results for au:Bromley_T in:quant-ph

- Mar 29 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.10730v1Boson sampling devices are a prime candidate for exhibiting quantum supremacy, yet their application for solving problems of practical interest is less well understood. Here we show that Gaussian boson sampling (GBS) can be used for dense subgraph identification. Focusing on the NP-hard densest k-subgraph problem, we find that stochastic algorithms are enhanced through GBS, which selects dense subgraphs with high probability. These findings rely on a link between graph density and the number of perfect matchings -- enumerated by the Hafnian -- which is the relevant quantity determining sampling probabilities in GBS. We test our findings by constructing GBS-enhanced versions of the random search and simulated annealing algorithms and apply them through numerical simulations of GBS to identify the densest subgraph of a 30 vertex graph.
- Mar 29 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.10731v1Hard optimization problems are often approached by finding approximate solutions. Here, we highlight the concept of proportional sampling and discuss how it can be used to improve the performance of stochastic algorithms for optimization. We introduce an NP-Hard problem called Max-Haf and show that Gaussian boson sampling (GBS) can be used to enhance any stochastic algorithm for this problem. These results are applied by introducing hybrid algorithms which are GBS-enhanced versions of the random search, simulated annealing, and greedy algorithms. Through numerical simulations, we confirm that all algorithms are improved when employing GBS, and that GBS-enhanced random search performs the best despite being the one with the simplest underlying classical routine.
- Mar 20 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.07039v1Machine learning is a crucial aspect of artificial intelligence. This paper details an approach for quantum Hebbian learning through a batched version of quantum state exponentiation. Here, batches of quantum data are interacted with learning and processing quantum bits (qubits) by a series of elementary controlled partial swap operations, resulting in a Hamiltonian simulation of the statistical ensemble of the data. We decompose this elementary operation into one and two qubit quantum gates from the Clifford+$T$ set and use the decomposition to perform an efficiency analysis. Our construction of quantum Hebbian learning is motivated by extension from the established classical approach, and it can be used to find details about the data such as eigenvalues through phase estimation. This work contributes to the near-term development and implementation of quantum machine learning techniques.
- The recent development of general quantum resource theories has given a sound basis for the quantification of useful quantum effects. Nevertheless, the evaluation of a resource measure can be highly non-trivial, involving an optimisation that is often intractable analytically or intensive numerically. In this paper, we describe a general framework that provides quantitative lower bounds to any resource quantifier that satisfies the essential property of monotonicity under the corresponding set of free operations. Our framework relies on projecting all quantum states onto a restricted subset using a fixed resource non-increasing operation. The resources of the resultant family can then be evaluated using a simplified optimisation, with the result providing lower bounds on the resource contents of any state. This approach also reduces the experimental overhead, requiring only the relevant statistics of the restricted family of states. We illustrate the application of our framework by focussing on the resource of multiqubit entanglement.
- Oct 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.03599v2Quantum computing allows for the potential of significant advancements in both the speed and the capacity of widely-used machine learning techniques. Here we employ quantum algorithms for the Hopfield network, which can be used for pattern recognition, reconstruction, and optimization as a realization of a content addressable memory system. We show that an exponentially large network can be stored in a polynomial number of quantum bits by encoding the network into the amplitudes of quantum states. By introducing a new classical technique for operating the Hopfield network, we can leverage quantum algorithms to obtain a quantum computational complexity that is logarithmic in the dimension of the data. This potentially yields an exponential speed-up in comparison to classical approaches. We also present an application of our method as a genetic sequence recognizer.
- Jul 18 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech math-ph math.MP physics.data-an physics.optics arXiv:1707.05282v1Quantum systems may exist in a coherent superposition of "classical" orthogonal states, which is one of the fundamental departures of quantum mechanics from the classical setting. Measuring the amount of genuine multilevel coherence -- which considers the number of superposed classical states required to describe a quantum system -- is essential for gauging nonclassicality and its quantitative role in the performance of quantum technologies. Here, we introduce the robustness of multilevel coherence, a measure which we show to be efficient to compute numerically and accessible experimentally. We witness the robustness of multilevel coherence by performing a quasi-device-independent phase discrimination task, which is implemented with four-dimensional quantum probes in a photonic setup. Our results contribute to understanding the operational relevance of quantum resources by identifying genuine multilevel coherence as the key ingredient for enhanced phase discrimination, and suggest ways to reliably and effectively test the quantum behaviour of physical systems.
- Apr 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.04153v3Characterizing genuine quantum resources and determining operational rules for their manipulation are crucial steps to appraise possibilities and limitations of quantum technologies. Two such key resources are nonclassicality, manifested as quantum superposition between reference states of a single system, and entanglement, capturing quantum correlations among two or more subsystems. Here we present a general formalism for the conversion of nonclassicality into multipartite entanglement, showing that a faithful reversible transformation between the two resources is always possible within a precise resource-theoretic framework. Specializing to quantum coherence between the levels of a quantum system as an instance of nonclassicality, we introduce explicit protocols for such a mapping. We further show that the conversion relates multilevel coherence and multipartite entanglement not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, restricting the amount of entanglement achievable in the process and in particular yielding an equality between the two resources when quantified by fidelity-based geometric measures.
- In this didactic article we explore the concept of quantum correlations beyond entanglement. We begin by introducing and motivating the classically correlated states and then showing how to quantify the quantum correlations using an entropic approach, arriving at a well known measure called the quantum discord. Quantum correlations and discord are then operationally linked with the task of local broadcasting. We conclude by providing some alternative perspectives on quantum correlations and how to measure them.
- Entanglement has long stood as one of the characteristic features of quantum mechanics, yet recent developments have emphasized the importance of quantumness beyond entanglement for quantum foundations and technologies. We demonstrate that entanglement cannot entirely capture the worst-case sensitivity in quantum interferometry, when quantum probes are used to estimate the phase imprinted by a Hamiltonian, with fixed energy levels but variable eigenbasis, acting on one arm of an interferometer. This is shown by defining a bipartite entanglement monotone tailored to this interferometric setting and proving that it never exceeds the so-called interferometric power, a quantity which relies on more general quantum correlations beyond entanglement and captures the relevant resource. We then prove that the interferometric power can never increase when local commutativity-preserving operations are applied to qubit probes, an important step to validate such a quantity as a genuine quantum correlations monotone. These findings are accompanied by a room-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance experimental investigation, in which two-qubit states with extremal (maximal and minimal) interferometric power at fixed entanglement are produced and characterized.
- Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an overview of the current quest for a proper understanding and characterisation of the frontier between classical and quantum correlations in composite states. We focus on various approaches to define and quantify general quantum correlations, based on different yet interlinked physical perspectives, and comment on the operational significance of the ensuing measures for quantum technology tasks such as information encoding, distribution, discrimination and metrology. We then provide a broader outlook of a few applications in which quantumness beyond entanglement looks fit to play a key role.
- Apr 05 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.00532v4The problem of estimating an unknown phase $ \varphi $ using two-level probes in the presence of unital phase-covariant noise and using finite resources is investigated. We introduce a simple model in which the phase-imprinting operation on the probes is realized by a unitary transformation with a randomly sampled generator. We determine the optimal phase sensitivity in a sequential estimation protocol, and derive a general (tight-fitting) lower bound. The sensitivity grows quadratically with the number of applications $ N $ of the phase-imprinting operation, then attains a maximum at some $ N_\text{opt} $, and eventually decays to zero. We provide an estimate of $ N_\text{opt} $ in terms of accessible geometric properties of the noise and illustrate its usefulness as a guideline for optimizing the estimation protocol. The use of passive ancillas and of entangled probes in parallel to improve the phase sensitivity is also considered. We find that multi-probe entanglement may offer no practical advantage over single-probe coherence if the interrogation at the output is restricted to measuring local observables.
- Quantifying coherence is an essential endeavour for both quantum foundations and quantum technologies. Here the robustness of coherence is defined and proven a full monotone in the context of the recently introduced resource theories of quantum coherence. The measure is shown to be observable, as it can be recast as the expectation value of a coherence witness operator for any quantum state. The robustness of coherence is evaluated analytically on relevant classes of states, and an efficient semidefinite program that computes it on general states is given. An operational interpretation is finally provided: the robustness of coherence quantifies the advantage enabled by a quantum state in a phase-discrimination task.
- Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered as a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming, and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific relevance in phase discrimination and quantum metrology, an analytical calculation of its value for a relevant class of quantum states, and tight bounds that relate it to another previously defined coherence monotone.
- The ability to live in coherent superpositions is a signature trait of quantum systems and constitutes an irreplaceable resource for quantum-enhanced technologies. However, decoherence effects usually destroy quantum superpositions. It has been recently predicted that, in a composite quantum system exposed to dephasing noise, quantum coherence in a transversal reference basis can stay protected for indefinite time. This can occur for a class of quantum states independently of the measure used to quantify coherence, and requires no control on the system during the dynamics. Here, such an invariant coherence phenomenon is observed experimentally in two different setups based on nuclear magnetic resonance at room temperature, realising an effective quantum simulator of two- and four-qubit spin systems. Our study further reveals a novel interplay between coherence and various forms of correlations, and highlights the natural resilience of quantum effects in complex systems.
- Entanglement is a key ingredient for quantum technologies and a fundamental signature of quantumness in a broad range of phenomena encompassing many-body physics, thermodynamics, cosmology, and life sciences. For arbitrary multiparticle systems, entanglement quantification typically involves nontrivial optimisation problems, and may require demanding tomographical techniques. Here we develop an experimentally feasible approach to the evaluation of geometric measures of multiparticle entanglement. Our approach provides analytical results for particular classes of mixed states of N qubits, and computable lower bounds to global, partial, or genuine multiparticle entanglement of any general state. For global and partial entanglement, useful bounds are obtained with minimum effort, requiring local measurements in just three settings for any N. For genuine entanglement, a number of measurements scaling linearly with N is required. We demonstrate the power of our approach to estimate and quantify different types of multiparticle entanglement in a variety of N-qubit states useful for quantum information processing and recently engineered in laboratories with quantum optics and trapped ion setups.
- We analyse under which dynamical conditions the coherence of an open quantum system is totally unaffected by noise. For a single qubit, specific measures of coherence are found to freeze under different conditions, with no general agreement between them. Conversely, for an N-qubit system with even N, we identify universal conditions in terms of initial states and local incoherent channels such that all bona fide distance-based coherence monotones are left invariant during the entire evolution. This finding also provides an insightful physical interpretation for the freezing phenomenon of quantum correlations beyond entanglement. We further obtain analytical results for distance-based measures of coherence in two-qubit states with maximally mixed marginals.
- Quantum correlations in a composite system can be measured by resorting to a geometric approach, according to which the distance from the state of the system to a suitable set of classically correlated states is considered. Here we show that all distance functions, which respect natural assumptions of invariance under transposition, convexity, and contractivity under quantum channels, give rise to geometric quantifiers of quantum correlations which exhibit the peculiar freezing phenomenon, i.e., remain constant during the evolution of a paradigmatic class of states of two qubits each independently interacting with a non-dissipative decohering environment. Our results demonstrate from first principles that freezing of geometric quantum correlations is independent of the adopted distance and therefore universal. This finding paves the way to a deeper physical interpretation and future practical exploitation of the phenomenon for noisy quantum technologies.
- The notion of distance defined on the set of states of a composite quantum system can be used to quantify total, quantum and classical correlations in a unifying way. We provide new closed formulae for classical and total correlations of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states by considering the Bures distance. Complementing the known corresponding expressions for entanglement and more general quantum correlations, we thus complete the quantitative hierarchy of Bures correlations for Bell-diagonal states. We then explicitly calculate Bures correlations for two relevant families of states: Werner states and rank-2 Bell-diagonal states, highlighting the subadditivity which holds for total correlations with respect to the sum of classical and quantum ones when using Bures distance. Finally, we analyse a dynamical model of two independent qubits locally exposed to non-dissipative decoherence channels, where both quantum and classical correlations measured by Bures distance exhibit freezing phenomena, in analogy with other known quantifiers of correlations.