results for au:Bruno_A in:quant-ph

- Feb 28 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1802.10037v1Analog quantum simulations offer rich opportunities for exploring complex quantum systems and phenomena through the use of specially engineered, well-controlled quantum systems. A critical element, increasing the scope and flexibility of such experimental platforms, is the ability to access and tune in situ different interaction regimes. Here, we present a superconducting circuit building block of two highly coherent transmons featuring in situ tuneable photon hopping and nonlinear cross-Kerr couplings. The interactions are mediated via a nonlinear coupler, consisting of a large capacitor in parallel with a tuneable superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). We demonstrate the working principle by experimentally characterising the system in the single- and two-excitation manifolds, and derive a full theoretical model that accurately describes our measurements. Both qubits have high coherence properties, with typical relaxation times in the range of 15 to 40 microseconds at all bias points of the coupler. Our device could be used as a scalable building block in analog quantum simulators of extended Bose-Hubbard and Heisenberg XXZ models, and may also have applications in quantum computing such as realising fast two-qubit gates and perfect state transfer protocols.
- Dec 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.06141v1While the on-chip processing power in circuit QED devices is growing rapidly, an open challenge is to establish high-fidelity quantum links between qubits on different chips. Here, we show entanglement between transmon qubits on different cQED chips with $49\%$ concurrence and $73\%$ Bell-state fidelity. We engineer a half-parity measurement by successively reflecting a coherent microwave field off two nearly-identical transmon-resonator systems. By ensuring the measured output field does not distinguish $\vert 01 \rangle$ from $\vert 10 \rangle$, unentangled superposition states are probabilistically projected onto entangled states in the odd-parity subspace. We use in-situ tunability and an additional weakly coupled driving field on the second resonator to overcome imperfect matching due to fabrication variations. To demonstrate the flexibility of this approach, we also produce an even-parity entangled state of similar quality, by engineering the matching of outputs for the $\vert 00 \rangle$ and $\vert 11 \rangle$ states. The protocol is characterized over a range of measurement strengths using quantum state tomography showing good agreement with a comprehensive theoretical model.
- Nov 22 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1711.07961v1We present an experimental study of nanowire transmons at zero and applied in-plane magnetic field. With Josephson non-linearities provided by the nanowires, our qubits operate at higher magnetic fields than standard transmons. Nanowire transmons exhibit coherence up to 70 mT, where the induced superconducting gap in the nanowire closes. We demonstrate that on-chip charge noise coupling to the Josephson energy plays a dominant role in the qubit dephasing. This takes the form of strongly-coupled two-level systems switching on 100 ms timescales and a more weakly coupled background producing $1/f$ noise. Several observations, including the field dependence of qubit energy relaxation and dephasing, are not fully understood, inviting further experimental investigation and theory. Using nanowires with a thinner superconducting shell will enable operation of these circuits up to 0.5 T, a regime relevant for topological quantum computation.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05336v2We present and demonstrate a general three-step method for extracting the quantum efficiency of dispersive qubit readout in circuit QED. We use active depletion of post-measurement photons and optimal integration weight functions on two quadratures to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the non-steady-state homodyne measurement. We derive analytically and demonstrate experimentally that the method robustly extracts the quantum efficiency for arbitrary readout conditions in the linear regime. We use the proven method to optimally bias a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier and to quantify different noise contributions in the readout amplification chain.
- Apr 21 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1704.06208v1With the introduction of superconducting circuits into the field of quantum optics, many novel experimental demonstrations of the quantum physics of an artificial atom coupled to a single-mode light field have been realized. Engineering such quantum systems offers the opportunity to explore extreme regimes of light-matter interaction that are inaccessible with natural systems. For instance the coupling strength $g$ can be increased until it is comparable with the atomic or mode frequency $\omega_{a,m}$ and the atom can be coupled to multiple modes which has always challenged our understanding of light-matter interaction. Here, we experimentally realize the first Transmon qubit in the ultra-strong coupling regime, reaching coupling ratios of $g/\omega_{m}=0.19$ and we measure multi-mode interactions through a hybridization of the qubit up to the fifth mode of the resonator. This is enabled by a qubit with 88% of its capacitance formed by a vacuum-gap capacitance with the center conductor of a coplanar waveguide resonator. In addition to potential applications in quantum information technologies due to its small size and localization of electric fields in vacuum, this new architecture offers the potential to further explore the novel regime of multi-mode ultra-strong coupling.
- Superconducting electronic devices have re-emerged as contenders for both classical and quantum computing due to their fast operation speeds, low dissipation and long coherence times. An ultimate demonstration of coherence is lasing. We use one of the fundamental aspects of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect, to demonstrate a laser made from a Josephson junction strongly coupled to a multi-mode superconducting cavity. A dc voltage bias to the junction provides a source of microwave photons, while the circuit's nonlinearity allows for efficient down-conversion of higher order Josephson frequencies down to the cavity's fundamental mode. The simple fabrication and operation allows for easy integration with a range of quantum devices, allowing for efficient on-chip generation of coherent microwave photons at low temperatures.
- Dec 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.08208v1We present a scalable scheme for executing the error-correction cycle of a monolithic surface-code fabric composed of fast-flux-tuneable transmon qubits with nearest-neighbor coupling. An eight-qubit unit cell forms the basis for repeating both the quantum hardware and coherent control, enabling spatial multiplexing. This control uses three fixed frequencies for all single-qubit gates and a unique frequency detuning pattern for each qubit in the cell. By pipelining the interaction and readout steps of ancilla-based $X$- and $Z$-type stabilizer measurements, we can engineer detuning patterns that avoid all second-order transmon-transmon interactions except those exploited in controlled-phase gates, regardless of fabric size. Our scheme is applicable to defect-based and planar logical qubits, including lattice surgery.
- Nov 16 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.04815v1We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of non-demolition measurements interleaving gate operations without pause. Applying the protocol on a transmon qubit achieves 0.999 average Clifford fidelity in one minute, as independently verified using randomized benchmarking and gate set tomography. The adjustable sensitivity of the cost function allows detecting fractional changes in gate error with nearly constant signal-to-noise ratio. The restless concept demonstrated can be readily extended to the tuneup of two-qubit gates and measurement operations.
- Nov 01 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1610.10065v1The quantum Rabi model describing the fundamental interaction between light and matter is a cornerstone of quantum physics. It predicts exotic phenomena like quantum phase transitions and ground-state entanglement in the ultrastrong-coupling (USC) regime, where coupling strengths are comparable to subsystem energies. Despite progress in many experimental platforms, the few experiments reaching USC have been limited to spectroscopy: demonstrating USC dynamics remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we employ a circuit QED chip with moderate coupling between a resonator and transmon qubit to realise accurate digital quantum simulation of USC dynamics. We advance the state of the art in solid-state digital quantum simulation by using up to 90 second-order Trotter steps and probing both subsystems in a combined Hilbert space dimension $\sim80$, demonstrating the Schrödinger-cat like entanglement and build-up of large photon numbers characteristic of deep USC. This work opens the door to exploring extreme USC regimes, quantum phase transitions and many-body effects in the Dicke model.
- Apr 05 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1604.00916v2We present two pulse schemes for actively depleting measurement photons from a readout resonator in the nonlinear dispersive regime of circuit QED. One method uses digital feedback conditioned on the measurement outcome while the other is unconditional. In the absence of analytic forms and symmetries to exploit in this nonlinear regime, the depletion pulses are numerically optimized using the Powell method. We shorten the photon depletion time by more than six inverse resonator linewidths compared to passive depletion by waiting. We quantify the benefit by emulating an ancilla qubit performing repeated quantum parity checks in a repetition code. Fast depletion increases the mean number of cycles to a spurious error detection event from order 1 to 75 at a 1 microsecond cycle time.
- A critical ingredient for realizing large-scale quantum information processors will be the ability to make economical use of qubit control hardware. We demonstrate an extensible strategy for reusing control hardware on same-frequency transmon qubits in a circuit QED chip with surface-code-compatible connectivity. A vector switch matrix enables selective broadcasting of input pulses to multiple transmons with individual tailoring of pulse quadratures for each, as required to minimize the effects of leakage on weakly anharmonic qubits. Using randomized benchmarking, we compare multiple broadcasting strategies that each pass the surface-code error threshold for single-qubit gates. In particular, we introduce a selective-broadcasting control strategy using five pulse primitives, which allows independent, simultaneous Clifford gates on arbitrary numbers of qubits.
- Mar 31 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1503.08483v1We report the realization of quantum microwave circuits using hybrid superconductor-semiconductor Josephson elements comprised of InAs nanowires contacted by NbTiN. Capacitively-shunted single elements behave as transmon qubits with electrically tunable transition frequencies. Two-element circuits also exhibit transmon-like behavior near zero applied flux, but behave as flux qubits at half the flux quantum, where non-sinusoidal current-phase relations in the elements produce a double-well Josephson potential. These hybrid Josephson elements are promising for applications requiring microwave superconducting circuits operating in magnetic field.
- We present microwave-frequency NbTiN resonators on silicon, systematically achieving internal quality factors above 1 M in the quantum regime. We use two techniques to reduce losses associated with two-level systems: an additional substrate surface treatment prior to NbTiN deposition to optimize the metal-substrate interface, and deep reactive-ion etching of the substrate to displace the substrate-vacuum interfaces away from high electric fields. The temperature and power dependence of resonator behavior indicate that two-level systems still contribute significantly to energy dissipation, suggesting that more interface optimization could further improve performance.
- Nov 21 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1411.5542v1Quantum data is susceptible to decoherence induced by the environment and to errors in the hardware processing it. A future fault-tolerant quantum computer will use quantum error correction (QEC) to actively protect against both. In the smallest QEC codes, the information in one logical qubit is encoded in a two-dimensional subspace of a larger Hilbert space of multiple physical qubits. For each code, a set of non-demolition multi-qubit measurements, termed stabilizers, can discretize and signal physical qubit errors without collapsing the encoded information. Experimental demonstrations of QEC to date, using nuclear magnetic resonance, trapped ions, photons, superconducting qubits, and NV centers in diamond, have circumvented stabilizers at the cost of decoding at the end of a QEC cycle. This decoding leaves the quantum information vulnerable to physical qubit errors until re-encoding, violating a basic requirement for fault tolerance. Using a five-qubit superconducting processor, we realize the two parity measurements comprising the stabilizers of the three-qubit repetition code protecting one logical qubit from physical bit-flip errors. We construct these stabilizers as parallelized indirect measurements using ancillary qubits, and evidence their non-demolition character by generating three-qubit entanglement from superposition states. We demonstrate stabilizer-based quantum error detection (QED) by subjecting a logical qubit to coherent and incoherent bit-flip errors on its constituent physical qubits. While increased physical qubit coherence times and shorter QED blocks are required to actively safeguard quantum information, this demonstration is a critical step toward larger codes based on multiple parity measurements.
- May 05 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1405.0450v2A challenge for scaling up quantum processors using frequency-crowded, weakly anharmonic qubits is to drive individual qubits without causing leakage into non-computational levels of the others, while also minimizing the number of control lines. To address this, we implement single-qubit Wah-Wah control in a circuit QED processor with a single feedline for all transmon qubits, operating at the maximum gate speed achievable given the frequency crowding. Randomized benchmarking and quantum process tomography confirm alternating qubit control with $\leq$1% average error per computational step and decoherence-limited idling of one qubit while driving another with a Wah-Wah pulse train.
- Apr 20 2011 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1104.3743v1We consider the time evolution of a two level system (a two level atom or a qubit) and show that it is characterized by a local (in time) gauge invariant evolution equation. The covariant derivative operator is constructed and related to the free energy. We show that the gauge invariant characterization of the time evolution of the two level system is analogous to the birefringence phenomenon in optics. The relation with Berry-like and Anandan--Aharonov phase is pointed out. Finally, we discuss entropy, environment effects and the distance in projective Hilbert space between two level states in their evolution.
- Apr 20 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1104.3771v1We discuss the presence of a geometrical phase in the evolution of a qubit state and its gauge structure. The time evolution operator is found to be the free energy operator, rather than the Hamiltonian operator.