results for au:Burgarth_D in:quant-ph

- May 23 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.07725v1We provide a protocol for Hamiltonian parameter estimation which relies only on the Zeeman effect. No time-dependent quantities need to be measured, it fully suffices to observe spectral shifts induced by fields applied to local `markers'. We demonstrate the idea with a simple tight-binding Hamiltonian and numerically show stability with respect to Gaussian noise on the spectral measurements. Then we generalize the result to show applicability to a wide range of systems, including quantum spin chains, networks of qubits, and coupled harmonic oscillators, and suggest potential experimental implementations.
- It is commonly claimed that only Hamiltonians with a spectrum unbounded both above and below can give purely exponential decay. Because such Hamiltonians have no ground state, they are considered unphysical. Here we show that Hamiltonians which are bounded below can give purely exponential decay. This is possible when, instead of looking at the global survival probability, one considers a subsystem only. We conclude that purely exponential decay might not be as unphysical as previously thought.
- Apr 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.06289v2In this work we derive a lower bound for the minimum time required to implement a target unitary transformation through a classical time-dependent field in a closed quantum system. The bound depends on the target gate, the strength of the internal Hamiltonian and the highest permitted control field amplitude. These findings reveal some properties of the reachable set of operations, explicitly analyzed for a single qubit. Moreover, for fully controllable systems, we identify a lower bound for the time at which all unitary gates become reachable. We use numerical gate optimization in order to study the tightness of the obtained bounds. It is shown that in the single qubit case our analytical findings describe the relationship between the highest control field amplitude and the minimum evolution time remarkably well. Finally, we discuss both challenges and ways forward for obtaining tighter bounds for higher dimensional systems, offering a discussion about the mathematical form and the physical meaning of the bound.
- We investigate the possibility to suppress interactions between a finite dimensional system and an infinite dimensional environment through a fast sequence of unitary kicks on the finite dimensional system. This method, called dynamical decoupling, is known to work for bounded interactions, but physical environments such as bosonic heat baths are usually modelled with unbounded interactions, whence here we initiate a systematic study of dynamical decoupling for unbounded operators. We develop a sufficient decoupling criterion for arbitrary Hamiltonians and a necessary decoupling criterion for semibounded Hamiltonians. We give examples for unbounded Hamiltonians where decoupling works and the limiting evolution as well as the convergence speed can be explicitly computed. We show that decoupling does not always work for unbounded interactions and provide both physically and mathematically motivated examples.
- Randomness is an essential tool in many disciplines of modern sciences, such as cryptography, black hole physics, random matrix theory and Monte Carlo sampling. In quantum systems, random operations can be obtained via random circuits thanks to so-called q-designs, and play a central role in the fast scrambling conjecture for black holes. Here we consider a more physically motivated way of generating random evolutions by exploiting the many-body dynamics of a quantum system driven with stochastic external pulses. We combine techniques from quantum control, open quantum systems and exactly solvable models (via the Bethe-Ansatz) to generate Haar-uniform random operations in driven many-body systems. We show that any fully controllable system converges to a unitary q-design in the long-time limit. Moreover, we study the convergence time of a driven spin chain by mapping its random evolution into a semigroup with an integrable Liouvillean and finding its gap. Remarkably, we find via Bethe-Ansatz techniques that the gap is independent of q. We use mean-field techniques to argue that this property may be typical for other controllable systems, although we explicitly construct counter-examples via symmetry breaking arguments to show that this is not always the case. Our findings open up new physical methods to transform classical randomness into quantum randomness, via a combination of quantum many-body dynamics and random driving.
- Jan 26 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.07399v1We study the interplay of control and parameter estimation on a quantum spin chain. A single qubit probe is attached to one end of the chain, while we wish to estimate a parameter on the other end. We find that control on the probe qubit can substantially improve the estimation performance and discover some interesting connections to quantum state transfer.
- Jan 12 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.02936v1In a recent work [D. K. Burgarth et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] it was shown that a series of frequent measurements can project the dynamics of a quantum system onto a subspace in which the dynamics can be more complex. In this subspace even full controllability can be achieved, although the controllability over the system before the projection is very poor since the control Hamiltonians commute with each other. We can also think of the opposite: any Hamiltonians of a quantum system, which are in general noncommutative with each other, can be made commutative by embedding them in an extended Hilbert space, and thus the dynamics in the extended space becomes trivial and simple. This idea of making noncommutative Hamiltonians commutative is called "Hamiltonian purification." The original noncommutative Hamiltonians are recovered by projecting the system back onto the original Hilbert space through frequent measurements. Here we generalize this idea to open-system dynamics by presenting a simple construction to make Lindbladians, as well as Hamiltonians, commutative on a larger space with an auxiliary system. We show that the original dynamics can be recovered through frequently measuring the auxiliary system in a non-selective way. Moreover, we provide a universal pair of Lindbladians which describes an "accessible" open quantum system for generic system sizes. This allows us to conclude that through a series of frequent non-selective measurements a nonaccessible open quantum system generally becomes accessible. This sheds further light on the role of measurement backaction on the control of quantum systems.
- Jan 09 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.01723v2Quantum simulators, machines that can replicate the dynamics of quantum systems, are being built as useful devices and are seen as a stepping stone to universal quantum computers. A key difference between the two is the ability to perform the logic gates that make up computational algorithms. We propose a method for learning how to construct these gates efficiently by using the simulator to perform optimal control on itself. This bypasses two major problems of purely classical approaches: the need to have an accurate model of the system, and a classical computer more powerful than the quantum one to carry out the optimisation. For numerical simulations of up to $9$ qubits with Ising interactions, this in situ approach scales polynomially in the number of qubits for different topologies suggesting that this is a practical way of upgrading quantum simulators to computers.
- Jan 03 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.00216v1Towards the full-fledged quantum computing, what do we need? Obviously, the first thing we need is a (many-body) quantum system, which is reasonably isolated from its environment in order to reduce the unwanted effect of noise, and the second might be a good technique to fully control it. Although we would also need a well-designed quantum code for information processing for fault-tolerant computation, from a physical point of view, the primary requisites are a system and a full control for it. Designing and fabricating a controllable quantum system is a hard work in the first place, however, we shall focus on the subsequent steps that cannot be skipped and are highly nontrivial.
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- Jun 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.09688v2The question of open-loop control in the Gaussian regime may be cast by asking which Gaussian unitary transformations are reachable by turning on and off a given set of quadratic Hamiltonians. For compact groups, including finite dimensional unitary groups, the well known Lie algebra rank criterion provides a sufficient and necessary condition for the reachable set to cover the whole group. Because of the non-compact nature of the symplectic group, which corresponds to Gaussian unitary transformations, this criterion turns out to be still necessary but not sufficient for Gaussian systems. If the control Hamiltonians are unstable, in a sense made rigorous in the main text, the peculiar situation may arise where the rank criterion is satisfied and yet not all symplectic transformations are reachable. Here, we address this situation for one degree of freedom and study the properties of the reachable set under unstable control Hamiltonians. First, we provide a partial analytical characterisation of the reachable set and prove that no orthogonal (`energy-preserving' or `passive' in the literature) symplectic operations may be reached with such controls. Then, we apply numerical optimal control algorithms to demonstrate a complete characterisation of the set in specific cases.
- May 20 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.05908v2For finite-dimensional quantum systems, such as qubits, a well established strategy to protect such systems from decoherence is dynamical decoupling. However many promising quantum devices, such as oscillators, are infinite dimensional, for which the question if dynamical decoupling could be applied remained open. Here we first show that not every infinite-dimensional system can be protected from decoherence through dynamical decoupling. Then we develop dynamical decoupling for continuous variable systems which are described by quadratic Hamiltonians. We identify a condition and a set of operations that allow us to map a set of interacting harmonic oscillators onto a set of non-interacting oscillators rotating with an averaged frequency, a procedure we call homogenization. Furthermore we show that every quadratic system-environment interaction can be suppressed with two simple operations acting only on the system. Using a random dynamical decoupling or homogenization scheme, we develop bounds that characterize how fast we have to work in order to achieve the desired uncoupled dynamics. This allows us to identify how well homogenization can be achieved and decoherence can be suppressed in continuous variable systems.
- Jan 07 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.01212v2On the basis of the quantum Zeno effect it has been recently shown [D. K. Burgarth et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] that a strong amplitude damping process applied locally on a part of a quantum system can have a beneficial effect on the dynamics of the remaining part of the system. Quantum operations that cannot be implemented without the dissipation become achievable by the action of the strong dissipative process. Here we generalize this idea by identifying decoherence-free subspaces (DFS's) as the subspaces in which the dynamics becomes more complex. Applying methods from quantum control theory we characterize the set of reachable operations within the DFS's. We provide three examples which become fully controllable within the DFS's while the control over the original Hilbert space in the absence of dissipation is trivial. In particular, we show that the (classical) Ising Hamiltonian is turned into a Heisenberg Hamiltonian by strong collective decoherence, which provides universal quantum computation within the DFS's. Moreover we perform numerical gate optimization to study how the process fidelity scales with the noise strength. As a byproduct a subsystem fidelity which can be applied in other optimization problems for open quantum systems is developed.
- Sep 30 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.08822v2We demonstrate how quantum optimal control can be used to enhance quantum resources for bipartite one-way protocols, specifically EPR-steering with qubit measurements. Steering is relevant for one-sided device-independent key distribution, the realistic implementations of which necessitate the study of noisy scenarios. So far mainly the case of imperfect detection efficiency has been considered; here we look at the effect of dynamical noise responsible for decoherence and dissipation. In order to set up the optimisation, we map the steering problem into the equivalent joint measurability problem, and employ quantum resource-theoretic robustness monotones from that context. The advantage is that incompatibility (hence steerability) with arbitrary pairs of noisy qubit measurements has been completely characterised through an analytical expression, which can be turned into a computable cost function with exact gradient. Furthermore, dynamical loss of incompatibility has recently been illustrated using these monotones. We demonstrate resource control numerically using a special gradient-based software, showing, in particular, the advantage over naive control with cost function chosen as a fidelity in relation to a specific target. We subsequently illustrate the complexity of the control landscapes with a simplified two-variable scheme. The results contribute to the theoretical understanding of the limitations in realistic implementations of quantum information protocols, also paving way to practical use of the rather abstract quantum resource theories.
- Sep 25 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.07163v2We investigate the problem of what evolutions an open quantum system described by a time-local Master equation can undergo with universal coherent controls. A series of conditions are given which exclude channels from being reachable by any unitary controls, assuming that the coupling to the environment is not being modified. These conditions primarily arise by defining decay rates for the generator of the dynamics of the open system, and then showing that controlling the system can only make these rates more isotropic. This forms a series of constraints on the shape and non-unitality of allowed evolutions, as well as an expression for the time required to reach a given goal. We give numerical examples of the usefulness of these criteria, and explore some similarities they have with quantum thermodynamics.
- Jul 29 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1507.07634v2The problem of estimating a parameter of a quantum system through a series of measurements performed sequentially on a quantum probe is analyzed in the general setting where the underlying statistics is explicitly non-i.i.d. We present a generalization of the central limit theorem in the present context, which under fairly general assumptions shows that as the number $N$ of measurement data increases the probability distribution of functionals of the data (e.g., the average of the data) through which the target parameter is estimated becomes asymptotically normal and independent of the initial state of the probe. At variance with the previous studies [M. Guţă, Phys. Rev. A 83, 062324 (2011); M. van Horssen and M. Guţă, J. Math. Phys. 56, 022109 (2015)] we take a diagrammatic approach, which allows one to compute not only the leading orders in $N$ of the moments of the average of the data but also those of the correlations among subsequent measurement outcomes. In particular our analysis points out that the latter, which are not available in usual i.i.d. data, can be exploited in order to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation. An explicit application of our scheme is discussed by studying how the temperature of a thermal reservoir can be estimated via sequential measurements on a quantum probe in contact with the reservoir.
- Apr 30 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.07734v3What can one do with a given tunable quantum device? We provide complete symmetry criteria deciding whether some effective target interaction(s) can be simulated by a set of given interactions. Symmetries lead to a better understanding of simulation and permit a reasoning beyond the limitations of the usual explicit Lie closure. Conserved quantities induced by symmetries pave the way to a resource theory for simulability. On a general level, one can now decide equality for any pair of compact Lie algebras just given by their generators without determining the algebras explicitly. Several physical examples are illustrated, including entanglement invariants, the relation to unitary gate membership problems, as well as the central-spin model.
- Mar 04 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.01010v3The simulation of quantum systems has been a key aim of quantum technologies for decades, and the generalisation to open systems is necessary to include physically realistic systems. We introduce an approach for quantum simulations of open system dynamics in terms of an environment of minimal size and a time-dependent Hamiltonian. This enables the implementation of a continuous-time simulation with a finite environment, whereas state of the art methods require an infinite environment or only match the simulation at discrete times. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for this Hamiltonian to be well behaved and, when these are not met, we show that there exists an approximate Hamiltonian that is, and look into its applications.
- May 30 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.7644v4A longstanding challenge in the foundations of quantum mechanics is the veri?cation of alternative collapse theories despite their mathematical similarity to decoherence. To this end, we suggest a novel method based on dynamical decoupling. Experimental observation of nonzero saturation of the decoupling error in the limit of fast decoupling operations can provide evidence for alternative quantum theories. As part of the analysis we prove that unbounded Hamiltonians can always be decoupled, and provide novel dilations of Lindbladians.
- May 30 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.7666v3We discuss a few mathematical aspects of random dynamical decoupling, a key tool procedure in quantum information theory. In particular, we place it in the context of discrete stochastic processes, limit theorems and CPT semigroups on matrix algebras. We obtain precise analytical expressions for expectation and variance of the density matrix and fidelity over time in the continuum-time limit depending on the system Lindbladian, which then lead to rough short-time estimates depending only on certain coupling strengths. We prove that dynamical decoupling does not work in the case of intrinsic (i.e., not environment-induced) decoherence, and together with the above-mentioned estimates this yields a novel method of partially identifying intrinsic decoherence.
- May 29 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.7169v1Universal quantum computation requires the implementation of arbitrary control operations on the quantum register. In most cases, this is achieved by external control fields acting selectively on each qubit to drive single-qubit operations. In combination with a drift Hamiltonian containing interactions between the qubits, this allows the implementation of any required gate operation. Here, we demonstrate an alternative scheme that does not require local control for all qubits: we implement one- and two-qubit gate operations on a set of target qubits indirectly, through a combination of gates on directly controlled actuator qubits with a drift Hamiltonian that couples actuator and target qubits. Experiments are performed on nuclear spins, using radio-frequency pulses as gate operations and magnetic-dipole couplings for the drift Hamiltonian.
- Mar 25 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.5752v1We show that mere observation of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into a universal quantum computation. This effect, which occurs if the system is regularly observed at short time intervals, can be rephrased as a modern version of Plato's Cave allegory. More precisely, while in the original version of the myth, the reality perceived within the Cave is described by the projected shadows of some more fundamental dynamics which is intrinsically more complex, we found that in the quantum world the situation changes drastically as the "projected" reality perceived through sequences of measurements can be more complex than the one that originated it. After discussing examples we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics will become universal once "observed" as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be "purified" into a simpler one in larger dimensions.
- Jan 22 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.5240v1We provide a general framework for the identification of open quantum systems. By looking at the input-output behavior, we try to identify the system inside a black box in which some Markovian time-evolution takes place. Due to the generally irreversible nature of the dynamics, it is difficult to assure full controllability over the system. Still, we show that the system is identifiable up to similarity under a certain rank condition. The framework also covers situations relevant to standard quantum process tomography, where we do not have enough control over the system but have a tomographically complete set of initial states and observables. Remarkably, the similarity cannot in general be reduced to unitarity even for unitary systems, and the spectra of Hamiltonians are not identifiable without additional knowledge.
- Dec 03 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.0160v1We study the controllability of a central spin guided by a classical field and interacting with a spin bath, showing that the central spin is fully controllable independently of the number of bath spins. Additionally we find that for unequal system-bath couplings even the bath becomes controllable by acting on the central spin alone. We then analyze numerically how the time to implement gates on the central spin scales with the number of bath spins and conjecture that for equal system-bath couplings it reaches a saturation value. We provide evidence that sometimes noise can be effectively suppressed through control.
- Aug 22 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.4629v1A major challenge to the control of infinite dimensional quantum systems is the irreversibility which is often present in the system dynamics. Here we consider systems with discrete-spectrum Hamiltonians operating over a Schwartz space domain, and show that by utilizing the implications of the Quantum Recurrence Theorem this irreversibility may be overcome, in the case of individual states more generally, but also in certain specified cases over larger subsets of the Hilbert space. We discuss briefly the possibility of using these results in the control of infinite dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators, and also draw attention to some of the issues and open questions arising from this and related work.
- May 29 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.6433v2A connection is estabilished between the non-Abelian phases obtained via adiabatic driving and those acquired via a quantum Zeno dynamics induced by repeated projective measurements. In comparison to the adiabatic case, the Zeno dynamics is shown to be more flexible in tuning the system evolution, which paves the way to the implementation of unitary quantum gates and applications in quantum control.
- Oct 23 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1210.5625v3The paper provides a systematic characterization of quantum ergodic and mixing channels in finite dimensions and a discussion of their structural properties. In particular, we discuss ergodicity in the general case where the fixed point of the channel is not a full-rank (faithful) density matrix. Notably, we show that ergodicity is stable under randomizations, namely that every random mixture of an ergodic channel with a generic channel is still ergodic. In addition, we prove several conditions under which ergodicity can be promoted to the stronger property of mixing. Finally, exploiting a suitable correspondence between quantum channels and generators of quantum dynamical semigroups, we extend our results to the realm of continuous-time quantum evolutions, providing a characterization of ergodic Lindblad generators and showing that they are dense in the set of all possible generators.
- Feb 07 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1202.1033v1Symmetry is a fundamentally important concept in many branches of physics. In this work, we discuss two types of symmetries, external symmetry and internal symmetry, which appear frequently in controlled quantum spin chains and apply them to study various controllability problems. For spin chains under single local end control when external symmetries exists, we can rigorously prove that the system is controllable in each of the invariant subspaces for both XXZ and XYZ chains, but not for XX or Ising chains. Such results have direct applications in controlling antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains when the dynamics is naturally confined in the largest excitation subspace. We also address the theoretically important question of minimal control resources to achieve full controllability over the entire spin chain space. In the process we establish a systematic way of evaluating the dynamical Lie algebras and using known symmetries to help identify the dynamical Lie algebra.
- Nov 08 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.1381v1It has been shown that inter-spin interaction strengths in a spins-1/2 chain can be evaluated by accessing one of the edge spins only. We demonstrate this experimentally for the simplest case, a three-spin chain, with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. The three spins in the chain interact through nearest-neighbor Ising interactions under site-dependent transverse fields. The employed molecule is an alanine containing three $^{13}$C nuclei, each of which has spin-1/2.
- We study the dynamics of systems on networks from a linear algebraic perspective. The control theoretic concept of controllability describes the set of states that can be reached for these systems. Under appropriate conditions, there is a connection between the quantum (Lie theoretic) property of controllability and the linear systems (Kalman) controllability condition. We investigate how the graph theoretic concept of a zero forcing set impacts the controllability property. In particular, we prove that if a set of vertices is a zero forcing set, the associated dynamical system is controllable. The results open up the possibility of further exploiting the analogy between networks, linear control systems theory, and quantum systems Lie algebraic theory. This study is motivated by several quantum systems currently under study, including continuous quantum walks modeling transport phenomena. Additionally, it proposes zero forcing as a new notion in the analysis of complex networks.
- Nov 07 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.1062v2The identification of parameters in the Hamiltonian that describes complex many-body quantum systems is generally a very hard task. Recent attention has focused on such problems of Hamiltonian tomography for networks constructed with two-level systems. For open quantum systems, the fact that injected signals are likely to decay before they accumulate sufficient information for parameter estimation poses additional challenges. In this paper, we consider use of the gateway approach to Hamiltonian tomography \citeBurgarth2009,Burgarth2009a to complex quantum systems with a limited set of state preparation and measurement probes. We classify graph properties of networks for which the Hamiltonian may be estimated under equivalent conditions on state preparation and measurement. We then examine the extent to which the gateway approach may be applied to estimation of Hamiltonian parameters for network graphs with non-trivial topologies mimicking biomolecular systems.
- Oct 26 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1110.5584v2Controllability -- the possibility of performing any target dynamics by applying a set of available operations -- is a fundamental requirement for the practical use of any physical system. For finite-dimensional systems, as for instance spin systems, precise criterions to establish controllability, such as the so called rank criterion, are well known. However most physical systems require a description in terms of an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space whose controllability properties are poorly understood. Here, we investigate infinite-dimensional bosonic quantum systems -- encompassing quantum light, ensembles of bosonic atoms, motional degrees of freedom of ions, and nano-mechanical oscillators -- governed by quadratic Hamiltonians (such that their evolution is analogous to coupled harmonic oscillators). After having highlighted the intimate connection between controllability and recurrence in the Hilbert space, we prove that, for coupled oscillators, a simple extra condition has to be fulfilled to extend the rank criterion to infinite dimensional quadratic systems. Further, we present a useful application of our finding, by proving indirect controllability of a chain of harmonic oscillators.
- We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we point out that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity.
- Apr 05 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1104.0583v1The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification. We present an example in which a Bell measurement is more efficient to identify the system. When the topology of the system is known, the framework enables us to establish a general criterion for the estimability of the coupling constants in its Hamiltonian.
- Oct 28 2010 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1010.5715v1We investigate anisotropic $XXZ$ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chains with control fields acting on one of the end spins, with the aim of exploring local quantum control in arrays of interacting qubits. In this work, which uses a recent Lie-algebraic result on the local controllability of spin chains with "always-on" interactions, we determine piecewise-constant control pulses corresponding to optimal fidelities for quantum gates such as spin-flip (NOT), controlled-NOT (CNOT), and square-root-of-SWAP ($\sqrt{\textrm{SWAP}}$). We find the minimal times for realizing different gates depending on the anisotropy parameter $\Delta$ of the model, showing that the shortest among these gate times are achieved for particular values of $\Delta$ larger than unity. To study the influence of possible imperfections in anticipated experimental realizations of qubit arrays, we analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the gate fidelities to random variations in the control-field amplitudes and finite rise time of the pulses. Finally, we discuss the implications of our study for superconducting charge-qubit arrays.
- Jul 16 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.2572v2Motivated by some recent results of quantum control theory, we discuss the feasibility of local operator control in arrays of interacting qubits modeled as isotropic Heisenberg spin chains. Acting on one of the end spins, we aim at finding piecewise-constant control pulses that lead to optimal fidelities for a chosen set of quantum gates. We analyze the robustness of the obtained results f or the gate fidelities to random errors in the control fields, finding that with faster switching between piecewise-constant controls the system is less susceptible to these errors. The observed behavior falls into a generic class of physical phenomena that are related to a competition between resonance- and relaxation-type behavior, exemplified by motional narrowing in NMR experiments. Finally, we discuss how the obtained optimal gate fidelities are altered when the corresponding rapidly-varying piecewise-constant control fields are smoothened through spectral filtering.
- Jun 22 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1006.4107v1In this addendum of our paper [D. Burgarth and V. Giovannetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 100501 (2007)] we prove that during the transformation that allows one to enforce control by relaxation on a quantum system, the ancillary memory can be kept at a finite size, independently from the fidelity one wants to achieve. The result is obtained by introducing the quantum analog of defragmentation algorithms which are employed for efficiently reorganizing classical information in conventional hard-disks. Our result also implies that the reduced dynamics in any noisy system can be simulated with finitely many resources.
- Apr 29 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1004.5018v1A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We find that almost all properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface, and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialised to a mixed state. Therefore our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices, and transverse Ising chains.
- Sep 21 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0909.3401v2A scheme for preparing two fixed non-interacting qubits in a maximally entangled state is presented. By repeating on- and off-resonant scattering of ancilla qubits, the state of the target qubits is driven from an arbitrary initial state into the singlet state with probability 1 (perfect efficiency). Neither the preparation nor the post-selection of the ancilla spin state is required. The convergence from an arbitrary input state to the unique fixed point (mixing property) is proved rigorously, and its robustness is investigated, by scrutinizing the effects of imperfections in the incident wave of the ancilla, such as mistuning to a resonant momentum, imperfect monochromatization, and fluctuation of the incident momentum, as well as detector efficiency.
- May 21 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0905.3373v2We apply quantum control techniques to control a large spin chain by only acting on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on the latter and swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.
- Mar 04 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0903.0612v1Identifying the nature of interactions in a quantum system is essential in understanding any physical phenomena. Acquiring information on the Hamiltonian can be a tough challenge in many-body systems because it generally requires access to all parts of the system. We show that if the coupling topology is known, the Hamiltonian identification is indeed possible indirectly even though only a small gateway to the system is used. Surprisingly, even a degenerate Hamiltonian can be estimated by applying an extra field to the gateway.
- Feb 24 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0902.3719v3We implement an iterative quantum state transfer exploiting the natural dipolar couplings in a spin chain of a liquid crystal NMR system. During each iteration a finite part of the amplitude of the state is transferred and by applying an external operation on only the last two spins the transferred state is made to accumulate on the spin at the end point. The transfer fidelity reaches one asymptotically through increasing the number of iterations. We also implement the inverted version of the scheme which can transfer an arbitrary state from the end point to any other position of the chain and entangle any pair of spins in the chain, acting as a full quantum data bus.
- Oct 17 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0810.2866v2Quantum control requires full knowledge of the system many-body Hamiltonian. In many cases this information is not directly available due to restricted access to the system. Here we show how to indirectly estimate all the coupling strengths in a spin chain by measuring one spin at the end of the chain. We also discuss the efficiency of this "quantum inverse problem" and give a numerical example.
- Oct 02 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0810.0170v1A chain of interacting spin behaves like a quantum mediator (quantum link) which allows two distant parties that control the ends of the chain to exchange quantum messages. We show that over repeated uses without resetting the study of a quantum link can be connected to correlated quantum channels with finite dimensional environment (finite memory quantum channel). Then, using coding arguments for such kind of channels and results on mixing channels we present a protocol that allows us to achieve perfect information transmission through a quantum link.
- Jul 03 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0807.0379v2The dynamics of a simple spin chain (2 spins) coupled to bosonic baths at different temperatures is studied. The analytical solution for the reduced density matrix of the system is found. The dynamics and temperature dependence of spin-spin entanglement is analyzed. It is shown that the system converges to a steady-state. If the energy levels of the two spins are different, the steady-state concurrence assumes its maximum at unequal bath temperatures. It is found that a difference in local energy levels can make the steady-state entanglement more stable against high temperatures.
- May 27 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0805.3975v2We give a sufficient criterion that guarantees that a many-body quantum system can be controlled by properly manipulating the (local) Hamiltonian of one of its subsystems. The method can be applied to a wide range of systems: it does not depend on the details of the couplings but only on their associated topology. As a special case, we prove that Heisenberg and Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki chains can be controlled by operating on one of the spins at their ends. In principle, arbitrary quantum algorithms can be performed on such chains by acting on a single qubit.
- Oct 12 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0710.2348v2We investigate the multiple use of a ferromagnetic spin chain for quantum and classical communications without resetting. We find that the memory of the state transmitted during the first use makes the spin chain a qualitatively different quantum channel during the second transmission, for which we find the relevant Kraus operators. We propose a parameter to quantify the amount of memory in the channel and find that it influences the quality of the channel, as reflected through fidelity and entanglement transmissible during the second use. For certain evolution times, the memory allows the channel to exceed the memoryless classical capacity (achieved by separable inputs) and in some cases it can also enhance the quantum capacity.
- Oct 02 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0710.0302v4We discuss an explicit protocol which allows one to externally cool and control a composite system by operating on a small subset of it. The scheme permits to transfer arbitrary and unknown quantum states from a memory on the network ("upload access") as well as the inverse ("download access"). In particular it yields a method for cooling the system.
- Aug 21 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0708.2657v2Homogenization protocols model the quantum mechanical evolution of a system to a fixed state independently from its initial configuration by repeatedly coupling it with a collection of identical ancillas. Here we analyze these protocols within the formalism of "relaxing" channels providing an easy to check sufficient condition for homogenization. In this context we describe mediated homogenization schemes where a network of connected qudits relaxes to a fixed state by only partially interacting with a bath. We also study configurations which allow us to introduce entanglement among the elements of the network. Finally we analyze the effect of having competitive configurations with two different baths and we prove the convergence to dynamical equilibrium for Heisenberg chains.
- Jun 05 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.0387v3One of the most basic tasks required for Quantum Information Technology is the ability to connect different components of a Quantum Computer by quantum wires that obey the superposition principle. Since superpositions can be very sensitive to noise this turns out to be already quite difficult. Recently, it was suggested to use chains of permanently coupled spin-1/2 particles (quantum chains) for this purpose. They have the advantage that no external control along the wire is required during the transport of information, which makes it possible to isolate the wire from sources of noise. We first give an introduction to basic quantum state transfer and review existing advanced schemes by other authors. We then show a new result that demonstrates the stability of the scheme [1] against disorder that is approximately constant during one application of the channel, but time-dependent with respect to multiple applications.
- Apr 24 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0704.3027v1We demonstrate a scheme for controlling a large quantum system by acting on a small subsystem only. The local control is mediated to the larger system by some fixed coupling Hamiltonian. The scheme allows to transfer arbitrary and unknown quantum states from a memory on the large system (``upload access'') as well as the inverse (``download access''). We study sufficient conditions of the coupling Hamiltonian and give lower bounds on the fidelities for downloading and uploading.
- Apr 12 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0704.1309v1The thesis covers various aspects of quantum state transfer in permanently coupled spin systems.
- Apr 10 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0704.0984v1We demonstrate a scheme for quantum communication between the ends of an array of coupled cavities. Each cavity is doped with a single two level system (atoms or quantum dots) and the detuning of the atomic level spacing and photonic frequency is appropriately tuned to achieve photon blockade in the array. We show that in such a regime, the array can simulate a dual rail quantum state transfer protocol where the arrival of quantum information at the receiving cavity is heralded through a fluorescence measurement. Communication is also possible between any pair of cavities of a network of connected cavities.
- Feb 06 2007 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0702029v1We analyze a recent protocol for the transmission of quantum states via a dual spin chain [Burgarth and Bose, Phys. Rev. A 71, 052315 (2005)] under the constraint that the receiver's measurement strength is finite. That is, we consider the channel where the ideal, instantaneous and complete von Neumann measurements are replaced with a more realistic continuous measurement. We show that for optimal performance the measurement strength must be "tuned" to the channel spin-spin coupling, and once this is done, one is able to achieve a similar transmission rate to that obtained with ideal measurements. The spin chain protocol thus remains effective under measurement constraints.
- Oct 04 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0610018v3The scalability of solid state quantum computation relies on the ability of connecting the qubits to the macroscopic world. Quantum chains can be used as quantum wires to keep regions of external control at a distance. However even in the absence of external noise their transfer fidelity is too low to assure reliable connections. We propose a method of optimizing the fidelity by minimal usage of the available resources, consisting of applying a suitable sequence of two-qubit gates at the end of the chain. Our scheme allows also the preparation of states in the first excitation sector as well as cooling.
- We give a simple and physically intuitive necessary and sufficient condition for a map acting on a compact metric space to be mixing (i.e. infinitely many applications of the map transfer any input into a fixed convergency point). This is a generalization of the "Lyapunov direct method". First we prove this theorem in topological spaces and for arbitrary continuous maps. Finally we apply our theorem to maps which are relevant in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Information, namely Quantum Channels. In this context we also discuss the relations between mixing and ergodicity (i.e. the property that there exist only a single input state which is left invariant by a single application of the map) showing that the two are equivalent when the invariant point of the ergodic map is pure.
- Jan 10 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0601047v2We investigate the effect of a spin bath on the spin transfer functions of a permanently coupled spin system. When each spin is coupled to a seperate environment, the effect on the transfer functions in the first excitation sector is amazingly simple: the group velocity is slowed down by a factor of two, and the fidelity is destabilized by a modulation of |cos Gt|, where G is the mean square coupling to the environment.
- Aug 03 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508022v2We demonstrate that the quantum communication between two parties can be significantly improved if the receiver is allowed to store the received signals in a quantum memory before decoding them. In the limit of an infinite memory, the transfer is perfect. We prove that this scheme allows the transfer of arbitrary multipartite states along Heisenberg chains of spin-1/2 particles with random coupling strengths.
- Mar 01 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0502186v2We suggest a scheme that allows arbitrarily perfect state transfer even in the presence of random fluctuations in the couplings of a quantum chain. The scheme performs well for both spatially correlated and uncorrelated fluctuations if they are relatively weak (say 5%). Furthermore, we show that given a quite arbitrary pair of quantum chains, one can check whether it is capable of perfect transfer by only local operations at the ends of the chains, and the system in the middle being a "black box". We argue that unless some specific symmetries are present in the system, it will be capable of perfect transfer when used with dual-rail encoding. Therefore our scheme puts minimal demand not only on the control of the chains when using them, but also on the design when building them.
- Oct 25 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0410175v3We present a communication protocol for chains of permanently coupled qubits which achieves perfect quantum state transfer and which is efficient with respect to the number chains employed in the scheme. The system consists of $M$ uncoupled identical quantum chains. Local control (gates, measurements) is only allowed at the sending/receiving end of the chains. Under a quite general hypothesis on the interaction Hamiltonian of the qubits a theorem is proved which shows that the receiver is able to asymptotically recover the messages by repetitive monitoring of his qubits.
- Jun 17 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0406112v4We suggest a protocol for perfect quantum communication through spin chain channels. By combining a dual-rail encoding with measurements only at the receiving end, we can get conclusively perfect state transfer, whose probability of success can be made arbitrarily close to unity. As an example of such an amplitude delaying channel, we show how two parallel Heisenberg spin chains can be used as quantum wires. Perfect state transfer with a probability of failure lower than P in a Heisenberg chain of N spin-1/2 particles can be achieved in a timescale of the order of N^1.7|ln(P)|. We demonstrate that our scheme is more robust to decoherence and non-optimal timing than any scheme using single spin chains.
- Jan 12 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0401051v2The reduced dynamics of a central spin coupled to a bath of N spin-1/2 particles arranged in a spin star configuration is investigated. The exact time evolution of the reduced density operator is derived, and an analytical solution is obtained in the limit of an infinite number of bath spins, where the model shows complete relaxation and partial decoherence. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the central spin cannot be treated within the Born-Markov approximation. The Nakajima-Zwanzig and the time-convolutionless projection operator technique are applied to the spin star system. The performance of the corresponding perturbation expansions of the non-Markovian equations of motion is examined through a comparison with the exact solution.