field, allowing for light collimation and quantum storage of light with OAM.\ For the excitations with linear polarizations, we find a discrete $C_4$ rotational symmetry in scattering for the number of atoms $N$ $=$ $4n $ with integers $n$, while for circular polarizations with arbitrary $N$, the azimuthal and $C_N$ symmetries emerge for the super- and subradiant modes respectively.\ When the radial and azimuthal polarizations are considered, a mode shift can happen in the scattering pattern.\ The forward scattering of the superradiant modes can be enhanced as we stack up the rings along the excitation direction, and for the subradiant modes, we find the narrowing effects on the scattering in the azimuthal and the polar angles when more concentric rings are added in the radial direction.\ By designing the atomic spatial distributions and excitation polarizations, helical-phase-imprinted subradiant states can tailor and modify the radiation properties, which is detectable in the directional super- and subradiant emissions and is potentially useful in quantum information manipulations.
- We employ active feedback to stabilize the frequency of single photons emitted by two separate quantum dots to an atomic standard. The transmission of a single, rubidium-based Faraday filter serves as the error signal for frequency stabilization to less than 1.5% of the emission linewidth. Long-term stability is demonstrated by Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between photons from the two quantum dots. The observed visibility of $V_{\mathrm{lock}}=(41 \pm 5)$% is limited only by internal dephasing of the dots. Our approach facilitates quantum networks with indistinguishable photons from distributed emitters.
- Dec 22 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1712.07735v1The efficiency of the frequency conversion process at the heart of Raman heterodyne spectroscopy was improved by nearly four orders of magnitude by resonant enhancement of both the pump and signal optical fields. Our results using an erbium doped Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal at temperatures near 4K suggest that such an approach is promising for the quantum conversion of microwave to optical photons.
- Dec 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.06795v1We study the non-Markovian quantum interference phenomenon of a multi-state atomic system coupled to a bosonic dissipative environment by using the exact master equations derived in this paper. Two examples involving four-level systems with or without external control fields are investigated. Our results show that non-Markovian master equations are capable of exhibiting quantum interference phenomena in a temporal domain that has not fully explored before. In particular, we show that the environmental memory is instrumental in the onset of non-Markovian quantum interference pattern in different time scales.
- Decision of whether a Boolean equation system has a solution is an NPC problem and finding a solution is NP hard. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to decide whether a Boolean equation system $F$ has a solution and compute one if $F$ does have solutions with any given success probability. The complexity of the algorithm is polynomial in the size of $F$ and the condition number of $F$. As a consequence, we have achieved exponential speedup for solving sparse Boolean equation systems if their condition numbers are small. We apply the quantum algorithm to the cryptanalysis of the stream cipher Trivum, the block cipher AES, the hash function SHA-3/Keccak, and the multivariate public key cryptosystems, and show that they are secure under quantum algebraic attack only if the condition numbers of the corresponding equation systems are large.
- Dec 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.04533v1We study the ergodicity and mixing of quantum kicked rotor (QKR) with two distinct approaches. In one approach, we use the definitions of quantum ergodicity and mixing recently proposed in [Phys. Rev. E 94, 022150 (2016)], which involve only eigen-energies (Floquet quasi-energies for QKR). In the other approach, we study ergodicity and mixing with quantum Poincarè section, which is plotted with a method that maps a wave function unitarily onto quantum phase space composed of Planck cells. Classical Poincarè section can be recovered with the effective Planck constant gradually diminishing. The results of these two distinct approaches are consistent with each other, and also with classical results. Therefore, we establish a correspondence between quantum ergodicity (mixing) and classical ergodicity (mixing).
- Dec 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.03204v1Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between the Earth and Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is that we can perform Bell test with human supply the random measurement settings and record the results while still maintaining space-like intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of the Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for the ultimate test of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
- Complex integrated circuits require multiple wiring layers. In complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing, these layers are robustly separated by amorphous dielectrics. These dielectrics would dominate energy loss in superconducting integrated circuits. Here we demonstrate a procedure that capitalizes on the structural benefits of inter-layer dielectrics during fabrication and mitigates the added loss. We separate and support multiple wiring layers throughout fabrication using SiO$_2$ scaffolding, then remove it post-fabrication. This technique is compatible with foundry level processing and the can be generalized to make many different forms of low-loss multi-layer wiring. We use this technique to create freestanding aluminum vacuum gap crossovers (airbridges). We characterize the added capacitive loss of these airbridges by connecting ground planes over microwave frequency $\lambda/4$ coplanar waveguide resonators and measuring resonator loss. We measure a low power resonator loss of $\sim 3.9 \times 10^{-8}$ per bridge, which is 100 times lower than dielectric supported bridges. We further characterize these airbridges as crossovers, control line jumpers, and as part of a coupling network in gmon and fuxmon qubits. We measure qubit characteristic lifetimes ($T_1$'s) in excess of 30 $\mu$s in gmon devices.
- Many unconventional quantum matters, such as fractional quantum Hall effect and $d$-wave high-Tc superconductor, are discovered in strongly interacting systems. Understanding quantum many-body systems with strong interaction and the unconventional phases therein is one of the most challenging problems in physics nowadays. Cold atom systems possess a natural way to create strong interaction by bringing the system to the vicinity of a scattering resonance. Although this has been a focused topic in cold atom physics for more than a decade, these studies have so far mostly been limited for $s$-wave resonance. Here we report the experimental observation of a broad $d$-wave shape resonance in degenerate ${}^{41}$K gas. We further measure the molecular binding energy that splits into three branches as a hallmark of $d$-wave molecules, and find that the lifetime of this many-body system is reasonably long at strongly interacting regime. From analyzing the breathing mode excited by ramping through this resonance, it suggests that a quite stable low-temperature atom and molecule mixture is produced. Putting all the evidence together, our system offers great promise to reach a $d$-wave molecular superfluid.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05453v2Investigating the geometric effects resulting from the detailed behaviors of the confining potential, we consider square and circular confinements to constrain a particle to a space curve. We find a torsion-induced geometric potential and a curvature-induced geometric momentum just in the square case, while a geometric gauge potential solely in the circular case. In the presence of electromagnetic field, a geometrically induced magnetic moment couples with magnetic field as an induced Zeeman coupling only for the circular confinement. As spin-orbit interaction is considered, we find some novel additional terms for the spin-orbit coupling, which are induced not only by torsion, but also by curvature. Moreover, in the circular case, the spin also couples with an intrinsic angular momentum, which describes the azimuthal motions mapped on the space curve. As an important conclusion for the thin-layer quantization approach, some substantial geometric effects result from the confinement boundaries. Finally, these results are proved in a helical wire.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01784v1Creating large-scale entanglement lies at the heart of many quantum information processing protocols and the investigation of fundamental physics. Due to unavoidable interactions with the environment and current technological limitations, the generated many-body quantum state may not contain genuine multipartite entanglement but rather only a mixture of fewer-body entanglements. Still, identifying the precise structure of such many-body, but lower-order entanglement is of paramount importance. On the one hand, it provides hints on the whereabouts of imperfection in the setup, whereas on the other, it allows one to benchmark our technological progress towards the ultimate goal of demonstrating quantum supremacy. Here, we propose two complementary families of witnesses for the identification of such structures, each applicable to an arbitrary number of subsystems and whose evaluation requires only the implementation of solely two local measurements. As a proof of principle, we experimentally generate-via a reconfigurable photonic interferometer-five different eight-photon entangled states and demonstrate how their entanglement structure can be precisely and systematically inferred from the experimental measurement of these witnesses.
- Universal quantum computing using $(\mathbb{Z}_d)^3$ symmetry-protected topologically ordered statesNov 02 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1711.00094v2Measurement-based quantum computation describes a scheme where entanglement of resource states is utilized to simulate arbitrary quantum gates via local measurements. Recent works suggest that symmetry-protected topologically non-trivial, short-ranged entanged states are promising candidates for such a resource. Miller and Miyake [NPJ Quantum Information 2, 16036 (2016)] recently constructed a particular $\mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry-protected topological state on the Union-Jack lattice and established its quantum computational universality. However, they suggested that the same construction on the triangular lattice might not lead to a universal resource. Instead of qubits, we generalize the construction to qudits and show that the resulting $(d-1)$ qudit nontrivial $\mathbb{Z}_d \times \mathbb{Z}_d \times \mathbb{Z}_d$ symmetry-protected topological states are universal on the triangular lattice, for $d$ being a prime number greater than 2. The same construction also holds for other 3-colorable lattices, including the Union-Jack lattice.
- Nov 01 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.11387v1Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is an intermediate quantum correlation that lies in between entanglement and Bell non-locality. Its temporal analogue, temporal steering, has recently been shown to have applications in quantum information and open quantum systems. Here, we show that there exists a hierarchy among the three temporal quantum correlations: temporal inseparability, temporal steering, and macrorealism. Given that the temporal inseparability can be used to define a measure of quantum causality, similarly the quantification of temporal steering can be viewed as a weaker measure of direct cause and can be used to distinguish between direct cause and common cause in a quantum network.
- Oct 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.04483v3In this paper, we propose an approach to accelerate the dissipation dynamics for quantum state generation with Lyapunov control. The strategy is to add target-state-related coherent control fields into the dissipation process to intuitively improve the evolution speed. By applying the current approach, without losing the advantages of dissipation dynamics, the target stationary states can be generated in a much shorter time as compared to that via traditional dissipation dynamics. As a result, the current approach containing the advantages of coherent unitary dynamics and dissipation dynamics allows for significant improvement in quantum state generation.
- Oct 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.04488v2It is still a challenge to experimentally realize shortcuts to adiabaticity (STA) for a non-Hermitian quantum system since a non-Hermitian quantum system's counterdiabatic driving Hamiltonian contains some unrealizable auxiliary control fields. In this paper, we relax the strict condition in constructing STA and propose a method to redesign a realizable supplementary Hamiltonian to construct non-Hermitian STA. The redesigned supplementary Hamiltonian can be eithersymmetric or asymmetric. For the sake of clearness, we apply this method to an Allen-Eberly model as an example to verify the validity of the optimized non-Hermitian STA. The numerical simulation demonstrates that a ultrafast population inversion could be realized in a two-level non-Hermitian system.
- Oct 06 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.01807v1Single photon emitters are indispensable to photonic quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate waveform-controlled high-purity single photons from room-temperature colloidal quantum dots. The purity of the single photons does not vary with the excitation power, thereby allowing the generation rate to be increased without compromising the single-photon quality.
- Sep 22 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.07108v2Statistical mechanics is founded on the assumption that a system can reach thermal equilibrium, regardless of the starting state. Interactions between particles facilitate thermalization, but, can interacting systems always equilibrate regardless of parameter values\,? The energy spectrum of a system can answer this question and reveal the nature of the underlying phases. However, most experimental techniques only indirectly probe the many-body energy spectrum. Using a chain of nine superconducting qubits, we implement a novel technique for directly resolving the energy levels of interacting photons. We benchmark this method by capturing the intricate energy spectrum predicted for 2D electrons in a magnetic field, the Hofstadter butterfly. By increasing disorder, the spatial extent of energy eigenstates at the edge of the energy band shrink, suggesting the formation of a mobility edge. At strong disorder, the energy levels cease to repel one another and their statistics approaches a Poisson distribution - the hallmark of transition from the thermalized to the many-body localized phase. Our work introduces a new many-body spectroscopy technique to study quantum phases of matter.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06639v2Nonlinear modifications of quantum mechanics have a troubled history. They were initially studied for many promising reasons: resolving the measurement problem, testing the limits of standard quantum mechanics, and reconciling it with gravity. Two results substantially undermined the credibility of non-linear theories. Some have been experimentally refuted, and more importantly, all deterministic non-linear theories can be used for superluminal communication. However, these results are unconvincing because they overlook the fact that the distribution of measurement results predicted by non-linear quantum mechanics depends on the interpretation of quantum mechanics that one uses. For instance, although the Everett and Copenhagen interpretations agree on the expression of Born's rule for the outcomes of multiple measurements in linear quantum mechanics, they disagree in non-linear quantum mechanics. We present the range of expressions of Born's rule that can be obtained by applying different formulations of quantum mechanics to a class of non-linear quantum theories. We then determine that many do not allow for superluminal communication but only two seem to have a reasonable justification. The first is the Everett interpretation, and the second, which we name causal-conditional, states that a measurement broadcasts its outcome to degrees of freedom in its future light-cone, who update the wavefunction that their non-linear Hamiltonian depends on according to this new information.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06703v4We propose a measure of quantum steerability, namely a convex steering monotone, based on the trace distance between a given assemblage and its corresponding closest assemblage admitting a local-hidden-state (LHS) model. We provide methods to estimate such a quantity, via lower and upper bounds, based on semidefinite programming. One of these upper bounds has a clear geometrical interpretation as a linear function of rescaled Euclidean distances in the Bloch sphere between the normalized quantum states of: (i) a given assemblage and (ii) an LHS assemblage. For a qubit-qubit quantum state, the above ideas also allow us to visualize various steerability properties of the state in the Bloch sphere via the so-called LHS surface. In particular, some steerability properties can be obtained by comparing such an LHS surface with a corresponding quantum steering ellipsoid. Thus, we propose a witness of steerability corresponding to the difference of the volumes enclosed by these two surfaces. This witness (which reveals the steerability of a quantum state) enables finding an optimal measurement basis, which can then be used to determine the proposed steering monotone (which describes the steerability of an assemblage) optimized over all mutually-unbiased bases.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06779v1Quantum mechanics provides means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a self-testing manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of self-testing quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the assumption of independent identical distribution, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb $\times$ 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than $10^{-5}$. Such self-testing random number generators mark a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06678v1Fundamental questions in chemistry and physics may never be answered due to the exponential complexity of the underlying quantum phenomena. A desire to overcome this challenge has sparked a new industry of quantum technologies with the promise that engineered quantum systems can address these hard problems. A key step towards demonstrating such a system will be performing a computation beyond the capabilities of any classical computer, achieving so-called quantum supremacy. Here, using 9 superconducting qubits, we demonstrate an immediate path towards quantum supremacy. By individually tuning the qubit parameters, we are able to generate thousands of unique Hamiltonian evolutions and probe the output probabilities. The measured probabilities obey a universal distribution, consistent with uniformly sampling the full Hilbert-space. As the number of qubits in the algorithm is varied, the system continues to explore the exponentially growing number of states. Combining these large datasets with techniques from machine learning allows us to construct a model which accurately predicts the measured probabilities. We demonstrate an application of these algorithms by systematically increasing the disorder and observing a transition from delocalized states to localized states. By extending these results to a system of 50 qubits, we hope to address scientific questions that are beyond the capabilities of any classical computer.
- A lattice is the integer span of some linearly independent vectors. Lattice problems have many significant applications in coding theory and cryptographic systems for their conjectured hardness. The Shortest Vector Problem (SVP), which is to find the shortest non-zero vector in a lattice, is one of the well-known problems that are believed to be hard to solve, even with a quantum computer. In this paper we propose space-efficient classical and quantum algorithms for solving SVP. Currently the best time-efficient algorithm for solving SVP takes $2^{n+o(n)}$ time and $2^{n+o(n)}$ space. Our classical algorithm takes $2^{2.05n+o(n)}$ time to solve SVP with only $2^{0.5n+o(n)}$ space. We then modify our classical algorithm to a quantum version, which can solve SVP in time $2^{1.2553n+o(n)}$ with $2^{0.5n+o(n)}$ classical space and only poly(n) qubits.
- We present a fabrication process for fully superconducting interconnects compatible with superconducting qubit technology. These interconnects allow for the 3D integration of quantum circuits without introducing lossy amorphous dielectrics. They are composed of indium bumps several microns tall separated from an aluminum base layer by titanium nitride which serves as a diffusion barrier. We measure the whole structure to be superconducting (transition temperature of 1.1$\,$K), limited by the aluminum. These interconnects have an average critical current of 26.8$\,$mA, and mechanical shear and thermal cycle testing indicate that these devices are mechanically robust. Our process provides a method that reliably yields superconducting interconnects suitable for use with superconducting qubits.
- Aug 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.03433v1We introduce a simple yet versatile protocol to inverse engineer the time-dependent Hamiltonian in two- and three level systems. In the protocol, by utilizing a universal SU(2) transformation, a given speedup goal can be obtained with large freedom to select the control parameters. As an illustration example, the protocol is applied to perform population transfer between nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Numerical simulation shows that the speed of the present protocol is fast compared with that of the adiabatic process. Moreover, the protocol is also tolerant to decoherence and experimental parameter fluctuations. Therefore, the protocol may be useful for designing an experimental feasible Hamiltonian to engineer a quantum system.
- Silicon single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for detecting single photons in the visible wavelength range. Here we present high detection efficiency silicon SPDs dedicated to the generation of multiphoton entanglement based on the technique of high-frequency sine wave gating. The silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) components are acquired by disassembling 6 commercial single-photon counting modules (SPCMs). Using the new quenching electronics, the average detection efficiency of SPDs is increased from 68.6% to 73.1% at a wavelength of 785 nm. These sine wave gating SPDs are then applied in a four-photon entanglement experiment, and the four-fold coincidence count rate is increased by 30% without degrading its visibility compared with the original SPCMs.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05521v3One of the fundamental issues in the field of open quantum systems is the classification and quantification of non-Markovianity. In the contest of quantity-based measures of non-Markovianity, the intuition of non-Markovianity in terms of information backflow is widely discussed. However, it is not easy to characterize the information flux for a given system state and show its connection to non-Markovianity. Here, by using the concepts from thermodynamics and information theory, we discuss a potential definition of information flux of an open quantum system, valid for static environments. We present a simple protocol to show how a system attempts to share information with its environment and how it builds up system-environment correlations. We also show that the information returned from the correlations characterizes the non-Markovianity and a hierarchy of indivisibility of the system dynamics.
- Jul 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.04022v1In this paper, we propose a protocol for complete Bell-state analysis for two superconducting-quantum-interference-device qubits. The Bell-state analysis could be completed by using a sequence of microwave pulses designed by the transition- less tracking algorithm, which is an useful method in the technique of shortcut to adiabaticity. After the whole process, the information for distinguishing four Bell states will be encoded on two auxiliary qubits, while the Bell states keep unchanged. One can read out the information by detecting the auxiliary qubits. Thus the Bell-state analysis is nondestructive. The numerical simulations show that the protocol possesses high success probability of distinguishing each Bell state with current experimental technology even when decoherence is taken into account. Thus, the protocol may have potential applications for the information readout in quantum communications and quantum computations in superconducting quantum networks.
- Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential both for foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 km. Here, we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 km on the Earth, through satellite-to-ground two-downlink with a sum of length varies from 1600 km to 2400 km. We observe a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37+/-0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency at 1200 km in this work is over 12 orders of magnitude higher than the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through the best commercial telecommunication fibers with a loss of 0.16 dB/km.
- An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be precisely measured or perfectly replicated. However, quantum teleportation allows faithful transfer of unknown quantum states from one object to another over long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation has been recognized as a fundamental element in protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. However, the previous teleportation experiments between distant locations were limited to a distance on the order of 100 kilometers, due to photon loss in optical fibres or terrestrial free-space channels. An outstanding open challenge for a global-scale "quantum internet" is to significantly extend the range for teleportation. A promising solution to this problem is exploiting satellite platform and space-based link, which can conveniently connect two remote points on the Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the photons' propagation path is in empty space. Here, we report the first quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low Earth orbit satellite - through an up-link channel - with a distance up to 1400 km. To optimize the link efficiency and overcome the atmospheric turbulence in the up-link, a series of techniques are developed, including a compact ultra-bright source of multi-photon entanglement, narrow beam divergence, high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT). We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation for six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80+/-0.01, well above the classical limit. This work establishes the first ground-to-satellite up-link for faithful and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation, an essential step toward global-scale quantum internet.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- Jun 14 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1706.03939v1We demonstrate an optically induced polarization detection (OIPD) technique for mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Our method employs a single spin in highly purified diamond as the magnetic quantum sensor, allowing us to detect the spectra of polarized electron spin magnetization of a pentacene crystal with the size of tens of micrometers. We detected the magnetic resonance spectra of polarized electron spins, measured its relaxation time and observed the electron spin polarization. This is the first application of NV-based magnetic resonance to sense polarized electron spins. Compared to thermal distribution, the polarization of these electron spins is improved a thousandfold by optical pumping. The method can be extended to sense polarized nuclear spin magnetization at mesoscale with ultrahigh polarization by employing dynamic nuclear polarization.
- Jun 06 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.00879v1Josephson junctions form the essential non-linearity for almost all superconducting qubits. The junction is formed when two superconducting electrodes come within $\sim$1 nm of each other. Although the capacitance of these electrodes is a small fraction of the total qubit capacitance, the nearby electric fields are more concentrated in dielectric surfaces and can contribute substantially to the total dissipation. We have developed a technique to experimentally investigate the effect of these electrodes on the quality of superconducting devices. We use $\lambda$/4 coplanar waveguide resonators to emulate lumped qubit capacitors. We add a variable number of these electrodes to the capacitive end of these resonators and measure how the additional loss scales with number of electrodes. We then reduce this loss with fabrication techniques that limit the amount of lossy dielectrics. We then apply these techniques to the fabrication of Xmon qubits on a silicon substrate to improve their energy relaxation times by a factor of 5.
- May 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.08591v1In this paper, a scheme is put forward to design pulses which drive a three-level system based on the reverse engineering with Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory. The scheme can be applied to a three-level system even when the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) can not be used. The amplitudes of pulses and the maximal values of detunings in the system could be easily controlled by adjusting control parameters. We analyze the dynamics of the system by an invariant operator, so additional couplings are unnecessary. Moreover, the approaches to avoid singularity of pulses are studied and several useful results are obtained. We hope the scheme could contribute to fast quantum information processing without RWA.
- May 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.08649v1We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various tradeoff relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit.
- May 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.08578v2We present a general approach to speed up the adiabatic process without adding the traditional counterdiabatic driving (CD) Hamiltonian. The strategy is to design an easy-to-get intermediate Hamiltonian to connect the original Hamiltonian and final transitionless Hamiltonian. With final transitionless Hamiltonian, the same target can be achieved as in the adiabatic process governed by the original Hamiltonian, but in a shorter time. We apply the present approach to a three-level system, and the result shows that the final transitionless Hamiltonian usually has the same structure as the original Hamiltonian but with different time-dependent coefficients, allowing speedup to be achieved in a much easier way compared to previous methods.
- We initiate the study of computational entropy in the quantum setting. We investigate to what extent the classical notions of computational entropy generalize to the quantum setting, and whether quantum analogues of classical theorems hold. Our main results are as follows. (1) The classical Leakage Chain Rule for pseudoentropy can be extended to the case that the leakage information is quantum (while the source remains classical). Specifically, if the source has pseudoentropy at least $k$, then it has pseudoentropy at least $k-\ell$ conditioned on an $\ell$-qubit leakage. (2) As an application of the Leakage Chain Rule, we construct the first quantum leakage-resilient stream-cipher in the bounded-quantum-storage model, assuming the existence of a quantum-secure pseudorandom generator. (3) We show that the general form of the classical Dense Model Theorem (interpreted as the equivalence between two definitions of pseudo-relative-min-entropy) does not extend to quantum states. Along the way, we develop quantum analogues of some classical techniques (e.g. the Leakage Simulation Lemma, which is proven by a Non-uniform Min-Max Theorem or Boosting). On the other hand, we also identify some classical techniques (e.g. Gap Amplification) that do not work in the quantum setting. Moreover, we introduce a variety of notions that combine quantum information and quantum complexity, and this raises several directions for future work.
- We report the bright solitons of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with some types of physically relevant parity-time-(PT-) and non-PT-symmetric potentials. We find that the constant momentum coefficient can modulate the linear stability and complicated transverse power-flows (not always from the gain toward loss) of nonlinear modes. However, the varying momentum coefficient Gamma(x) can modulate both unbroken linear PT-symmetric phases and stability of nonlinear modes. Particularly, the nonlinearity can excite the unstable linear mode (i.e., broken linear PT-symmetric phase) to stable nonlinear modes. Moreover, we also find stable bright solitons in the presence of non-PT-symmetric harmonic-Gaussian potential. The interactions of two bright solitons are also illustrated in PT-symmetric potentials. Finally, we consider nonlinear modes and transverse power-flows in the three-dimensional (3D) GP equation with the generalized PT-symmetric Scarf-II potential
- The effect of derivative nonlinearity and parity-time- (PT-) symmetric potentials on the wave propagation dynamics is investigated in the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation, where the physically interesting Scarff-II and hamonic-Hermite-Gaussian potentials are chosen. We study numerically the regions of unbroken/broken linear PT-symmetric phases and find some stable bright solitons of this model in a wide range of potential parameters even though the corresponding linear PT-symmetric phases are broken. The semi-elastic interactions between exact bright solitons and exotic incident waves are illustrated such that we find that exact nonlinear modes almost keep their shapes after interactions even if the exotic incident waves have evidently been changed. Moreover, we exert the adiabatic switching on PT-symmetric potential parameters such that a stable nonlinear mode with the unbroken linear PT-symmetric phase can be excited to another stable nonlinear mode belonging to the broken linear PT-symmetric phase.
- Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc.. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time (PT)-symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex PT-symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant PT-symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear PT-symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with PT-symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and PT-symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields.
- Since the parity-time-(PT-) symmetric quantum mechanics was put forward, fundamental properties of some linear and nonlinear models with PT-symmetric potentials have been investigated. However, previous studies of PT-symmetric waves were limited to constant diffraction coefficients in the ambient medium. Here we address effects of variable diffraction coefficient on the beam dynamics in nonlinear media with generalized $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric Scarf-II potentials. The broken linear PT symmetry phase may enjoy a restoration with the growing diffraction parameter. Continuous families of one- and two-dimensional solitons are found to be stable. Particularly, some stable solitons are analytically found. The existence range and propagation dynamics of the solitons are identified. Transformation of the solitons by means of adiabatically varying parameters, and collisions between solitons are studied too. We also explore the evolution of constant-intensity waves in a model combining the variable diffraction coefficient and complex potentials with globally balanced gain and loss, which are more general than PT-symmetric ones, but feature similar properties. Our results may suggest new experiments for PT-symmetric nonlinear waves in nonlinear nonuniform optical media.
- Mar 31 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1703.10302v2Here we report on the production and tomography of genuinely entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with up to 10 qubits connecting to a bus resonator in a superconducting circuit, where the resonator-mediated qubit-qubit interactions are used to controllably entangle multiple qubits and to operate on different pairs of qubits in parallel. The resulting 10-qubit density matrix is unambiguously probed, with a fidelity of $0.668 \pm 0.025$. Our results demonstrate the largest entanglement created so far in solid-state architectures, and pave the way to large-scale quantum computation.
- Mar 29 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.09428v4The incoherent dynamical properties of open quantum systems are generically attributed to an ongoing correlation between the system and its environment. Here, we propose a novel way to assess the nature of these system-environment correlations by examining the system dynamics alone. Our approach is based on the possibility or impossibility to simulate open-system dynamics with Hamiltonian ensembles. As we show, such (im)possibility to simulate is closely linked to the system-environment correlations. We thus define the nonclassicality of open-system dynamics in terms of the nonexistence of a Hamiltonian-ensemble simulation. This classifies any nonunital open-system dynamics as nonclassical. We give examples for open-system dynamics that are unital and classical, as well as unital and nonclassical.
- Mar 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.01753v1In this paper, we investigate the quantum transfer for the system with three-level $\Lambda$-type structure, and construct a shortcut to the adiabatic passage via picture transformation to speed up the evolution. We can design the pulses directly without any additional couplings. Moreover, by choosing suitable control parameters, the Rabi frequencies of pulses can be expressed by the linear superpositions of Gaussian functions, which could be easily realized in experiments. Compared with the previous works using the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the quantum transfer can be significantly accelerated with the present scheme.
- Mar 01 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.08448v2We propose a scheme to realize a multiqubit tunable phase gate in a circuit QED setup where two resonators, each coupling with a qudit, are interconnected to a common qudit (d=4). In this proposal, only two levels of each qudit serve as the logical states and the other two levels are used for the gate realization. The proposal is efficient and simple because only a classical microwave pulse is needed, no matter how many qudits are involved, which significantly reduces experimental difficulty. In a nonresonant case, the tunable phase gate can be achieved readily, while under the resonant condition, a \pi-phase gate can be realized after a full cycle of Rabi oscillation where the gate speed is rather fast due to the resonant interaction. We have shown that the resulting effective dynamics allows for the creation of a high-fidelity phase gate. The influence of various decoherence processes such as the decay of the resonator mode and the relaxation of the qudits is investigated. Moreover, the proposed scheme can be easily generalized to realize N-qubit phase gate.
- The shot-noise limited peak sensitivity of cavity-enhanced interferometric measurement devices, such as gravitational-wave detectors, can be improved by increasing the cavity finesse, even when comparing fixed intra-cavity light powers. For a fixed light power inside the detector, this comes at the price of a proportional reduction in the detection bandwidth. High sensitivity over a large span of signal frequencies, however, is essential for astronomical observations. It is possible to overcome this standard sensitivity-bandwidth limit using non-classical correlations in the light field. Here, we investigate the internal squeezing approach, where the parametric amplification process creates a non-classical correlation directly inside the interferometer cavity. We analyse the limits of the approach theoretically, and measure 36% increase in the sensitivity-bandwidth product compared to the classical case. To our knowledge this is the first experimental demonstration of an improvement in the sensitivity-bandwidth product using internal squeezing, opening the way for a new class of optomechanical force sensing devices.
- Jan 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.05405v1We study theoretically the bio-sensing capabilities of metal nanowire surface plasmons. As a specific example, we couple the nanowire to specific sites (bacteriochlorophyll) of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) photosynthetic pigment protein complex. In this hybrid system, we find that when certain sites of the FMO complex are subject to either the suppression of inter-site transitions or are entirely disconnected from the complex, the resulting variations in the excitation transfer rates through the complex can be monitored through the corresponding changes in the scattering spectra of the incident nanowire surface plasmons. We also find that these changes can be further enhanced by changing the ratio of plasmon-site couplings. The change of the Fano lineshape in the scattering spectra further reveals that "site 5" in the FMO complex plays a distinct role from other sites. Our results provide a feasible way, using single photons, to detect mutation-induced, or bleaching-induced, local defects or modifications of the FMO complex, and allows access to both the local and global properties of the excitation transfer in such systems.
- Jan 04 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas physics.atom-ph physics.chem-ph physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1701.00589v1We report on two-photon photoassociation (PA) spectroscopy of ultracold heteronuclear LiRb molecules. This is used to determine the binding energies of the loosely bound levels of the electronic ground singlet and the lowest triplet states of LiRb. We observe strong two-photon PA lines with power broadened line widths greater than 20 GHz at relatively low laser intensity of 30 W/cm$^{2}$. The implication of this observation on direct atom to molecule conversion using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is discussed and the prospect for electronic ground state molecule production is theoretically analyzed.
- Dec 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06934v1The Standard Quantum Limit in continuous monitoring of a system is given by the trade-off of shot noise and back-action noise. In gravitational-wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO, both contributions can simultaneously be squeezed in a broad frequency band by injecting a spectrum of squeezed vacuum states with a frequency-dependent squeeze angle. This approach requires setting up an additional long base-line, low-loss filter cavity in a vacuum system at the detector's site. Here, we show that the need for such a filter cavity can be eliminated, by exploiting EPR-entangled signal and idler beams. By harnessing their mutual quantum correlations and the difference in the way each beam propagates in the interferometer, we can engineer the input signal beam to have the appropriate frequency dependent conditional squeezing once the out-going idler beam is detected. Our proposal is appropriate for all future gravitational-wave detectors for achieving sensitivities beyond the Standard Quantum Limit.
- Dec 20 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06310v1We propose an optomechanics experiment that can search for signatures of a fundamentally classical theory of gravity and in particular of the many-body Schroedinger-Newton (SN) equation, which governs the evolution of a crystal under a self-gravitational field. The SN equation predicts that the dynamics of a macroscopic mechanical oscillator's center of mass wavefunction differ from the predictions of standard quantum mechanics. This difference is largest for low-frequency oscillators, and for materials, such as Tungsten or Osmium, with small quantum fluctuations of the constituent atoms around their lattice equilibrium sites. Light probes the motion of these oscillators and is eventually measured in order to extract valuable information on the pendulum's dynamics. Due to the non-linearity contained in the SN equation, we analyze the fluctuations of measurement results differently than standard quantum mechanics. We revisit how to model a thermal bath, and the wavefunction collapse postulate, resulting in two prescriptions for analyzing the quantum measurement of the light. We demonstrate that both predict features, in the outgoing light's phase fluctuations' spectrum, which are separate from classical thermal fluctuations and quantum shot noise, and which can be clearly resolved with state of the art technology.
- Nov 14 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1611.03717v1Semiconductor InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by the Stranski-Krastanov method are among the leading candidates for the deterministic generation of polarization entangled photon pairs. Despite remarkable progress in the last twenty years, many challenges still remain for this material, such as the extremely low yield (<1% quantum dots can emit entangled photons), the low degree of entanglement, and the large wavelength distribution. Here we show that, with an emerging family of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots grown by droplet etching and nanohole infilling, it is possible to obtain a large ensemble (close to 100%) of polarization-entangled photon emitters on a wafer without any post-growth tuning. Under pulsed resonant two-photon excitation, all measured quantum dots emit single pairs of entangled photons with ultra-high purity, high degree of entanglement (fidelity up to F=0.91, with a record high concurrence C=0.90), and ultra-narrow wavelength distribution at rubidium transitions. Therefore, a solid-state quantum repeater - among many other key enabling quantum photonic elements - can be practically implemented with this new material.
- Oct 26 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.07751v2In this paper, we propose a protocol to prepare W states with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) by using dressed states. Through choosing a set of dressed states suitably, the protocol can be used to accelerate the adiabatic passages while additional couplings are unnecessary. Moreover, we can optimize the evolution of the system with the restraint to the populations of the intermediate states by choosing suitable controlled parameters. Numerical simulations show that the protocol is robust against the parameter variations and decoherence mechanisms. Furthermore, the protocol is faster and more robust against the dephasing, compared with that by the adiabatic passages. As for the Rabi frequencies of pulses designed by the method, they can be expressed by the linear superpositions of Gaussian functions, which does not increase difficulties to the experiments. In addition, the protocol could be controlled and manipulated easily in experiments with a circuit quantum electrodynamics system.
- Oct 19 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.05490v2Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering allows Alice to remotely prepare a state in some specific bases for Bob through her choice of measurements. The temporal analogue of EPR steering, temporal steering, also reveals the steerability of a single system between different times. Focusing on a four-dimensional system, here we investigate the dynamics of the temporal steering measures, the temporal steering robustness, using 5 mutually unbiased bases. As an example of an application, we use these measures to examine the temporal correlations in a radical pair model of magnetoreception. We find that, due to interactions with a static nuclear spin, the radical pair model exhibits strong non-Markovianity.
- Photosynthesis has been a long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also have inspired attention from a thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results provide insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.
- Oct 17 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.04296v3Based on the framework of consistent history theory, the quantum entangled history was proposed in 2015 and experimentally verified through temporal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) test with $3$ time nodes in 2016. In this paper, we extend the temporal GHZ test to arbitrary time nodes and even system dimensions. Then, we define a witness to distinguish between the quantum entangled histories and the classical histories. The minimums of the witness for the classical histories are calculated for arbitrary number of time nodes and the system dimensions $2$ and $\infty$. It is found that the minimums of the witness for the classical histories is always larger than the quantum entangled histories minimum $-1$. Only when both the number of time nodes and system dimensions approach to infinity, the minimum of the witness for classical and quantum entangled histories are identical.
- A novel unified Hamiltonian approach is proposed to solve Maxwell-Schrodinger equation for modeling the interaction between classical electromagnetic (EM) fields and particles. Based on the Hamiltonian of electromagnetics and quantum mechanics, a unified Maxwell-Schrodinger system is derived by the variational principle. The coupled system is well-posed and symplectic, which ensures energy conserving property during the time evolution. However, due to the disparity of wavelengths of EM waves and that of electron waves, a numerical implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to the multiscale coupled system is extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, a reduced eigenmode expansion technique is first applied to represent the wave function of the particle. Then, a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the time evolution of the slowly-varying expansion coefficients are derived to replace the original Schrodinger equation. Finally, Maxwell's equations represented by the vector potential with a Coulomb gauge, together with the ODEs, are solved self-consistently. For numerical examples, the interaction between EM fields and a particle is investigated for both the closed, open and inhomogeneous electromagnetic systems. The proposed approach not only captures the Rabi oscillation phenomenon in the closed cavity but also captures the effects of radiative decay and shift in the open free space. After comparing with the existing theoretical approximate models, it is found that the approximate models break down in certain cases where a rigorous self-consistent approach is needed. This work is helpful for the EM simulation of emerging nanodevices or next-generation quantum electrodynamic systems.
- Sep 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.00228v3We report on the experimental realization of a ten-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using thin BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystals. The observed fidelity is $0.606\pm0.029$, demonstrating a genuine entanglement with a standard deviation of 3.6 $\sigma$. This result is further verified using $p$-value calculation, obtaining an upper bound of $3.7\times10^{-3}$ under an assumed hypothesis test. Our experiment paves a new way to efficiently engineer BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystal-based multi-photon entanglement systems, which provides a promising platform for investigating advanced optical quantum information processing tasks such as boson sampling, quantum error correction and quantum-enhanced measurement.
- Sep 01 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1608.08752v2By analyzing the dissipative dynamics of a tunable gap flux qubit, we extract both sides of its two-sided environmental flux noise spectral density over a range of frequencies around $2k_BT/h \approx 1\,\rm{GHz}$, allowing for the observation of a classical-quantum crossover. Below the crossover point, the symmetric noise component follows a $1/f$ power law that matches the magnitude of the $1/f$ noise near $1\,{\rm{Hz}}$. The antisymmetric component displays a 1/T dependence below $100\,\rm{mK}$, providing dynamical evidence for a paramagnetic environment. Extrapolating the two-sided spectrum predicts the linewidth and reorganization energy of incoherent resonant tunneling between flux qubit wells.