results for au:Cao_Y in:quant-ph

- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Dec 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.03204v1Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between the Earth and Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is that we can perform Bell test with human supply the random measurement settings and record the results while still maintaining space-like intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of the Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for the ultimate test of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
- Even the most sophisticated artificial neural networks are built by aggregating substantially identical units called neurons. A neuron receives multiple signals, internally combines them, and applies a non-linear function to the resulting weighted sum. Several attempts to generalize neurons to the quantum regime have been proposed, but all proposals collided with the difficulty of implementing non-linear activation functions, which is essential for classical neurons, due to the linear nature of quantum mechanics. Here we propose a solution to this roadblock in the form of a small quantum circuit that naturally simulates neurons with threshold activation. Our quantum circuit defines a building block, the "quantum neuron", that can reproduce a variety of classical neural network constructions while maintaining the ability to process superpositions of inputs and preserve quantum coherence and entanglement. In the construction of feedforward networks of quantum neurons, we provide numerical evidence that the network not only can learn a function when trained with superposition of inputs and the corresponding output, but that this training suffices to learn the function on all individual inputs separately. When arranged to mimic Hopfield networks, quantum neural networks exhibit properties of associative memory. Patterns are encoded using the simple Hebbian rule for the weights and we demonstrate attractor dynamics from corrupted inputs. Finally, the fact that our quantum model closely captures (traditional) neural network dynamics implies that the vast body of literature and results on neural networks becomes directly relevant in the context of quantum machine learning.
- Nov 08 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.02249v1Current approaches to fault-tolerant quantum computation will not enable useful quantum computation on near-term devices of 50 to 100 qubits. Leading proposals, such as the color code and surface code schemes, must devote a large fraction of their physical quantum bits to quantum error correction. Building from recent quantum machine learning techniques, we propose an alternative approach to quantum error correction aimed at reducing this overhead, which can be implemented in existing quantum hardware and on a myriad of quantum computing architectures. This method aims to optimize the average fidelity of encoding and recovery circuits with respect to the actual noise in the device, as opposed to that of an artificial or approximate noise model. The quantum variational error corrector (QVECTOR) algorithm employs a quantum circuit with parameters that are variationally-optimized according to processed data originating from quantum sampling of the device, so as to learn encoding and error-recovery gate sequences. We develop this approach for the task of preserving quantum memory and analyze its performance with simulations. We find that, subject to phase damping noise, the simulated QVECTOR algorithm learns a three-qubit encoding and recovery which extend the effective T2 of a quantum memory six-fold. Subject to a continuous-time amplitude- plus phase-damping noise model on five qubits, the simulated QVECTOR algorithm learns encoding and decoding circuits which exploit the coherence among Pauli errors in the noise model to outperform the five-qubit stabilizer code and any other scheme that does not leverage such coherence. Both of these schemes can be implemented with existing hardware.
- Quantum simulation of chemistry and materials is predicted to be an important application for both near-term and fault-tolerant quantum devices. However, at present, developing and studying algorithms for these problems can be difficult due to the prohibitive amount of domain knowledge required in both the area of chemistry and quantum algorithms. To help bridge this gap and open the field to more researchers, we have developed the OpenFermion software package (www.openfermion.org). OpenFermion is an open-source software library written largely in Python under an Apache 2.0 license, aimed at enabling the simulation of fermionic models and quantum chemistry problems on quantum hardware. Beginning with an interface to common electronic structure packages, it simplifies the translation between a molecular specification and a quantum circuit for solving or studying the electronic structure problem on a quantum computer, minimizing the amount of domain expertise required to enter the field. The package is designed to be extensible and robust, maintaining high software standards in documentation and testing. This release paper outlines the key motivations behind design choices in OpenFermion and discusses some basic OpenFermion functionality which we believe will aid the community in the development of better quantum algorithms and tools for this exciting area of research.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06779v1Quantum mechanics provides means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a self-testing manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of self-testing quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the assumption of independent identical distribution, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb $\times$ 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than $10^{-5}$. Such self-testing random number generators mark a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.
- Classical simulation of quantum computation is necessary for studying the numerical behavior of quantum algorithms, as there does not yet exist a large viable quantum computer on which to perform numerical tests. Tensor network (TN) contraction is an algorithmic method that may be used for such simulations, often greatly reducing the computational cost over methods that simulate the full Hilbert space. In this study we implement a parallel tensor network contraction program for simulating quantum circuits, including the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) applied to Max-Cut. We show simulation results for 3- through 7-regular Max-Cut/QAOA circuits, even successfully simulating up to 100 qubits. We test two different methods for generating the ordering of tensor index contractions: one is based on the tree decomposition of the line graph, while the other generates ordering using a straight-forward stochastic scheme. Through studying instances of QAOA circuits, we show the expected result that as the treewidth of the quantum circuit's line graph decreases, TN contraction becomes significantly more efficient than simulating the whole Hilbert space. This tradeoff occurs when the Max-Cut problem's graph regularity is five or six, suggesting that tensor contraction methods are superior for simulating Max-Cut/QAOA with graphs of regularities approximately five and below. The stochastic contraction method outperforms the line graph based method only when the time to calculate a reasonable tree decomposition is prohibitively expensive. Finally, we release our software package, qTorch (Quantum TensOR Contraction Handler), intended for general quantum circuit simulation. For a nontrivial subset of these quantum circuits, 50 to 100 qubits can easily be simulated on a single compute node, an ability that is beyond of reach of other modern software packages.
- Sep 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.02705v1Perturbative gadgets are general techniques for reducing many-body spin interactions to two-body ones using perturbation theory. This allows for potential realization of effective many-body interactions using more physically viable two-body ones. In parallel with prior work (arXiv:1311.2555 [quant-ph]), here we consider minimizing the physical resource required for implementing the gadgets initially proposed by Kempe, Kitaev and Regev (arXiv:quant-ph/0406180) and later generalized by Jordan and Farhi (arXiv:0802.1874v4). The main innovation of our result is a set of methods that efficiently compute tight upper bounds to errors in the perturbation theory. We show that in cases where the terms in the target Hamiltonian commute, the bounds produced by our algorithm are sharp for arbitrary order perturbation theory. We provide numerics which show orders of magnitudes improvement over gadget constructions based on trivial upper bounds for the error term in the perturbation series. We also discuss further improvement of our result by adopting the Schrieffer-Wolff formalism of perturbation theory and supplement our observation with numerical results.
- Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential both for foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 km. Here, we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 km on the Earth, through satellite-to-ground two-downlink with a sum of length varies from 1600 km to 2400 km. We observe a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37+/-0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency at 1200 km in this work is over 12 orders of magnitude higher than the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through the best commercial telecommunication fibers with a loss of 0.16 dB/km.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- Jun 20 2017 quant-ph physics.chem-ph arXiv:1706.05413v2The NSF Workshop in Quantum Information and Computation for Chemistry assembled experts from directly quantum-oriented fields such as algorithms, chemistry, machine learning, optics, simulation, and metrology, as well as experts in related fields such as condensed matter physics, biochemistry, physical chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, and spectroscopy. The goal of the workshop was to summarize recent progress in research at the interface of quantum information science and chemistry as well as to discuss the promising research challenges and opportunities in the field. Furthermore, the workshop hoped to identify target areas where cross fertilization among these fields would result in the largest payoff for developments in theory, algorithms, and experimental techniques. The ideas can be broadly categorized in two distinct areas of research that obviously have interactions and are not separated cleanly. The first area is quantum information for chemistry, or how quantum information tools, both experimental and theoretical can aid in our understanding of a wide range of problems pertaining to chemistry. The second area is chemistry for quantum information, which aims to discuss the several aspects where research in the chemical sciences can aid progress in quantum information science and technology. The results of the workshop are summarized in this report.
- For multi-level open quantum system, the interaction between different levels could pose challenge to understand the quantum system both analytically and numerically. In this work, we study the approximation of the dynamics of the Anderson-Holstein model, as a model of multi-level open quantum system, by Redfield and Lindblad equations. Both equations have a desirable property that if the density operators for different levels is diagonal initially, they remain to be diagonal for any time. Thanks to this nice property, the semi-classical limit of both Redfield and Lindblad equations could be derived explicitly; the resulting classical master equations share similar structures of transport and hopping terms. The Redfield and Lindblad equations are also compared from the angle of time dependent perturbation theory.
- Nov 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.07126v2Random numbers are indispensable for a variety of applications ranging from testing physics foundation to information encryption. In particular, nonlocality tests provide a strong evidence to our current understanding of nature -- quantum mechanics. All the random number generators (RNG) used for the existing tests are constructed locally, making the test results vulnerable to the freedom-of-choice loophole. We report an experimental realization of RNGs based on the arrival time of cosmic photons. The measurement outcomes (raw data) pass the standard NIST statistical test suite. We present a realistic design to employ these RNGs in a Bell test experiment, which addresses the freedom-of-choice loophole.
- Aug 31 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.08547v1Here we consider using quantum annealing to solve Set Cover with Pairs (SCP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that play an important role in networking, computational biology, and biochemistry. We show an explicit construction of Ising Hamiltonians whose ground states encode the solution of SCP instances. We numerically simulate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in order to test the performance of quantum annealing for random instances and compare with that of simulated annealing. We also discuss explicit embedding strategies for realizing our Hamiltonian construction on the D-wave type restricted Ising Hamiltonian based on Chimera graphs. Our embedding on the Chimera graph preserves the structure of the original SCP instance and in particular, the embedding for general complete bipartite graphs and logical disjunctions may be of broader use than that the specific problem we deal with.
- Jul 19 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.04959v1We investigate several aspects of realizing quantum computation using entangled polar molecules in pendular states. Quantum algorithms typically start from a product state |00...0> and we show that up to a negligible error, the ground states of polar molecule arrays can be considered as the unentangled qubit basis state |00...0>. This state can be prepared by simply allowing the system to reach thermal equilibrium at low temperature (<1 mK). We also evaluate entanglement, characterized by the concurrence of pendular state qubits in dipole arrays as governed by the external electric field, dipole-dipole coupling and number N of molecules in the array. In the parameter regime that we consider for quantum computing, we find that qubit entanglement is modest, typically no greater than 0.0001, confirming the negligible entanglement in the ground state. We discuss methods for realizing quantum computation in the gate model, measurement based model, instantaneous quantum polynomial time circuits and the adiabatic model using polar molecules in pendular states.
- We propose a scheme for coupling 2D materials to an engineered cavity based on a defective rod type photonic crystal lattice. We show results from numerical modelling of the suggested cavity design, and propose using the height profile of a 2D material transferred on top of the cavity to maximise coupling between exciton recombination and the cavity mode. The photonic structure plays a key role in enhancing the launch efficiency, by improving the directionality of the emitted light to better couple it into an external optical system. When using the photonic structure, we measured an increase in the extraction ratio by a factor of 3.4. We investigated the variations in the flux spectrum when the radius of the rods is modified, and when the 2D material droops to a range of different heights within the cavity. We found an optimum enhancement when the rods have a radius equal to 0.165 times the lattice constant, this enhancement reduces when the radius is reduced or increased. Finally, we discuss the possible use of solid immersion lenses, in combination with our photonic structure, to further enhance the launch efficiency and to improve vertical confinement of the cavity mode.
- The recent discovery of semiconducting two-dimensional materials has led to the prediction of a revolution in the field of optoelectronics, driven by the introduction of a series of new components that are just a few atoms thick. Key remaining challenges for producing practical devices from these materials lie in improving the coupling of light into and out of single atomic layers, and in making these layers robust to the influence of their surrounding environment. We present a solution to tackle both of these problems simultaneously, by deterministically placing a micro-lens directly onto the surface of these materials. These lenses are dynamically tuned to increase the coupling of light, whilst controlling chromatic aberration, before being set in place with UV light. We show that this approach enhances photoluminescence of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayers by up to 300%, and nearly doubles the imaging resolution of the system. Furthermore, this solution fully encapsulates the monolayer, preventing it from physical damage and degradation in air. The optical solution we have developed could become a key enabling technology for the mass production of ultra-thin optical devices, such as quantum light emitting diodes.
- Jul 06 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.01374v1From celestial mechanics to quantum theory of atoms and molecules, perturbation theory has played a central role in natural sciences. Particularly in quantum mechanics, the amount of information needed for specifying the state of a many-body system commonly scales exponentially as the system size. This poses a fundamental difficulty in using perturbation theory at arbitrary order. As one computes the terms in the perturbation series at increasingly higher orders, it is often important to determine whether the series converges and if so, what is an accurate estimation of the total error that comes from the next order of perturbation up to infinity. Here we present a set of efficient algorithms that compute tight upper bounds to perturbation terms at arbitrary order. We argue that these tight bounds often take the form of symmetric polynomials on the parameter of the quantum system. We then use cellular automata as our basic model of computation to compute the symmetric polynomials that account for all of the virtual transitions at any given order. At any fixed order, the computational cost of our algorithm scales polynomially as a function of the system size. We present a non-trivial example which shows that our error estimation is nearly tight with respect to exact calculation.
- Sep 08 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.01814v2In the general bipartite quantum system $m \otimes n$, Wang \emphet al. [Y.-L Wang \emphet al., Phys. Rev. A \textbf92, 032313 (2015)] presented $3(m+n)-9$ orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). In this paper, we aim to construct less locally indistinguishable orthogonal product states in $m\otimes n $. First, in $3\otimes n (3< n)$ quantum system, we construct $3n-2$ locally indistinguishable orthogonal product states which are not unextendible product bases. Then, for $m\otimes n (4\leq m\leq n)$, we present $3n+m-4$ orthogonal product states which cannot be perfectly distinguished by LOCC. Finally, in the general bipartite quantum system $m\otimes n(3\leq m\leq n)$, we show a smaller set with $2n-1$ orthogonal product states and prove that these states are LOCC indistinguishable using a very simple but quite effective method. All of the above results demonstrate the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement.
- Aug 03 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1507.08889v1Polarized cross-correlation spectroscopy on a quantum dot charged with a single hole shows the sequential emission of photons with common circular polarization. This effect is visible without magnetic field, but becomes more pronounced as the field along the quantization axis is increased. We interpret the data in terms of electron dephasing in the X+ state caused by the Overhauser field of nuclei in the dot. We predict the correlation timescale can be increased by accelerating the emission rate with cavity-QED.
- We demonstrate generation of a pulsed stream of electrically triggered single photons in resonance fluorescence, by applying high frequency electrical pulses to a single quantum dot in a p-i-n diode under resonant laser excitation. Single photon emission was verifed, with the probability of multiple photon emission reduced to 2.8%. We show that despite the presence of charge noise in the emission spectrum of the dot, resonant excitation acts as a filter to generate narrow bandwidth photons.
- Jun 01 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.08142v1In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information through monitoring signal disturbance, which, in practice, is generally caused by environmental noise and device imperfections rather than eavesdropping. Such estimation therefore tends to overrate the amount of leaked information in practice, leads to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The threshold becomes a bottleneck of the development of practical QKD systems. In classical communication, according to Shannon's communication theory, information can transform through a noisy channel even if the background noise is very strong compare to the signal and hence the threshold of the bit error rate tends to 50%. One might wonder whether a QKD scheme can also tolerate error rate as high as 50%. The question is answered affirmatively with the recent work of round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol, which breaks through the fundamental threshold of the bit error rate and indicates another potential direction in the field of quantum cryptography. The key challenge to realize the RRDPS scheme lies on the measurement device, which requires a variable-delay interferometer. The delay needs to be chosen from a set of predetermined values randomly. Such measurement can be realized by switching between many interferometers with different delays at a high speed in accordance with the system repetition rate. The more delay values can be chosen from, the higher error rate can be tolerated. By designing an optical system with multiple switches and employing an active phase stabilization technology, we successfully construct a variable-delay interferometer with 128 actively selectable delays. With this measurement, we experimentally demonstrate the RRDPS QKD protocol and obtain a final key rate of 15.54 bps via a total loss of 18 dB and 8.9% error rate.
- Mar 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.04924v1We propose and analyze a multiphoton-state coherent transport protocol in a coupled-resonator quantum network. A multiphoton swap gate between two antipodes can be achieved with neither external modulation nor coupling strength engineering. Moreover, we extend this result to a coupled-resonator chain of arbitrary length with different coupling strengths. Effects of decoherence via quantum nondemolition interaction are studied with sources including vacuum quantum fluctuation and bath thermal excitations when the bath is in the thermal equilibrium state. These observations are helpful to understand the decoherence effects on quantum communication in quantum coupled-resonator systems.
- Oct 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1410.5180v1Error probability is a popular and well-studied optimization criterion in discriminating non-orthogonal quantum states. It captures the threat from an adversary who can only query the actual state once. However, when the adversary is able to use a brute-force strategy to query the state, discrimination measurement with minimum error probability does not necessarily minimize the number of queries to get the actual state. In light of this, we take Massey's guesswork as the underlying optimization criterion and study the problem of minimum guesswork discrimination. We show that this problem can be reduced to a semidefinite programming problem. Necessary and sufficient conditions when a measurement achieves minimum guesswork are presented. We also reveal the relation between minimum guesswork and minimum error probability. We show that the two criteria generally disagree with each other, except for the special case with two states. Both upper and lower information-theoretic bounds on minimum guesswork are given. For geometrically uniform quantum states, we provide sufficient conditions when a measurement achieves minimum guesswork. Moreover, we give the necessary and sufficient condition under which making no measurement at all would be the optimal strategy.
- Aug 26 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1408.5881v1Perturbative gadgets are used to construct a quantum Hamiltonian whose low-energy subspace approximates a given quantum $k$-body Hamiltonian up to an absolute error $\epsilon$. Typically, gadget constructions involve terms with large interaction strengths of order $\text{poly}(\epsilon^{-1})$. Here we present a 2-body gadget construction and prove that it approximates a target many-body Hamiltonian of interaction strength $\gamma = O(1)$ up to absolute error $\epsilon\ll\gamma$ using interactions of strength $O(\epsilon)$ instead of the usual inverse polynomial in $\epsilon$. A key component in our proof is a new condition for the convergence of the perturbation series, allowing our gadget construction to be applied in parallel on multiple many-body terms. We also show how to apply this gadget construction for approximating 3- and $k$-body Hamiltonians. The price we pay for using much weaker interactions is a large overhead in the number of ancillary qubits, and the number of interaction terms per particle, both of which scale as $O(\text{poly}(\epsilon^{-1}))$. Our strong-from-weak gadgets have their primary application in complexity theory (QMA hardness of restricted Hamiltonians, a generalized area law counterexample, gap amplification), but could also motivate practical implementations with many weak interactions simulating a much stronger quantum many-body interaction.
- Topological superfluids are recently discovered quantum matters that host topologically protected gapless edge states known as Majorana fermions - exotic quantum particles that act as their own anti-particles and obey non-Abelian statistics. Their realizations are believed to lie at the heart of future technologies such as fault-tolerant quantum computation. To date, the most efficient scheme to create topological superfluids and Majorana fermions is based on the Sau-Lutchyn-Tewari-Das Sarma model with a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling on the \textbf\textitx-y\textbf plane and a large out-of-plane (perpendicular) Zeeman field along the \textbf\textitz\textbf-direction. Here we propose an alternative setup, where the topological superfluid phase is driven by applying an in-plane Zeeman field. This scheme offers a number of new features, notably Cooper pairings at finite centre-of-mass momentum (i.e., Fulde-Ferrell pairing) and gapless excitations in the bulk. As a result, a novel gapless topological quantum matter with inhomogeneous pairing order parameter appears. It features unidirected Majorana surface states at boundaries, which propagate in the same direction and connect two Weyl nodes in the bulk. We demonstrate the emergence of such an exotic topological matter and the associated Majorana fermions in spin-orbit coupled atomic Fermi gases and determine its parameter space. The implementation of our scheme in semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures is briefly discussed.
- Mar 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.5082v2Intuition from our everyday lives gives rise to the belief that information exchanged between remote parties is carried by physical particles. Surprisingly, in a recent theoretical study [Salih H, Li ZH, Al-Amri M, Zubairy MS (2013) Phys Rev Lett 110:170502], quantum mechanics was found to allow for communication, even without the actual transmission of physical particles. From the viewpoint of communication, this mystery stems from a (nonintuitive) fundamental concept in quantum mechanics wave-particle duality. All particles can be described fully by wave functions. To determine whether light appears in a channel, one refers to the amplitude of its wave function. However, in counterfactual communication, information is carried by the phase part of the wave function. Using a single-photon source, we experimentally demonstrate the counterfactual communication and successfully transfer a monochrome bitmap from one location to another by using a nested version of the quantum Zeno effect.
- Implementing a scalable quantum information processor using polar molecules in optical lattices requires precise control over the long-range dipole-dipole interaction between molecules in selected lattice sites. We present here a scheme using trapped open-shell $^2\Sigma$ polar molecules that allows dipolar exchange processes between nearest and next-nearest neighbors to be controlled to construct a generalized transverse Ising spin Hamiltonian with tunable $XX$, $YY$ and $XY$ couplings in the rotating frame of the driving lasers. The scheme requires a moderately strong bias magnetic field with near-infrared light to provide local tuning of the qubit energy gap, and mid-infrared pulses to perform rotational state transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. No interaction between qubits is present in the absence of the infrared driving. We analyze the fidelity of the resulting two-qubit matchgate, and demonstrate its robustness as a function of the driving parameters. We discuss a realistic application of the system for universal matchgate quantum computing in optical lattices.
- Jan 15 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1401.3159v4We study transitions of a particle between two wells, separated by a reservoir, under the condition that the particle is not detected in the reservoir. Conventional quantum trajectory theory predicts that such no-result continuous measurement would not affect these transitions. We demonstrate that it holds only for Markovian reservoirs (infinite bandwidth $\Lambda$). In the case of finite $\Lambda$, the probability of the particle's interwell transition is a function of the ratio $\Lambda/\nu$, where $\nu$ is the frequency of measurements. This scaling tells us that in the limit $\nu\to\infty$, the measurement freezes the initial state (the quantum Zeno effect), whereas for $\Lambda\to\infty$ it does not affect the particle's transition across the reservoir. The scaling is proved analytically by deriving a simple formula, which displays two regimes, with the Zeno effect and without the Zeno effect. It also supports a simple explanation of the Zeno effect entirely in terms of the energy-time uncertainty relation, with no explicit use of the projection postulate. Experimental tests of our predictions are discussed.
- Nov 12 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1311.2555v4Application of the adiabatic model of quantum computation requires efficient encoding of the solution to computational problems into the lowest eigenstate of a Hamiltonian that supports universal adiabatic quantum computation. Experimental systems are typically limited to restricted forms of 2-body interactions. Therefore, universal adiabatic quantum computation requires a method for approximating quantum many-body Hamiltonians up to arbitrary spectral error using at most 2-body interactions. Hamiltonian gadgets, introduced around a decade ago, offer the only current means to address this requirement. Although the applications of Hamiltonian gadgets have steadily grown since their introduction, little progress has been made in overcoming the limitations of the gadgets themselves. In this experimentally motivated theoretical study, we introduce several gadgets which require significantly more realistic control parameters than similar gadgets in the literature. We employ analytical techniques which result in a reduction of the resource scaling as a function of spectral error for the commonly used subdivision, 3- to 2-body and $k$-body gadgets. Accordingly, our improvements reduce the resource requirements of all proofs and experimental proposals making use of these common gadgets. Next, we numerically optimize these new gadgets to illustrate the tightness of our analytical bounds. Finally, we introduce a new gadget that simulates a $YY$ interaction term using Hamiltonians containing only $\{X,Z,XX,ZZ\}$ terms. Apart from possible implications in a theoretical context, this work could also be useful for a first experimental implementation of these key building blocks by requiring less control precision without introducing extra ancillary qubits.
- Jun 20 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.4413v2Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task that guarantees a secure commitment between two mutually mistrustful parties and is a building block for many cryptographic primitives, including coin tossing, zero-knowledge proofs, oblivious transfer and secure two-party computation. Unconditionally secure bit commitment was thought to be impossible until recent theoretical protocols that combine quantum mechanics and relativity were shown to elude previous impossibility proofs. Here we implement such a bit commitment protocol. In the experiment, the committer performs quantum measurements using two quantum key distribution systems and the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. We show that, in each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68*10^-2 cheating probability. Our result demonstrates unconditionally secure bit commitment and the experimental feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.
- Jun 05 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.0672v1Free-space quantum communication with satellites opens a promising avenue for global secure quantum network and large-scale test of quantum foundations. Recently, numerous experimental efforts have been carried out towards this ambitious goal. However, one essential step - transmitting single photons from the satellite to the ground with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at realistic environments - remains experimental challenging. Here, we report a direct experimental demonstration of the satellite-ground transmission of a quasi-single-photon source. In the experiment, single photons (~0.85 photon per pulse) are generated by reflecting weak laser pulses back to earth with a cube-corner retro-reflector on the satellite Champ, collected by a 600-mm diameter telescope at the ground station, and finally detected by single-photon counting modules (SPCMs) after 400-km free-space link transmission. With the help of high accuracy time synchronization, narrow receiver field-of-view (FOV) and high-repetition-rate pulses (76 MHz), a SNR of better than 16:1 is obtained, which is sufficient for a secure quantum key distribution. Our experimental results represent an important step towards satellite-ground quantum communication.
- Apr 25 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.6462v2We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bob's basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication.
- Mar 05 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1303.0614v2In the well-known EPR paper, Einstein et al. called the nonlocal correlation in quantum entanglement as `spooky action at a distance'. If the spooky action does exist, what is its speed? All previous experiments along this direction have locality loopholes and thus can be explained without having to invoke any `spooky action' at all. Here, we strictly closed the locality loopholes by observing a 12-hour continuous violation of Bell inequality and concluded that the lower bound speed of `spooky action' was four orders of magnitude of the speed of light if the Earth's speed in any inertial reference frame was less than 10^(-3) times of the speed of light.
- Feb 28 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1302.6759v1Single spins in the solid-state offer a unique opportunity to store and manipulate quantum information, and to perform quantum-enhanced sensing of local fields and charges. Optical control of these systems using techniques developed in atomic physics has yet to exploit all the advantages of the solid-state. We demonstrate voltage tunability of the spin energy levels in a single quantum dot by modifying how spins sense magnetic field. We find the in-plane g-factor varies discontinuously for electrons, as more holes are loaded onto the dot. In contrast, the in-plane hole g-factor varies continuously. The device can change the sign of the in-plane g-factor of a single hole, at which point an avoided crossing is observed in the two spin eigenstates. This is exactly what is required for universal control of a single spin with a single electrical gate.
- Feb 11 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1302.1946v1Quantum computers have the potential of solving certain problems exponentially faster than classical computers. Recently, Harrow, Hassidim and Lloyd proposed a quantum algorithm for solving linear systems of equations: given an $N\times{N}$ matrix $A$ and a vector $\vec b$, find the vector $\vec x$ that satisfies $A\vec x = \vec b$. It has been shown that using the algorithm one could obtain the solution encoded in a quantum state $|x$ using $O(\log{N})$ quantum operations, while classical algorithms require at least O(N) steps. If one is not interested in the solution $\vec{x}$ itself but certain statistical feature of the solution ${x}|M|x$ ($M$ is some quantum mechanical operator), the quantum algorithm will be able to achieve exponential speedup over the best classical algorithm as $N$ grows. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of the quantum algorithm using a 4-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum information processor. For all the three sets of experiments with different choices of $\vec b$, we obtain the solutions with over 96% fidelity. This experiment is a first implementation of the algorithm. Because solving linear systems is a common problem in nearly all fields of science and engineering, we will also discuss the implication of our results on the potential of using quantum computers for solving practical linear systems.
- Oct 19 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1210.5050v2We consider the correlated parallel transport through two quantum dots which are tunnel-coupled to the ends of a semiconductor nanowire where the Majorana bound states (MBSs) may emerge under proper conditions. In terms of the cross-correlation of currents, we reveal unusual behaviors originated from the nonlocal MBSs, including such as the distinct symmetry and antisymmetry of the spectral density in response to the dot-level modulations, and the vanished cross correlation occurred when any of the dot-levels is in resonance with the Majorana zero mode.
- Aug 21 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1208.3738v2It was predicted by Tewari [Phys. Rev. Lett. \bf 100, 027001 (2008)] that a teleportationlike electron transfer phenomenon is one of the novel consequences of the existence of Majorana fermion, because of the inherently nonlocal nature. In this work we consider a concrete realization and measurement scheme for this interesting behavior, based on a setup consisting of a pair of quantum dots which are tunnel-coupled to a semiconductor nanowire and are jointly measured by two point-contact detectors. We analyze the teleportation dynamics in the presence of measurement backaction and discuss how the teleportation events can be identified from the current trajectories of strong response detectors.
- Jul 11 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1207.2485v3The Poisson equation occurs in many areas of science and engineering. Here we focus on its numerical solution for an equation in d dimensions. In particular we present a quantum algorithm and a scalable quantum circuit design which approximates the solution of the Poisson equation on a grid with error \varepsilon. We assume we are given a supersposition of function evaluations of the right hand side of the Poisson equation. The algorithm produces a quantum state encoding the solution. The number of quantum operations and the number of qubits used by the circuit is almost linear in d and polylog in \varepsilon^-1. We present quantum circuit modules together with performance guarantees which can be also used for other problems.
- May 10 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1205.2024v2A long standing goal for quantum communication is to transfer a quantum state over arbitrary distances. Free-space quantum communication provides a promising solution towards this challenging goal. Here, through a 97-km free space channel, we demonstrate long distance quantum teleportation over a 35-53 dB loss one-link channel, and entanglement distribution over a 66-85 dB high-loss two-link channel. We achieve an average fidelity of 80.4(9)% for teleporting six distinct initial states and observe the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality after distributing entanglement. Besides being of fundamental interest, our result represents a significant step towards a global quantum network. Moreover, the high-frequency and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing and tracking technique developed in our experiment provides an essential tool for future satellite-based quantum communication.
- May 03 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1205.0322v2We consider an experimentally feasible setup to demonstrate the existence and coherent dynamics of Majorana fermion. The transport setup consists of a quantum dot and a tunnel-coupled semiconductor nanowire which is anticipated to generate Majorana excitations under some conditions. For transport under finite bias voltage, we find that a subtraction of the source and drain currents can expose the essential feature of the Majorana fermion, including the zero-energy nature by gate-voltage modulating the dot level. Moreover, coherent oscillating dynamics of the Majorana fermion between the nanowire and the quantum dot is reflected in the shot noise via a spectral dip together with a pronounced zero-frequency noise enhancement effect. Important parameters, e.g. for the Majorana's mutual interaction and its coupling to the quantum dot, can be extracted out in experiment using the derived analytic results.
- Apr 27 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1204.5890v1We investigate the discrimination between photon polarizations when measured by moving detectors. Both unambiguous and minimum-error discriminations are considered, and we analyze the the optimal successful (correct) probability as a function of the apparatus' velocity. The Holevo bound for polarization discrimination is also discussed and explicit calculation shows that the Holevo bound and the optimal successful (correct) probability for unambiguous (minimum-error) discrimination simultaneously increase or decrease.
- Oct 12 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1110.2232v3Recently, it is shown that quantum computers can be used for obtaining certain information about the solution of a linear system Ax=b exponentially faster than what is possible with classical computation. Here we first review some key aspects of the algorithm from the standpoint of finding its efficient quantum circuit implementation using only elementary quantum operations, which is important for determining the potential usefulness of the algorithm in practical settings. Then we present a small-scale quantum circuit that solves a 2x2 linear system. The quantum circuit uses only 4 qubits, implying a tempting possibility for experimental realization. Furthermore, the circuit is numerically simulated and its performance under different circuit parameter settings is demonstrated.
- Sep 20 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1109.4027v2We found that in contrast with the common premise, a measurement on the environment of an open quantum system can \em reduce its decoherence rate. We demonstrate it by studying an example of indirect qubit's measurement, where the information on its state is hidden in the environment. This information is extracted by a distant device, coupled with the environment. We also show that the reduction of decoherence generated by this device, is accompanied with diminution of the environmental noise in a vicinity of the qubit. An interpretation of these results in terms of quantum interference on large scales is presented.
- Jan 16 2007 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0701091v1Based on the controlled order rearrange encryption (CORE) for quantum key distribution using EPR pairs[Fu.G.Deng and G.L.Long Phys.Rev.A68 (2003) 042315], we propose the generalized controlled order rearrangement encryption (GCORE) protocols of $N$ qubits and $N$ qutrits, concretely display them in the cases using 3-qubit, 2-qutrit maximally entangled basis states. We further indicate that our protocols will become safer with the increase of number of particles and dimensions. Moreover, we carry out the security analysis using quantum covariant cloning machine for the protocol using qutrits. Although the applications of the generalized scheme need to be further studied, the GCORE has many distinct features such as great capacity and high efficiency.
- Jan 16 2007 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0701099v2We present an revised geometric measure of entanglement (RGME). The revised version is an entanglement monotone. Some useful inequalities about RGME are deduced. For exemplification, we give the formulas of RGME for the two-parameter class of states in $2 \otimes n$ quantum system, the two particles high dimensional maximally entangled mixed state, the isotropic state including $n$-particle $d$-level case and two multipartite bound entangled states. The result shows there is a relation $\widetilde{E}_{\sin^2} \leq E_{re}$, which indicates that the RGME is an appropriate measure of entanglement.