results for au:Chen_C in:hep-ph

- LHCb observes the $B^+_c \to D^0 K^+$ decay with $R_{D^0 K} = f_c/f_u \times {\cal B}(B^+_c \to D^0 K^+)=(9.3^{+2.8}_{-2.5} \pm 0.6)\times 10^{-7}$. The corresponding branching ratio (BR) of the decay can be estimated as ${\cal B}(B^+_c \to D^0 K^+) \approx (10.01 \pm 3.40)\times 10^{-5}$; however, the theoretical estimates vary from $\sim 10^{-7}$ to $\sim 5\times 10^{-5}$. We phenomenologically investigate the $B^+_c \to (D^0 K^+, D^0 \pi^+)$ decays through the analysis of $B\to KK$, $B^+_u\to D^+ K^0$, and $B_d \to D^-_s K^+$. With the form factor of $f^{B_c D}_0\approx 0.2$, it is found that the tree-annihilation contribution dominates the $B^+_c \to D^0 K^+$ decay, and when ${\cal B}(B^+_u \to D^+ K^0) \approx (1-3.1) \times 10^{-7}$ is required, we obtain ${\cal B}(B^+_c \to D^0 K^+)\approx (4.4- 9) \times 10^{-5}$, and the magnitude of CP asymmetry is lower than approximately $10\%$. Although the $B^+_c \to D^0 \pi^+$ decay is dominated by the tree-transition effect, the tree-annihilation also makes an important contribution, where its effect could be around $70\%$ of the tree-transition. It is found that when ${\cal B}(B^+_c \to D^0 K^+)\approx (4.4- 9) \times 10^{-5}$ is taken, the BR and CP asymmetry for $B^+_c \to D^0 \pi^+$ with the common values of parameters can be ${\cal B}(B^+_c \to D^0 \pi^+)\approx (4.9-8)\times 10^{-6}$ and of the order of one, respectively. Moreover, we conclude ${\cal B}(B^+_c \to D^+ K^0)\approx {\cal B}(B^+_c \to D^0 K^+)$, and the BRs for $B^+_c \to K^+ \bar K^0$ and $B^+_c \to J/\Psi \pi^+$ are $(6.99 \pm 1.34) \times 10^{-7}$ and $(7.7 \pm 1.1)\times 10^{-4}$, respectively.
- Oct 17 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1710.05898v1Recent experimental results provided by the CMS and LHCb, Belle and BaBar collaborations are showing a tension with the SM predictions in $R_{K^{(*)}}$, which might call for an explanation from new physics. In this work, we examine this tension in the type-III two-Higgs doublet models. We focus on the contributions of charged Higgs boson to the observable(s) $R_{K^{(*)}}$ and other rare processes $\Delta M_q$ ($q=s,d$), $B \to X_s \gamma$ $B_s \to \mu^+ \mu^{-}$ and $B_q \to X_s \mu^+ \mu^{-}$, which are governed by the same effective Hamiltonian. It is found that regions of large $\tan\beta$ and light charged Higgs mass $m_{H^\pm}$ can explain the measured value of $R_{K^{(*)}}$ and accommodate other B physics data as well. In contrast, the type-II two-Higgs doublet model can not.
- The Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model is reformulated within the mimetic approach. In the presence of a mimetic field, the model contains non-trivial vacuum solutions which could be free of spacetime singularity because of the Born-Infeld nature of the theory. We study a realistic primordial vacuum universe and prove the existence of regular solutions, such as primordial inflationary solutions of de Sitter type or bouncing solutions. Besides, the linear instabilities present in the EiBI model are found to be avoidable for some interesting bouncing solutions in which the physical metric as well as the auxiliary metric are regular at the background level.
- Aug 15 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1708.04072v2Recently there has been interest in the correlation between R(D*) and the branching ratio (BR) of $B_c \to \tau \nu$ in models with a charged scalar H^\pm. Any enhancement of R(D*) by $H^\pm$ alone (in order to agree with current data) also enhances $BR(B_c \to \tau \nu$), for which there has been no direct search at hadron colliders. We show that LEP data taken at the Z peak requires BR($B_c \to \tau \nu$) < 10%, and this constraint is significantly stronger than the recent constraint BR($B_c \to \tau \nu$) < 30% from considering the lifetime of B_c. In order to respect this new constraint, any explanation of the R(D) and R(D*) anomaly in terms of $H^\pm$ alone would require the future measurements of R(D*) to be even closer to the Standard Model prediction. A stronger limit on BR($B_c \to \tau \nu$) (or its first measurement) would be obtained if the L3 collaboration used all its data taken at the Z peak.
- We study the prospective sensitivity to CP-violating Two Higgs Doublet Models from the 14 TeV LHC and future electric dipole moment (EDM) experiments. We concentrate on the search for a resonant heavy Higgs that decays to a $Z$ boson and a SM-like Higgs h, leading to the $Z(\ell\ell)h(b\bar{b})$ final state. The prospective LHC reach is analyzed using the Boosted Decision Tree method. We illustrate the complementarity between the LHC and low energy EDM measurements and study the dependence of the physics reach on the degree of deviation from the alignment limit. In all cases, we find that there exists a large part of parameter space that is sensitive to both EDMs and LHC searches.
- This white paper summarizes the workshop "U.S. Cosmic Visions: New Ideas in Dark Matter" held at University of Maryland on March 23-25, 2017.
- The $Z'$-gauge boson in an $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ gauge symmetry has two interesting features: one is its vector couplings to the charged leptons, and the other is the decoupling from the electron. Based on the properties, we investigate the feasibility to simultaneously resolve the $R_{K^{(*)}} = BR(B\to K^{(*)} \mu^+ \mu^-)/BR(B\to K^{(*)} e^+ e^-)$ and $R_{D^{(*)}} = BR(\bar B\to D^{(*)} \tau \bar\nu_\tau)/BR(\bar B\to D^{(*)} \ell \bar\nu_\ell)$ anomalies in an $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ model, where the former plans to arise from the $Z'$-penguin induced $b\to s \mu^+ \mu^-$ process and the latter is from the tree-level $b\to c \tau \bar\nu_\tau$ decay. In order to achieve the purpose, we employ one vector-like doublet lepton and one singlet scalar leptoquark (LQ), in which the new particles all carry the $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ charges, the $b\to sZ'$ effective interaction is generated from the vector-like lepton and LQ loop, and the $b\to c \tau \bar\nu_\tau$ decay is induced from the LQ. When the constraints from the $\ell' \to \ell \gamma$, $b\to s \gamma$, $B^+\to K^+ \nu \bar\nu$, and $\Delta F=2$ processes are included, it is found that $R_D$ and $R_{D^*}$ can be enhanced and fit the experimental data, and the Wilson coefficient $C_9$ from the LQ-loop can reach $C^{LQ,\mu}_9\sim -1$, which can explain the $R_{K}$ and $R_{K^*}$ anomalies. In addition, in this simple model, the Higgs lepton-flavor violating $h\to \mu \tau$ decay can occur at the tree level and its branching ratio can be as large as the current experimental upper limit.
- Vector-boson fusion (VBF) is a clean probe of the electroweak-symmetry breaking (EWSB), which inevitably suffers from some level of contamination due to the gluon fusion (ggF). In addition to the jet variables used in the current experimental analysis, we analyze a few more jet-shape variables defined by the girth and integrated jet-shape. Taking $H\to W W^* \to e \nu \mu \nu$ and $H \to \gamma\gamma$ as examples, we perform the analysis with a new technique of 2-step boosted-decision-tree method, which significantly reduces the contamination of the ggF in the VBF sample, thus, providing a clean environment in probing the EWSB sector.
- May 31 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1705.10620v1We study the origin of neutrino mass through lepton-number violation and spontaneous $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ symmetry breaking. To accomplish the purpose, in addition to the $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ extension of the standard model, we include one Higgs triplet, two singlet scalars, and two vector-like doublet leptons. To reduce the number of free parameters, we employ the Frampton-Glashow-Marfatia (FGM) two-zero texture neutrino mass matrix as a theoretical input. It is found that when some particular Yukawa couplings vanish, a FGM pattern can be realized in the model. Besides the explanation of neutrino data, we can also obtain the absolute value of neutrino mass $m_j$; and their sum can satisfy the upper bound from the cosmological measurement with $\sum_j |m_j| < 0.17$ eV. Moreover, the effective Majorana neutrino mass for neutrinoless double-beta decay is below the current upper limit, and is obtained as $\langle m_{\beta \beta} \rangle =(0.34,\, 2.3)\times 10^{-2}$ eV. It is found that the doubly charged Higgs $H^{\pm\pm}$ decaying to the right-handed $\mu^\pm \tau^\pm$ is induced from a dimension-6 operator and not highly suppressed, and its branching ratio is compatible with the $H^{\pm \pm}\to W^\pm W^\pm$ decay when the vacuum expectation value of Higgs triplet is $O(0.1)$ GeV.
- May 23 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1705.07743v1Solutions to the electroweak hierarchy problem typically introduce a new symmetry to stabilize the quadratic ultraviolet sensitivity in the self-energy of the Higgs boson. The new symmetry is either broken softly or collectively, as for example in supersymmetric and little Higgs theories. At low energies such theories contain naturalness partners of the Standard Model fields which are responsible for canceling the quadratic divergence in the squared Higgs mass. Post the discovery of any partner-like particles, we propose to test the aforementioned cancellation by measuring relevant Higgs couplings. Using the fermionic top partners in little Higgs theories as an illustration, we construct a simplified model for naturalness and initiate a study on testing naturalness. After electroweak symmetry breaking, naturalness in the top sector requires $a_T = - \lambda_t^2$ at leading order, where $\lambda_t$ and $a_T$ are the Higgs couplings to a pair of top quarks and top partners, respectively. Using a multivariate method of Boosted Decision Tree to tag boosted particles in the Standard Model, we show that, with a luminosity of 30 $ab^{-1}$ at a 100 TeV $pp$-collider, naturalness could be tested with a precision of 10 % for a top partner mass up to 2.5 TeV.
- The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is a future Higgs factory proposed by the Chinese high energy physics community. It will operate at a center-of-mass energy of 240-250 GeV. The CEPC will accumulate an integrated luminosity of 5 ab$^{\rm{-1}}$ in ten years' operation. With GEANT4-based full simulation samples for CEPC, Higgs boson decaying into electron pair is studied at the CEPC. The upper limit of ${\cal B}(H \rightarrow e^+ e^-)$ could reach 0.024\% at 95\% confidence level. The signal process is generated by MadGraph, with Initial State Radiation (ISR) implemented, as a first step to adjust MadGraph for a electron positron Collider.
- We describe a calculation of the spectrum of flavour-SU(3) octet and decuplet baryons, their parity partners, and the radial excitations of these systems, made using a symmetry-preserving treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction as the foundation for the relevant few-body equations. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking generates nonpointlike diquarks within these baryons and hence, using the contact interaction, flavour-antitriplet scalar, pseudoscalar and vector, and flavour-sextet axial-vector quark-quark correlations can all play an active role. The model yields reasonable masses for all systems studied, and Faddeev amplitudes for ground states and associated parity partners that sketch a realistic picture of their internal structure: ground-state, even parity baryons are constituted, almost exclusively, from like-parity diquark correlations; but orbital angular momentum plays an important role in the rest-frame wave functions of odd-parity baryons, whose Faddeev amplitudes are dominated by odd-parity diquarks.
- We analyze the collider signatures of the real singlet extension of the Standard Model in regions consistent with a strong first-order electroweak phase transition and a singlet-like scalar heavier than the Standard Model-like Higgs. A definitive correlation exists between the strength of the phase transition and the trilinear coupling of the Higgs to two singlet-like scalars, and hence between the phase transition and non-resonant scalar pair production involving the singlet at colliders. We study the prospects for observing these processes at the LHC and a future 100 TeV $pp$ collider, focusing particularly on double singlet production. We also discuss correlations between the strength of the electroweak phase transition and other observables at hadron and future lepton colliders. Searches for non-resonant singlet-like scalar pair production at 100 TeV would provide a sensitive probe of the electroweak phase transition in this model, complementing resonant di-Higgs searches and precision measurements. Our study illustrates a strategy for systematically exploring the phenomenologically viable parameter space of this model, which we hope will be useful for future work.
- $L_\mu -L_\tau$ gauge boson ($Z'$) with a mass in the MeV to GeV region can resolve not only the muon $g-2$ excess, but also the gap in the high-energy cosmic neutrino spectrum at IceCube. It was recently proposed that such a light gauge boson can be detected at the Belle II experiment with a luminosity of 50 ab$^{-1}$ by the $e^+ e^- \to \gamma +\slashed{E}$ process through the kinetic mixing with the photon, where the missing energy $\slashed{E}$ is from the $Z' \to \bar\nu \nu$ decays. We study the phenomenological implications when a pair of singlet vector-like leptons carrying different $L_\mu - L_\tau$ charges are included, and a complex singlet scalar ($\phi_S$) is introduced to accomplish the spontaneous $U(1)_{L_\mu -L_\tau}$ symmetry breaking. It is found that the extension leads to several phenomena of interest, and they include: (i) branching ratio (BR) for $h\to \mu \tau$ can be of the order of $10^{-3}$; (ii) $\phi_S$-mediated muon $g-2$ can be of the order of $10\times 10^{-10}$; (iii) BR for $\tau \to \mu \phi^*_S\to \mu Z'Z'$ can be $10^{-8}$; and (iv) kinetic mixing between the $Z'$ boson and photon is sensitive to the relative heavy lepton masses. The predicted BRs for $\tau\to (3\mu+\slashed{E}, 5\mu$) through the leptonic $Z'$ decays can reach a level of $10^{-9}$, in which the results fall within the sensitivity of Belle II in the search for the rare tau decays.
- The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of the internal structure of the proton. The phase is made accessible through the quantum-mechanical interference of DVCS with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, in which the final photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. We report herein the first full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the high energy regime where the scattering process is expected to occur off a single quark in the proton, these accurate measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.
- Mar 20 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1703.06134v2Heavy vector-like quarks (VLQs) appear in many models of beyond the Standard Model physics. Direct experimental searches require these new quarks to be heavy, $\gsim$ 800-1000 GeV. We perform a global fit of the parameters of simple VLQ models in minimal representations of $SU(2)_L$ to precision data and Higgs rates. An interesting connection between anomalous $Z b {\overline {b}}$ interactions and Higgs physics in VLQ models is discussed. Finally, we present our analysis in an effective field theory (EFT) framework and show that the parameters of VLQ models are already highly constrained. Exact and approximate analytical formulas for the $S$ and $T$ parameters in the VLQ models we consider are posted at https://quark.phy.bnl.gov/Digital_Data_Archive/dawson/vlq_17/ as Mathematica files.
- We study the influence of a charged-Higgs on the excess of branching fraction ratio, $R_M = BR(\bar B \to M \tau \bar\nu_\tau)/BR(\bar B \to M \ell \bar \nu_\ell)$ $(M=D, D^*)$, in a generic two-Higgs-doublet model. In order to investigate the lepton polarization, the detailed decay amplitudes with lepton helicity are given. When the charged-Higgs is used to resolve excesses, it is found that two independent Yukawa couplings are needed to explain the $R_D$ and $R_{D^*}$ anomalies. We show that when the upper limit of $BR(B_c \to \tau \bar \nu_\tau)<30\%$ is included, $R_D$ can be significantly enhanced while $R_{D^*}<0.27$. With the $BR(B_c\to \tau \bar \nu_\tau)$ constraint, we find that the $\tau$-lepton polarizations can be still affected by the charged-Higgs effects, where the standard model (SM) predictions are obtained as: $P^\tau_{D} \approx 0.324$ and $P^\tau_{D^*}\approx -0.500$, and they can be enhanced to be $P^\tau_{D} \approx 0.5$ and $P^\tau_{D^*} \approx -0.41$ by the charged-Higgs. The integrated lepton froward-backward asymmetry (FBA) is also studied, where the SM result is $\bar A^{D^{(*)},\tau}_{FB} \approx -0.359(0.064)$, and they can be enhanced (decreased) to be $\bar A^{D^{(*)},\tau}_{FB} \approx -0.33 (0.02)$.
- We investigate the anomalies of muon $g-2$, $R_K$, $R_{D}$, and $R_{D^*}$ in a specific model with one doublet, one triplet, and one singlet scalar leptoquarks (LQs). When the strict limits from the $\ell' \to \ell \gamma$, $\Delta B=2$, $B_{s}\to \mu^+ \mu^-$, and $B^+ \to K^+ \nu \bar\nu$ processes are considered, it is found that due to the strong correlations among the constraints and observables, it is difficult to use one scalar LQ to explain all anomalies. After ignoring the constraints and small couplings, the muon $g-2$ can be singly explained by the doublet LQ due to the $m_t$ enhancement; the measured and unexpected smaller $R_K$ needs the combination effects from the doublet and triplet LQs; and the $R_D$ and $R_{D^*}$ excesses have to rely on the singlet LQ through the scalar- and tensor-type interactions.
- In order for a Sullivan-like process to provide reliable access to a meson target as $t$ becomes spacelike, the pole associated with that meson should remain the dominant feature of the quark-antiquark scattering matrix and the wave function describing the related correlation must evolve slowly and smoothly. Using continuum methods for the strong-interaction bound-state problem, we explore and delineate the circumstances under which these conditions are satisfied: for the pion, this requires $-t \lesssim 0.6\,$GeV$^2$, whereas $-t\lesssim 0.9\,$GeV$^2$ will suffice for the kaon. These results should prove useful in evaluating the potential of numerous experiments at existing and proposed facilities.
- Jan 27 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1701.07437v1A persistence of several anomalies in muon physics, such as the muon anomalous magnetic moment and the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift, hints at new light particles beyond the Standard Model. We address a subset of these models that have a new light scalar state with sizable couplings to muons and suppressed couplings to electrons. A novel way to search for such particles would be through muon beam-dump experiments by (1) missing momentum searches; (2) searches for decays with displaced vertices. The muon beams available at CERN and Fermilab present attractive opportunities for exploring the new scalar with a mass below the di-muon threshold, and potentially covering a range of relevant candidate models. For the models considered in this paper, both types of signals, muon missing momentum and anomalous energy deposition at a distance, can probe a substantial fraction of the unexplored parameter space of the new light scalar, including a region that can explain the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy.
- Jan 24 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1701.06291v2Higgs bosons pair production is well known for its sensitivity to probing the sign and size of Higgs boson self coupling, providing a way to determine whether there is an extended Higgs sector. The Georgi-Machacek (GM) model extends the Standard Model (SM) with an $SU(2)_L$ triplet scalar field that has one real and one complex components. The Higgs self coupling now has a wider range than that in the SM, with even the possibility of a sign flip. The new heavy singlet Higgs boson $H^{0}_{1}$ can contribute to s-channel production of the $hh$ pairs. In this work, we study non-resonant/resonant Higgs boson pair productions $p p \rightarrow hh$ and $p p \rightarrow H^{0}_{1} \rightarrow hh$, focusing exclusively on the contribution of $H^0_1$. We show the sensitivity for Higgs boson pair production searches at the 13-TeV LHC with the luminosities of $3.2,\ 30$ and $100$~fb$^{-1}$.
- Sep 27 2016 hep-ph arXiv:1609.07583v1The scenario of the compressed mass spectrum between heavy quark and dark matter is a challenge for LHC searches. However, the elastic scattering cross section between dark matter and nuclei in dark matter direct detection experiments can be enhanced with nearly degenerate masses between heavy quarks and dark matter. In this paper, we illustrate such scenario with a vector dark matter, using the latest result from LUX 2016. The mass constraints on heavy quarks can be more stringent than current limits from LHC, unless the coupling strength is very small. However, the compress mass spectrum with allowed tiny coupling strength makes the decay lifetime of heavy quarks longer than the time scale of QCD hadronization.
- Sep 26 2016 hep-ph arXiv:1609.07198v1The experiment of Krasznahorkay \textitet al observed the transition of a $\rm{^{8}Be}$ excited state to its ground state and accompanied by an emission of $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair with 17 MeV invariant mass. This 6.8$\sigma$ anomaly can be fitted by a new light gauge boson. We consider the new particle as a $U(1)$ gauge boson, $Z'$, which plays as a portal linking dark sector and visible sector. In particular, we study the new $U(1)$ gauge symmetry as a hidden or non-hidden group separately. The generic hidden $U(1)$ model, referred to as dark $Z$ model, is excluded by imposing various experimental constraints. On the other hand, a non-hidden $Z'$ is allowed due to additional interactions between $Z'$ and Standard Model fermions. We also study the implication of the dark matter direct search on such a scenario. We found the search for the DM-nucleon scattering excludes the range of DM mass above 500 MeV. However, the DM-electron scattering for MeV-scale DM is still allowed by current constraints for non-hidden $U(1)$ models. It is possible to test the underlying $U(1)$ portal model by the future Si and Ge detectors with $5e^{-}$ threshold charges.
- A charged Higgs in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model (THDM) has been bounded to be above a few hundred GeV by the radiative $B$ decays. A Higgs triplet extension of the THDM not only provides an origin of neutrino masses and a completely new doubly-charged Higgs decay pattern, but it also achieves a light-charged Higgs with a mass of ${\cal O}(100)$ GeV through the new scalar couplings in the scalar potential. It was found that these light-charged Higgs decays depend on its mass $m_{H^\pm}$, $\tan\beta$, and mixing effect $\sin\theta_\pm$: at $\tan\beta =1$, if $m_{H^\pm} > m_W + m_Z$, $\bar b b W^\pm$, $W^\pm Z$, and $\tau \nu$ are the main decay modes; however, if $m_{H^\pm} < m_W + m_Z$, the main decay modes are then $\bar b b W$ and $\tau \nu$, and at $\tan\beta=30$, the $\tau \nu$ mode dominates the other decays. When $m_t > m_{H^\pm} + m_b$, we found that the ATLAS and CMS recent upper bounds on the product of $BR(t\to H^+ b)BR(H^+\to \tau^+ \nu)$ can be directly applied and will give a strict constraint on the correlation of $m_{H^\pm}$ and $\sin\theta_\pm$. If the upper bound of $BR(t\to H^+ b)BR(H^+\to \tau^+ \nu)$ is satisfied (escaped) for $m_t > (<) m_{H^\pm} + m_b$, it was found that the significance of discovering the charged Higgs through $H^\pm \to W^\pm Z$ is much lower than that through $H^\pm \to \bar b b W^\pm$. With a luminosity of 100 fb$^{-1}$ at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and including the experimental bounds, the significance of the $H^\pm \to \bar b b W^\pm$ signal can reach around $6.2 (2.4)\sigma$ for $m_{H^\pm} <(>) m_W + m_Z$.
- We analyze the prospects for detection of light sub-GeV dark matter produced in experiments designed to study the properties of neutrinos, such as MiniBooNE, T2K, SHiP, DUNE etc. We present an improved production model, when dark matter couples to hadronic states via a dark photon or baryonic vector mediator, incorporating bremsstrahlung of the dark vector. In addition to elastic scattering, we also study signatures of light dark matter undergoing deep inelastic or quasi-elastic NC$\pi^0$-like scattering in the detector producing neutral pions, which for certain experiments may provide the best sensitivity. An extensive appendix provides documentation for a publicly available simulation tool \tt BdNMC that can be applied to determine the hidden sector dark matter production and scattering rate at a range of proton fixed target experiments.
- The quantum effects close to the classical big rip singularity within the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld theory (EiBI) are investigated through quantum geometrodynamics. It is the first time that this approach is applied to a modified theory constructed upon Palatini formalism. The Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation is obtained and solved based on an alternative action proposed in Ref.[1], under two different factor ordering choices. This action is dynamically equivalent to the original EiBI action while it is free of square root of the spacetime curvature. We consider a homogeneous, isotropic and spatially flat universe, which is assumed to be dominated by a phantom perfect fluid whose equation of state is a constant. We obtain exact solutions of the WDW equation based on some specific conditions. In more general cases, we propose a qualitative argument with the help of a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation to get further solutions. Besides, we also construct an effective WDW equation by simply promoting the classical Friedmann equations. We find that for all the approaches considered, the DeWitt condition hinting singularity avoidance is satisfied. Therefore the big rip singularity can be avoided through the quantum approach within the EiBI theory.
- We study the production of a light gauge boson in $K^- \to \pi^- X$ decay, where the associated new charge current is not conserved. It is found that the process can be generated by the tree-level $W$-boson annihilation and loop-induced $s\to dX$. We find that it strongly depends on the $SU(3)$ limit or the unique gauge coupling to the quarks, whether the decay amplitude of $K^-\to \pi^- X$ in the $W$-boson annihilation is suppressed by $m^2_X \epsilon_X \cdot p_K$; however, no such suppression is found via the loop-induced $s\to d X$. The constraints on the relevant couplings are studied.
- Jul 26 2016 hep-ph arXiv:1607.06832v1We discuss a minimal solution to the long-standing $(g-2)_\mu$ anomaly in a simple extension of the Standard Model with an extra $Z'$ vector boson that has only flavor off-diagonal couplings to the second and third generation of leptons, i.e. $\mu, \tau, \nu_\mu, \nu_\tau$ and their antiparticles. A simplified model realization, as well as various collider and low-energy constraints on this model, are discussed. We find that the $(g-2)_\mu$-favored region for a $Z'$ lighter than the tau lepton is totally excluded, while a heavier $Z'$ solution is still allowed. Some testable implications of this scenario in future experiments, such as lepton-flavor universality-violating tau decays at Belle 2, and a new four-lepton signature involving same-sign di-muons and di-taus at HL-LHC and FCC-ee, are pointed out. A characteristic resonant absorption feature in the high-energy neutrino spectrum might also be observed by neutrino telescopes like IceCube and KM3NeT.
- More than $3\sigma$ deviations from the standard model are observed in the angular observable $P'_5$ of $B\to K^* \mu^+ \mu^-$ and muon $g-2$. To resolve these anomalies, we extend the standard model by adding two leptoquarks. It is found that the signal strength of the diphoton Higgs decay can exhibit a significant deviation from unity and is within the data errors. Although $\ell_i \to \ell_j \gamma$ puts severe bounds on some couplings, it is found that the excesses of $P'_5$ and muon $g-2$ can still be explained and can be accommodated to the measurement of $B_s\to \mu^+ \mu^-$ in this model. In addition, the leptoquark effects can also explain the LHCb measurement of $R_K = BR(B^+ \to K^+ \mu^+\mu^-)/BR(B^+ \to K^+ e^+e^-)=0.745^{+0.090}_{-0.074} \pm 0.036$, which shows a $2.6\sigma$ deviation from the standard model prediction.
- This report summarises the physics opportunities for the study of Higgs bosons and the dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking at the 100 TeV pp collider.
- We investigate the implications of a minimal $SU(2)$ gauge symmetry extension of the standard model at the LHC. To achieve the spontaneous symmetry breaking, a heavy Higgs doublet of the $SU(2)$ is introduced. To obtain an anomaly free model and the decays of new charged gauge bosons, we include a vector-like quark doublet. We also employ a real scalar boson to dictate the heavy Higgs production via the gluon-gluon fusion processes. It is found that the new gauge coupling and the masses of new gauge bosons can be strictly bounded by the electroweak $\rho$-parameter and dilepton resonance experiments at the LHC. It is found that due to the new charged gauge boson enhancement, the cross sections for a heavy scalar boson to diphoton channel measured by ATLAS and CMS can be easily satisfied when the values of Yukawa couplings are properly taken. Furthermore, by adopting event simulation, we find that the significance of $pp\to (\gamma \gamma)_H+{\rm jet}$, where the diphoton is from the heavy Higgs decay, can be over $4\sigma$ when the luminosity is above 60 fb$^{-1}$.
- This report summarises the physics opportunities in the search and study of physics beyond the Standard Model at a 100 TeV pp collider.
- Weakly-coupled models for the 750 GeV diphoton resonance often invoke new particles carrying both color and/or electric charges to mediate loop-induced couplings of the resonance to two gluons and two photons. The new colored particles may not be stable and could decay into final states containing standard model particles. We consider an electroweak doublet of vector-like quarks (VLQs) carrying electric charges of 5/3 and 2/3, respectively, which mediate the loop-induced couplings of the 750 GeV resonance. If the VLQ has a mass at around 1 TeV, it naturally gives rise to the observed diphoton signal strength while all couplings remain perturbative up to a high scale. At the same time, if the charge-5/3 VLQ decays into final states containing top quark and W boson, it would contribute to the multilepton excesses observed in both Run 1 and Run 2 data. It is also possible to incorporate a dark matter candidate in the decay final states to explain the observed relic density.
- Apr 20 2016 hep-ph arXiv:1604.05324v1Higgs portal interactions provide a simple mechanism for addressing two open problems in cosmology: dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. In the latter instance, Higgs portal interactions may contain the ingredients for a strong first order electroweak phase transition as well as new CP-violating interactions as needed for electroweak baryogenesis. These interactions may also allow for a viable dark matter candidate. We survey the opportunities for probing the Higgs portal as it relates to these questions in cosmology at the LHC and possible future colliders.
- Two triplet vector-like quarks (VLQs) with hypercharges of $Y=2/3, -1/3$ and one singlet scalar boson are embedded in the standard model (SM) to resolve the 750 GeV diphoton excess. The constraints on the tree-level Higgs- and $Z$-mediated flavor-changing neutral currents are discussed in detail. Besides the resolution of excess, it is found that the signal strength of diphoton Higgs decay can have a $10\%$ deviation from the SM prediction and that the upper limits of the branching ratios for rare top-quark decays are $BR(t\to c (h, Z)) < (6.8, 0.48) \times 10^{-5}$. We find that the production cross section of a single VLQ by electroweak processes is larger than that of VLQ-pair by QCD processes. To explore the signals of the heavy VLQs at the LHC, we throughly analyze the production of single $X_{\pm 5/3}$ and $Y_{\mp 4/3}$ via $q_i q'_j$ annihilations in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. It is found that the electroweak production cross sections for $d X_{5/3}$, $u Y_{-4/3} $, and $d Y_{4/3} $ channels with $m_X=m_Y=1$ TeV can be $84.3$, $72.3$, and $157.8$ fb, respectively; and the dominant decay modes are $X_{5/3} \to (c,t) W^+$ and $Y_{-4/3} \to (s,b) W^-$. With adopting kinematic cuts, the significance for $pp\to d W^+ t$ channel can be over $5\sigma$.
- Preliminary ATLAS and CMS results from the first 13 TeV LHC run have encountered an intriguing excess of events in the diphoton channel around the invariant mass of 750 GeV. We investigate a possibility that the current excess is due to a heavy resonance decaying to light metastable states, which in turn give displaced decays to very highly collimated $e^+e^-$ pairs. Such decays may pass the photon selection criteria, and successfully mimic the diphoton events, especially at low counts. We investigate two classes of such models, characterized by the following underlying production and decay chains: $gg \to S\to A'A'\to (e^+e^-)(e^+e^-)$ and $q\bar q \to Z' \to sa\to (e^+e^-)(e^+e^-)$, where at the first step a heavy scalar, $S$, or vector, $Z'$, resonances are produced that decay to light metastable vectors, $A'$, or (pseudo-)scalars, $s$ and $a$. Setting the parameters of the models to explain the existing excess, and taking the ATLAS detector geometry into account, we marginalize over the properties of heavy resonances in order to derive the expected lifetimes and couplings of metastable light resonances. We observe that in the case of $A'$, the suggested range of masses and mixing angles $\epsilon$ is within reach of several new-generation intensity frontier experiments.
- The Higgs-portal lepton flavor violation is studied in a vectorlike lepton model. For evading the constraints from rare $Z\to \ell^\pm_i \ell^\mp_j$ decays, we introduce two triplet vectorlike leptons, $(1,3)_{-1}$ and $(1,3)_{0}$. The resultant branching ratio for $h\to \mu \tau$ can be up to $10^{-4}$ when the constraints from the invisible $Z$ decays are applied. As a result, the signal strength for $\tau\tau$ channel has a $12\%$ deviation from the standard model prediction, while the muon $g-2$ is two-order of magnitude smaller than the data and $BR(\tau\to \mu \gamma)$ is of order of $10^{-12}$. A predicted doubly charged lepton in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV is analyzed and it is found that the interesting production channels are $pp\to (\Psi^{--}_{1} \Psi^{++}_1, \Psi^{\pm\pm}_1 \Psi^\mp_1)$. Both single and pair production cross sections of $\Psi^{++}_1$ are comparable and can be a few hundred fb. The main decay channels for the doubly charged lepton are $\Psi^{\pm\pm} \to \ell^\pm W^\pm$ and for the heavy singly charged lepton are $\Psi^\pm_1 \to \nu W^\pm, \ell^\pm Z$. The numerical analysis is given at $13$ TeV LHC with $100$ fb$^{-1}$ luminosity.
- We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed-quarks carry all a meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanishing as $(1-x)^2$ when Bjorken-$x\to 1$. Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of SU(3)-flavour symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavour dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulae may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed-quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale, this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u-quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set; and predict a u-quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of $\pi N$ Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.
- We study the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT) in the process of $pp \to W_H^+W_H^- \to W^+W^- A_H A_H$ at the 14 TeV LHC. With the $W$-jet tagging technique, we demonstrate that the bulk of the model parameter space can be probed at the level of more than $5\sigma$ in the signature of two fat $W$-jets plus large missing energy. Furthermore, we propose a novel strategy of measuring the principle parameter $f$ that is crucial to testify the LHT model and to fix mass spectrum, including dark matter particle. Our proposal can be easily incorporated into current experimental program of diboson searches at the LHC Run-II.
- ATLAS and CMS recently show the first results from run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. A resonant bump at a mass of around 750 GeV in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum is indicated and the corresponding diphoton production cross section is around 3-10 fb. Motivated by the LHC diphoton excess, we propose that the possible resonance candidate is a Higgs singlet. To produce the Higgs singlet via gluon-gluon fusion process, we embed the Higgs singlet in the framework of vector-like triplet quark (VLTQ) model. As a result, the Higgs singlet decaying to diphoton final state is via VLTQ loops. Using the enhanced number of new quarks and new Yukawa couplings of the VLTQs and Higgs singlet, we successfully explain the diphoton production cross section. We find that the width of the Higgs singlet is below 1 GeV, its production cross section can be of order of 1 pb at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, and the branching ratio for it decaying to diphoton is around $0.017$ and is insensitive to the masses of VLTQs and new Yukawa couplings. We find a strong correlation between the Higgs Yukawa couplings to $s$-$b$ and $c$-$t$; the resulted branching ratio for $t \to c h$ can be $1.1\times 10^{-4}$ when the constraint from $B_s$ oscillation is applied. With the constrained parameter values, the signal strength for the SM Higgs decaying to diphoton is $\mu_{\gamma\gamma}< 1.18$, which is consistent with the current measurements at ATLAS and CMS.
- Inspired by a significance of $2.4\sigma$ in $h\to \mu \tau$ decay observed by CMS at $\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV, we investigate the Higgs lepton flavor violating effects in the generic two-Higgs-doublet model (GTHDM), where the lepton flavor changing neutral currents are induced at tree level and arisen from Yukawa sector. We revisit the constraints for GTHDM by considering theoretical requirements, precision measurements of $\delta \rho$ and oblique parameters $S$, $T$, $U$ and Higgs measurements. The bounds from Higgs data now play the major role. With the values of parameters that simultaneously satisfy the Higgs bounds and the excess of Higgs coupling to $\mu$-$\tau$ at CMS, we find that the tree-level $\tau\to 3\mu$ and loop-induced $\tau\to \mu \gamma$ could be consistent with current experimental upper limits; the discrepancy in muon $g-2$ between experiment and standard model prediction could be solved; and an interesting relation between muon $g-2$ and branching ratio (BR) for $\mu\to e \gamma$ is found. The GTHM results that the ratio $BR(h\to e\tau)/BR(h\to \mu \tau)$ should be smaller than $10^{-4}$ in order of magnitude. Additionally, we also study the rare decay $Z\to \mu \tau$ and get $BR(Z\to \mu\tau)< 10^{-6}$.
- A light scalar $\phi$ with mass $\lesssim 1$ GeV and muonic coupling $\mathcal{O}(10^{-3})$ would explain the 3.5 $\sigma$ discrepancy between the Standard Model (SM) muon $g-2$ prediction and experiment. Such a scalar can be associated with a light remnant of the Higgs mechanism in the "dark" sector. We suggest $\phi\to l^+l^-$ bump hunting in $\mu\to e\nu\bar\nu\phi$, $\mu^-p\to\nu_\mu n\phi$ (muon capture), and $K^\pm\to \mu^\pm\nu\phi$ decays as direct probes of this scenario. In a general setup, a potentially observable muon electric dipole moment $\lesssim 10^{-23}\ e \cdot\textrm{cm}$ and lepton flavor violating decays $\tau\to\mu (e) \phi$ or $\mu \to e \phi$ can also arise. Depending on parameters, a deviation in BR($H\to\mu^+\mu^-$) from SM expectations, due to Higgs coupling misalignment, can result. We illustrate how the requisite interactions can be mediated by weak scale vector-like leptons that typically lie within the reach of future LHC measurements.
- Multiple analyses from ATLAS and CMS collaborations, including searches for ttH production, supersymmetric particles and vector-like quarks, observed excesses in the same-sign dilepton channel containing b-jets and missing transverse energy in the LHC Run 1 data. In the context of little Higgs theories with T parity, we explain these excesses using vector-like T-odd quarks decaying into a top quark, a W boson and the lightest T-odd particle (LTP). For heavy vector-like quarks, decay topologies containing the LTP have not been searched for at the LHC. The bounds on the masses of the T-odd quarks can be estimated in a simplified model approach by adapting the search limits for top/bottom squarks in supersymmetry. Assuming a realistic decay branching fraction, a benchmark with a 750 GeV T-odd b-prime quark is proposed. We also comment on the possibility to fit excesses in different analyses in a common framework.
- Oct 15 2015 hep-ph arXiv:1510.04013v3The quartic self-coupling of the Standard Model Higgs boson can only be measured by observing the triple-Higgs production process, but it is challenging for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 or International Linear Collider (ILC) at a few TeV because of its extremely small production rate. In this paper, we present a detailed Monte Carlo simulation study of the triple-Higgs production through gluon fusion at a 100 TeV hadron collider and explore the feasibility of observing this production mode. We focus on the decay channel $HHH\rightarrow b\bar{b}b\bar{b}\gamma\gamma$, investigating detector effects and optimizing the kinematic cuts to discriminate the signal from the backgrounds. Our study shows that, in order to observe the Standard Model triple-Higgs signal, the integrated luminosity of a 100 TeV hadron collider should be greater than $1.8\times 10^4$ ab$^{-1}$. We also explore the dependence of the cross section upon the trilinear ($\lambda_3$) and quartic ($\lambda_4$) self-couplings of the Higgs. We find that, through a search in the triple-Higgs production, the parameters $\lambda_3$ and $\lambda_4$ can be restricted to the ranges $[-1, 5]$ and $[-20, 30]$, respectively. We also examine how new physics can change the production rate of triple-Higgs events. For example, in the singlet extension of the Standard Model, we find that the triple-Higgs production rate can be increased by a factor of $\mathcal{O}(10)$.
- A confining, symmetry-preserving, Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction is used to formulate Faddeev equations for the nucleon and Delta-baryon in which the kernel involves dynamical dressed-quark exchange and whose solutions therefore provide momentum-dependent Faddeev amplitudes. These solutions are compared with those obtained in the static approximation and with a QCD-kindred formulation of the Faddeev kernel. They are also used to compute a range of nucleon properties, amongst them: the proton's sigma-term; the large Bjorken-x values of separate ratios of unpolarised and longitudinally-polarised valence u- and d-quark parton distribution functions; and the proton's tensor charges, which enable one to directly determine the effect of dressed-quark electric dipole moments (EDMs) on neutron and proton EDMs.
- Diboson resonance with mass of $1.8-2$ TeV is reported successively by CMS and ATLAS experiments in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. We investigate the potentiality of Higgs singlet as the TeV resonance. The challenges of low production cross section and high width for a fundamental scalar could be got over by three factors: (1) larger Yukawa couplings, (2) larger number of heavy quarks and (3) smaller mixing angle with standard model Higgs. We find that the required factors could be realized in the framework of two vector-like triplet quarks (VLTQs) and the resulting production cross section and decay fraction of heavy Higgs $\sigma(pp\to H )\times {\rm BR}(H\to W^+ W^- + ZZ)$ can be of ${\cal O}(10)$ fb when masses of new heavy quarks are 1 TeV, the values of Yukawa couplings are around $3$ and the mixing angle is $\sin\theta \sim 0.11$. Furthermore, we study the product of VLTQ-pair production cross section and the BRs of VLTQ decays, and find that the cross sections in the decay channels, such as $u_{4,5} \to b W^+$, $d_5 \to t W^-$ and $d_4 \to b h(Z)$ could be $7-17$ fb at 13 TeV LHC.
- Aug 27 2015 hep-ph arXiv:1508.06490v4We study the constraints of the generic two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) type-III and the impacts of the new Yukawa couplings. For comparisons, we revisit the analysis in the 2HDM type-II. To understand the influence of all involving free parameters and to realize their correlations, we employ $\chi$-square fitting approach by including theoretical and experimental constraints, such as S, T, and U oblique parameters, the production of standard model Higgs and its decay to $\gamma\gamma$, $WW^*/ZZ^*$, $\tau^+\tau^-$, etc. The errors of analysis are taken at $68\%$, $95.5\%$, and $99.7\%$ confidence levels. Due to the new Yukawa couplings being associated with $\cos(\beta-\alpha)$ and $\sin(\beta -\alpha)$, we find that the allowed regions for $\sin\alpha$ and $\tan\beta$ in the type-III model can be broader when the dictated parameter $\chi_F$ is positive; however, for negative $\chi_F$, the limits are stricter than those in the type-II model. By using the constrained parameters, we find that the deviation from the SM in the $h\to Z\gamma$ can be of ${\cal O}(10\%)$. Additionally, we also study the top-quark flavor-changing processes induced at the tree level in the type-III model and find that when all current experimental data are considered, we get $Br(t\to c(h, H) )< 10^{-3}$ for $m_h=125.36$ and $m_H=150$ GeV and $Br(t\to cA)$ slightly exceeds $10^{-3}$ for $m_A =130$ GeV.
- Aug 24 2015 hep-ph arXiv:1508.05263v2We study the thermal transport occurring in the system of solar captured dark matter (DM) and explore its impact on the DM indirect search signal. We particularly focus on the scenario of self-interacting DM (SIDM). The flows of energies in and out of the system are caused by solar captures via DM-nucleon and DM-DM scatterings, the energy dissipation via DM annihilation, and the heat exchange between DM and solar nuclei. We examine the DM temperature evolution and demonstrate that the DM temperature can be higher than the core temperature of the Sun if the DM-nucleon cross section is sufficiently small such that the energy flow due to DM self-interaction becomes relatively important. We argue that the correct DM temperature should be used for accurately predicting the DM annihilation rate, which is relevant to the DM indirect detection.
- Jul 28 2015 hep-ph arXiv:1507.07020v1We explore CP violating aspects in the Higgs sector of models where new vectorlike quarks carry Yukawa couplings mainly to the third generation quarks of the Standard Model. We point out that in the simplest model, Higgs CP violating interactions only exist in the hWW channel. At low energy, we find that rare B decays can place similarly strong constraints as those from electric dipole moments on the source of CP violation. These observations offer a new handle to discriminate from other Higgs CP violating scenarios such as scalar sector extensions of the Standard Model, and imply an interesting future interplay among limits from different experiments.
- In this paper we introduce a new approach to identify a bottom quark-antiquark pair inside a single jet with high transverse momentum by using the jet substructure in the center-of-mass frame of the jet. We demonstrate that the method can be used to discriminate the boosted heavy particles decaying to a $b\bar{b}$ final state from QCD jets. Applications to searches for the standard model Higgs boson ($H$) decaying to $b\bar{b}$ when produced in association with a weak vector boson are also discussed.
- Diboson resonance with mass around 2 TeV in the dijet invariant mass spectrum is reported by ATLAS experiment in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV. We propose that the candidate of resonance is a heavy neutral Higgs $H^0$ or charged Higgs $H^\pm$ and use the extended two-Higgs-doublet (THD) to demonstrate the potentiality. We find that the large Yukawa coupling to the first generation of quarks can be realized in THD and the required value for producing the right resonance production cross section is of ${\cal O}(0.06-0.2)$. Besides $WW/ZZ$ channels, we find that if the mass of pseudoscalar $A^0$ satisfies the jet mass tagging condition $|m_j - m_{Z/W}|< 13$ GeV, the diboson excess could be also caused by $ZA^0$ or $WA^0$ channel.
- A Higgs portal dark matter model for explaining the gamma-ray excess from the galactic center can be realized with the extension of local $SU(2)_X$ gauge symmetry with one quadruplet. Due to the residual $Z_3$ discrete symmetry of $SU(2)_X$, the new gauge bosons are the stable dark matter candidates. Due to the mixture of the standard model Higgs doublet and the introduced quadruplet, dark matter could annihilate into the standard model particles through the Higgs portal and new scalar portal. We study the discovery significance of the vector dark matter at the Large Hadron Collider. The involved parameters are consistent with the constraints from relic density and direct detection and with the data of the galactic center gamma-ray excess. With $\sqrt{s}=14$ TeV and luminosities of $100$ and $300$ fb$^{-1}$, we find that a discovery significance of $S/\sqrt{B}=5$ can be easily reached if the production of dark matter is through the invisible decays of the Higgs boson and a new scalar boson.
- In this paper, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term $g_{\mu\nu}R$ being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$. This very interesting type of amendment has not been considered within the Palatini formalism despite the large amount of works on the Born-Infeld-inspired theory of gravity. This model can provide smooth bouncing solutions which were not allowed in the EiBI model for the same EiBI coupling. Most interestingly, for a radiation filled universe there are some regions of the parameter space that can naturally lead to a de Sitter inflationary stage without the need of any exotic matter field. Finally, in this model we discover a new type of cosmic "quasi-sudden" singularity, where the cosmic time derivative of the Hubble rate becomes very large but finite at a finite cosmic time.
- May 15 2015 hep-ph arXiv:1505.03781v3The halo dark matter (DM) can be gravitationally captured by the Sun. For self-interacting DM (SIDM), we show that the number of DM trapped inside the Sun remains unsuppressed even if the DM-nucleon cross section is negligible. We consider a SIDM model where $U(1)$ gauge symmetry is introduced to account for the DM self-interaction. Such a model naturally leads to isospin violation for DM-nucleon interaction, although isospin symmetry is still allowed as a special case. We show that the detection of neutrino signature from DM annihilation in the Sun can probe those SIDM parameter ranges not reachable by direct detections. Those parameter ranges are either the region with a very small $m_{\chi}$ or the region opened up due to isospin violations.
- We propose a dark matter explanation to simultaneously account for the excess of antiproton-to-proton and positron power spectra observed in the AMS-02 experiment while having the right dark matter relic abundance and satisfying the current direct search bounds. We extend the Higgs triplet model with a hidden gauge symmetry of $SU(2)_X$ that is broken to $Z_3$ by a quadruplet scalar field, rendering the associated gauge bosons stable weakly-interacting massive particle dark matter candidates. By coupling the complex Higgs triplet and the $SU(2)_X$ quadruplet, the dark matter candidates can annihilate into triplet Higgs bosons each of which in turn decays into lepton or gauge boson final states. Such a mechanism gives rise to correct excess of positrons and antiprotons with an appropriate choice of the triplet vacuum expectation value. Besides, the model provides a link between neutrino mass and dark matter phenomenology.
- We compute all kaon and pion parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) to twist-three and find that only the pseudotensor PDA can reasonably be approximated by its conformal limit expression. At terrestrially accessible energy scales, the twist-two and pseudoscalar twist-three PDAs differ significantly from those functions commonly associated with their forms in QCD's conformal limit. In all amplitudes studied, SU(3) flavour-symmetry breaking is typically a 13% effect. This scale is determined by nonperturbative dynamics; namely, the current-quark-mass dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. The heavier-quark is favoured by this distortion, for example, support is shifted to the s-quark in the negative kaon. It appears, therefore, that at energy scales accessible with existing and foreseeable facilities, one may obtain reliable expectations for experimental outcomes by using these "strongly dressed" PDAs in formulae for hard exclusive processes. Following this procedure, any discrepancies between experiment and theory will be significantly smaller than those produced by using the conformal-limit PDAs. Moreover, the magnitude of any disagreement will either be a better estimate of higher-order, higher-twist effects or provide more realistic constraints on the Standard Model.
- Mar 05 2015 hep-ph arXiv:1503.01114v2We analyze the constraints on a CP-violating, flavor conserving, two Higgs doublet model from the measurements of Higgs properties and from the search for heavy Higgs bosons at LHC, and show that the stronger limits typically come from the heavy Higgs search channels. The limits on CP violation arising from the Higgs sector measurements are complementary to those from EDM measurements. Combining all current constraints from low energy to colliders, we set generic upper bounds on the CP violating angle which parametrizes the CP odd component in the 126 GeV Higgs boson.
- We report the measurement of beam-target double-spin asymmetries ($A_\text{LT}$) in the inclusive production of identified hadrons, $\vec{e}~$+$~^3\text{He}^{\uparrow}\rightarrow h+X$, using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a transversely polarized $^3\rm{He}$ target. Hadrons ($\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$ and proton) were detected at 16$^{\circ}$ with an average momentum $<$$P_h$$>$=2.35 GeV/c and a transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) coverage from 0.60 to 0.68 GeV/c. Asymmetries from the $^3\text{He}$ target were observed to be non-zero for $\pi^{\pm}$ production when the target was polarized transversely in the horizontal plane. The $\pi^{+}$ and $\pi^{-}$ asymmetries have opposite signs, analogous to the behavior of $A_\text{LT}$ in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
- Jan 30 2015 hep-ph astro-ph.HE arXiv:1501.07413v3An unbroken $Z_3$ symmetry remains when local $SU(2)_X$ is broken spontaneously by one quadruplet. The gauge boson $\chi_\mu (\bar \chi_\mu )$ carries the dark charge and is the candidate of dark matter (DM). By the mixture of scalar boson $\phi_r$ of quadruplet and standard model (SM) Higgs, the DM can annihilate to SM particles through Higgs portal. For investigating the implications of vector DM, we study the relic density of DM, the direct detection of DM-nucleon scattering and the excess of gamma-ray spectrum, which is supported by the data from \it Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. We find that with the DM mass of around $70$ GeV in our model, the excess of gamma-ray could be fitted well with the data.
- Dec 23 2014 hep-ph arXiv:1412.6739v1We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 ~ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube- PINGU using the annihilation channels $\chi\chi\rightarrow\nu\bar{\nu},\:\tau^{-}\tau^{+}$ as examples. The PINGU sensitivities to DM self-interaction cross section $\sigma_{\chi\chi}$ are estimated for track and cascade events.
- Dec 22 2014 hep-ph arXiv:1412.6215v2In warped 5D models of hierarchy and flavor, the first Kaluza-Klein (KK) state of the graviton $G_1$ is heavy enough to decay into a photon and its first KK mode $\gamma_1$ on-shell: $G_1 \to \gamma_1 \gamma$. The volume-suppression of the rate for this process [relative to 2-body decay into heavy Standard Model (SM) final states ($W/Z/t/H$)] may be partially compensated by the simplicity of the photon final state. We consider $\gamma_1 \to W^+W^-$, with a typical O(1) branching fraction, and focus on the semi-leptonic final state $W(\to jj) W(\to \ell, \nu)$ with $\ell=e,\mu$. The SM background originates from $2\to 3$ parton processes and is relatively suppressed compared to those for 2-body decays of $G_1$. Moreover, to further reduce the background, we can impose an invariant mass window cut for $\gamma_1$ (in addition to that for $G_1$) in this new channel. We emphasize that this "photon cascade" decay probes a different combination of (bulk and brane) interactions of the KK states than the decays into two heavy SM states. Thus, in combination with other channels, the cascade decay could be used to extract the individual underlying geometric parameters. The $3\sigma$ reach for $G_1$ in our channel is up to 1.5 TeV at the high luminosity (14 TeV) LHC, and can be extended to about 4 TeV, at $5\sigma$, at a future 100 TeV hadron collider. Along the way, we point out the novel feature that the invariant mass distribution of KK graviton decay products becomes skewed from the Breit-Wigner form, due to the KK graviton coupling growing with energy.
- A study of searching for doubly charged Higgs $(\delta^{\pm \pm})$ is performed in two-Higgs-doublet extension of the conventional type-II seesaw model. We find that a fantastic mixing effect between singly charged Higgs of Higgs doublet and of triplet is arisen from the scalar potential. The mixing leads to following intriguing phenomena: (a) the mass splittings in triplet particles are magnified, (b) QCD processes dominate the production of $\delta^{\pm \pm}$, and (c) new predominant decay channels of $\delta^{\pm \pm}$ are $\delta^{\pm \pm} \to W^{\pm^{[*]}} H^{\pm^{(*)}}_{1(2)}$, but not $\delta^{\pm} \to (\ell^\pm \ell^\pm, W^\pm W^\pm)$ which are usually discussed in the literature. With luminosity of 40 fb$^{-1}$ and collision energy of 13 TeV, we demonstrate that $\delta^{\pm \pm}$ with mass below $330$ GeV could be observed at the $5\sigma$ level. Moreover, when the luminosity approaches to 300 fb$^{-1}$, the observed mass of $\delta^{\pm \pm}$ could reach up to 450 GeV.
- Nov 21 2014 hep-ph astro-ph.HE arXiv:1411.5658v4Understanding the spectral and flavor composition of the astrophysical neutrino flux responsible for the recently observed ultra-high energy events at IceCube is of great importance for both astrophysics and particle physics. We perform a statistical likelihood analysis to the 3-year IceCube data and derive the allowed range of the spectral index and flux normalization for various well-motivated physical flavor compositions at source. While most of the existing analyses so far assume the flavor composition of the neutrinos at an astrophysical source to be (1:2:0), it seems rather unnatural to assume only one type of source, once we recognize the possibility of at least two physical sources. Bearing this in mind, we entertain the possibility of a two-component source for the analysis of IceCube data. It appears that our two component hypothesis explains some key features of the data better than a single-component scenario, i.e it addresses the apparent energy gap between 400 TeV to about 1 PeV and easily accommodates the observed track to shower ratio. Given the extreme importance of the flavor composition for the correct interpretation of the underlying astrophysical processes as well as for the ramification for particle physics, this two-component flux should be tested as more data is accumulated.
- Oct 30 2014 hep-ph arXiv:1410.8113v2Many new-physics models, especially those with a color-triplet top-quark partner, contain a heavy color-octet state. The "naturalness" argument for a light Higgs boson requires that the color-octet state be not much heavier than a TeV, and thus it can be pair-produced with large cross sections at high-energy hadron colliders. It may decay preferentially to a top quark plus a top-partner, which subsequently decays to a top quark plus a color-singlet state. This singlet can serve as a WIMP dark-matter candidate. Such decay chains lead to a spectacular signal of four top quarks plus missing energy. We pursue a general categorization of the color-octet states and their decay products according to their spin and gauge quantum numbers. We review the current bounds on the new states at the LHC and study the expected discovery reach at the 8-TeV and 14-TeV runs. We also present the production rates at a future 100-TeV hadron collider, where the cross sections will be many orders of magnitude greater than at the 14-TeV LHC. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which one can determine the color octet's mass, spin, and chiral couplings. Finally, we propose a test to determine whether the fermionic color octet is a Majorana particle.
- Oct 22 2014 hep-ph arXiv:1410.5488v2We study the enhancement of the di-Higgs production cross section resulting from the resonant decay of a heavy Higgs boson at hadron colliders in a model with a Higgs singlet. This enhancement of the double Higgs production rate is crucial in understanding the structure of the scalar potential and we determine the maximum allowed enhancement such that the electroweak minimum is a global minimum. The di-Higgs production enhancement can be as large as a factor of ~ 18 (13) for the mass of the heavy Higgs around 270 (420) GeV relative to the Standard Model rate at 14 TeV for parameters corresponding to a global electroweak minimum.
- Oct 06 2014 hep-ph arXiv:1410.0918v1Even though the sensitivity of direct dark matter search experiments reach the level about $10^{-45}~{\rm cm}^2$, there is no confident signal of dark matter been observed. We point out that, if dark matter is a vector boson, the null result in direct dark matter search experiments may due to the destructive effects in dark-matter-nucleon elastic scattering. We illustrate the scenario using a modified Higgs portal model that includes exotic quarks. The significant cancellation can occur for certain mass gap between heavy quark and dark matter. As a result, the spin-independent dark-matter-nucleon elastic scattering is so suppressed that the future direct search experiments can hardly observe the signal of dark matter.
- Sep 26 2014 hep-ph arXiv:1409.7317v1With the measurement of positron flux published recently by AMS-02 collaboration, we show how the leptophilic dark matter fits the observation. We obtain the percentages of different products of dark matter annihilation that can best describe the flux of high energy positrons observed by AMS. We show that dark matter annihilates predominantly into $\tau\tau$ pair, while both $ee$ and $\mu\mu$ final states should be less than $20\%$. When gauge boson final states are included, the best branching ratio of needed $\tau\tau$ mode reduces.
- Aug 26 2014 hep-ph astro-ph.HE arXiv:1408.5471v3We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 $\sim$ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube-PINGU using the annihilation channels $\chi\chi \rightarrow \tau^{+}\tau^{-}, \nu\bar{\nu}$ as examples. The PINGU sensitivities to DM self-interaction cross section $\sigma_{\chi\chi}$ are estimated for track and cascade events.
- The Born-Infeld determinantal gravity has been recently proposed as a way to smooth the Big Bang singularity. This theory is formulated on the Weitzenbock space-time and the teleparallel representation is used instead of the standard Riemannian representation. We find that although this theory is shown to be singularity-free for certain region of the parameter space in which the divergence of the Hubble rate at the high energy regime is substituted by a de-Sitter stage or a bounce in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe, cosmological singularities such as Big Rip, Big Bang, Big Freeze, and Sudden singularities can emerge in other regions of the configuration space of the theory. We also show that all these singular events exist even though the Universe is filled with a perfect fluid with a constant equation of state.
- Motivated by the new observed scalar boson of 126 GeV at ATLAS and CMS, various phenomena in two-Higgs-doublet model (THDM) are investigated broadly in the literature. For considering the model that possesses a solution to the massive neutrinos, we study the simplest extension of conventional type-II seesaw model to two Higgs doublets. We find that the new interactions in the scalar potential cause the sizable mixture of charged Higgses in triplet and doublet. As a result, we have a completely different decay pattern for doubly charged Higgs ($\delta^{\pm\pm}$), even the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of Higgs triplet is at GeV level, which is limited by the precision measurement for $\rho$-parameter. For illustrating the new characters of the model, we study the influence of new interactions on the new open channels $\delta^{++}\to ( H^+_1 W^{+^{(*)}}, H^+_1 H^+_1)$ with $H^+_1$ being the lightest charged Higgs. Additionally, due to the new mixing effect, the triplet charged Higgs could couple to quarks in the model; therefore, the search for $\delta^{++}$ via $\delta^{++}\to tb W^+ \to b \bar b W^+ W^+$ by mediated $H^+_{1}$ becomes significant.