results for au:Briegel_H in:quant-ph

- Nov 27 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.08897v1Complete security proofs for quantum communication protocols can be notoriously involved, which convolutes their verification, and obfuscates the key physical insights the security finally relies on. In such cases, for the majority of the community, the utility of such proofs may be restricted. Here we provide a simple proof of confidentiality for parallel quantum channels established via entanglement distillation based on hashing, in the presence of noise, and a malicious eavesdropper who is restricted only by the laws of quantum mechanics. The direct contribution lies in improving the linear confidentiality levels of recurrence-type entanglement distillation protocols to exponential levels for hashing protocols. The proof directly exploits the security relevant physical properties: measurement-based quantum computation with resource states and the separation of Bell-pairs from an eavesdropper. The proof also holds for situations where Eve has full control over the input states, and obtains all information about the operations and noise applied by the parties. The resulting state after hashing is private, i.e., disentangled from the eavesdropper. Moreover, the noise regimes for entanglement distillation and confidentiality do not coincide: Confidentiality can be guaranteed even in situation where entanglement distillation fails. We extend our results to multiparty situations which are of special interest for secure quantum networks.
- Quantum information technologies, and intelligent learning systems, are both emergent technologies that will likely have a transforming impact on our society. The respective underlying fields of research -- quantum information (QI) versus machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) -- have their own specific challenges, which have hitherto been investigated largely independently. However, in a growing body of recent work, researchers have been probing the question to what extent these fields can learn and benefit from each other. QML explores the interaction between quantum computing and ML, investigating how results and techniques from one field can be used to solve the problems of the other. Recently, we have witnessed breakthroughs in both directions of influence. For instance, quantum computing is finding a vital application in providing speed-ups in ML, critical in our "big data" world. Conversely, ML already permeates cutting-edge technologies, and may become instrumental in advanced quantum technologies. Aside from quantum speed-up in data analysis, or classical ML optimization used in quantum experiments, quantum enhancements have also been demonstrated for interactive learning, highlighting the potential of quantum-enhanced learning agents. Finally, works exploring the use of AI for the very design of quantum experiments, and for performing parts of genuine research autonomously, have reported their first successes. Beyond the topics of mutual enhancement, researchers have also broached the fundamental issue of quantum generalizations of ML/AI concepts. This deals with questions of the very meaning of learning and intelligence in a world that is described by quantum mechanics. In this review, we describe the main ideas, recent developments, and progress in a broad spectrum of research investigating machine learning and artificial intelligence in the quantum domain.
- We report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of the quantum speed-up for learning agents utilizing a small-scale quantum information processor based on radiofrequency-driven trapped ions. The decision-making process of a quantum learning agent within the projective simulation paradigm for machine learning is implemented in a system of two qubits. The latter are realized using hyperfine states of two frequency-addressed atomic ions exposed to a static magnetic field gradient. We show that the deliberation time of this quantum learning agent is quadratically improved with respect to comparable classical learning agents. The performance of this quantum-enhanced learning agent highlights the potential of scalable quantum processors taking advantage of machine learning.
- How useful can machine learning be in a quantum laboratory? Here we raise the question of the potential of intelligent machines in the context of scientific research. A major motivation for the present work is the unknown reachability of various entanglement classes in quantum experiments. We investigate this question by using the projective simulation model, a physics-oriented approach to artificial intelligence. In our approach, the projective simulation system is challenged to design complex photonic quantum experiments that produce high-dimensional entangled multiphoton states, which are of high interest in modern quantum experiments. The artificial intelligence system learns to create a variety of entangled states, and improves the efficiency of their realization. In the process, the system autonomously (re)discovers experimental techniques which are only now becoming standard in modern quantum optical experiments - a trait which was not explicitly demanded from the system but emerged through the process of learning. Such features highlight the possibility that machines could have a significantly more creative role in future research.
- May 08 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.02174v2We introduce an alternative type of quantum repeater for long-range quantum communication with improved scaling with the distance. We show that by employing hashing, a deterministic entanglement distillation protocol with one-way communication, one obtains a scalable scheme that allows one to reach arbitrary distances, with constant overhead in resources per repeater station, and ultrahigh rates. In practical terms, we show that also with moderate resources of a few hundred qubits at each repeater station, one can reach intercontinental distances. At the same time, a measurement-based implementation allows one to tolerate high loss, but also operational and memory errors of the order of several percent per qubit. This opens the way for long-distance communication of big quantum data.
- Jan 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1612.09444v2We consider the explicit construction of resource states for measurement-based quantum information processing. We concentrate on special-purpose resource states that are capable to perform a certain operation or task, where we consider unitary Clifford circuits as well as non-trace preserving completely positive maps, more specifically probabilistic operations including Clifford operations and Pauli measurements. We concentrate on $1 \to m$ and $m \to 1$ operations, i.e. operations that map one input qubit to $m$ output qubits or vice versa. Examples of such operations include encoding and decoding in quantum error correction, entanglement purification or entanglement swapping. We provide a general framework to construct optimal resource states for complex tasks that are combinations of these elementary building blocks. All resource states only contain input and output qubits, and are hence of minimal size. We obtain a stabilizer description of the resulting resource states, which we also translate into a circuit pattern to experimentally generate these states. In particular, we derive recurrence relations at the level of stabilizers as key analytical tool to generate explicit (graph-) descriptions of families of resource states. This allows us to explicitly construct resource states for encoding, decoding and syndrome readout for concatenated quantum error correction codes, code switchers, multiple rounds of entanglement purification, quantum repeaters and combinations thereof (such as resource states for entanglement purification of encoded states).
- Nov 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.09999v2Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilizing entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement.
- The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.
- Oct 07 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.01907v2We present a security proof for establishing private entanglement by means of recurrence-type entanglement distillation protocols over noisy quantum channels. We consider protocols where the local devices are imperfect, and show that nonetheless a confidential quantum channel can be established, and used to e.g. perform distributed quantum computation in a secure manner. While our results are not fully device independent (which we argue to be unachievable in settings with quantum outputs), our proof holds for arbitrary channel noise and noisy local operations, and even in the case where the eavesdropper learns the noise. Our approach relies on non-trivial properties of distillation protocols which are used in conjunction with de-Finetti and post-selection-type techniques to reduce a general quantum attack in a non-asymptotic scenario to an i.i.d. setting. As a side result, we also provide entanglement distillation protocols for non-i.i.d. input states.
- Sep 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.08062v3Topological error correction codes are promising candidates to protect quantum computations from the deteriorating effects of noise. While some codes provide high noise thresholds suitable for robust quantum memories, others allow straightforward gate implementation needed for data processing. To exploit the particular advantages of different topological codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation, it is necessary to be able to switch between them. Here we propose a practical solution, subsystem lattice surgery, which requires only two-body nearest neighbor interactions in a fixed layout in addition to the indispensable error correction. This method can be used for the fault-tolerant transfer of quantum information between arbitrary topological subsystem codes in two dimensions and beyond. In particular, it can be employed to create a simple interface, a quantum bus, between noise resilient surface code memories and flexible color code processors.
- We consider a general class of models, where a reinforcement learning (RL) agent learns from cyclic interactions with an external environment via classical signals. Perceptual inputs are encoded as quantum states, which are subsequently transformed by a quantum channel representing the agent's memory, while the outcomes of measurements performed at the channel's output determine the agent's actions. The learning takes place via stepwise modifications of the channel properties. They are described by an update rule that is inspired by the projective simulation (PS) model and equipped with a glow mechanism that allows for a backpropagation of policy changes, analogous to the eligibility traces in RL and edge glow in PS. In this way, the model combines features of PS with the ability for generalization, offered by its physical embodiment as a quantum system. We apply the agent to various setups of an invasion game and a grid world, which serve as elementary model tasks allowing a direct comparison with a basic classical PS agent.
- Dec 23 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.07083v1In the context of measurement-based quantum computation a way of maintaining the coherence of a graph state is to measure its stabilizer operators. Aside from performing quantum error correction, it is possible to exploit the information gained from these measurements to characterize and then counteract a coherent source of errors; that is, to determine all the parameters of an error channel that applies a fixed - but unknown - unitary operation to the physical qubits. Such a channel is generated, e.g., by local stray fields that act on the qubits. We study the case in which each qubit of a given graph state may see a different error channel and we focus on channels given by a rotation on the Bloch sphere around either the x, y or z axis, for which analytical results can be given in a compact form. The possibility of reconstructing the channels at all qubits depends non-trivially on the topology of the graph state. We prove via perturbation methods that the reconstruction process is robust and supplement the analytic results with numerical evidence.
- Oct 29 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.08388v2The expected hitting time of discrete quantum walks on a hypercube (HC) is numerically known to be exponentially shorter than that of their classical analogs in terms of the scaling with the HC dimension. Recent numerical analyses illustrated that this scaling exists not only on the bare HC, but also when the HC graph is symmetrically and locally embedded into larger graphs. The present work investigates the necessity of symmetry and locality for the speed-up by considering embeddings that are nonsymmetric or nonlocal. We provide numerical evidence that the exponential speed-up survives also in these cases. Furthermore, our numerical simulations demonstrate that removing a single edge from the HC also does not destroy the exponential speed-up. In the nonlocal embedding of the HC we encounter dark states, which we analyze. We provide a general and detailed presentation of the mapping that reduces the exponentially large Hilbert space of the quantum walk to an effective subspace of polynomial scaling. This mapping is our essential tool to numerically study quantum walks in such high-dimensional structures.
- Coherent controlization, i.e., coherent conditioning of arbitrary single- or multi-qubit operations on the state of one or more control qubits, is an important ingredient for the flexible implementation of many algorithms in quantum computation. This is of particular significance when certain subroutines are changing over time or when they are frequently modified, such as in decision-making algorithms for learning agents. We propose a scheme to realize coherent controlization for any number of superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave resonator. For two and three qubits, we present an explicit construction that is of high relevance for quantum learning agents. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal, taking into account loss, dephasing, and the cavity self-Kerr effect.
- In this paper we provide a broad framework for describing learning agents in general quantum environments. We analyze the types of classically specified environments which allow for quantum enhancements in learning, by contrasting environments to quantum oracles. We show that whether or not quantum improvements are at all possible depends on the internal structure of the quantum environment. If the environments are constructed and the internal structure is appropriately chosen, or if the agent has limited capacities to influence the internal states of the environment, we show that improvements in learning times are possible in a broad range of scenarios. Such scenarios we call luck-favoring settings. The case of constructed environments is particularly relevant for the class of model-based learning agents, where our results imply a near-generic improvement.
- Jun 03 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.00985v1We review and discuss the potential of using measurement-based elements in quantum communication schemes, where certain tasks are realized with the help of entangled resource states that are processed by measurements. We consider long-range quantum communication based on the transmission of encoded quantum states, where encoding, decoding and syndrome read-out are implemented using small-scale resource states. We also discuss entanglement-based schemes and consider measurement-based quantum repeaters. An important element in these schemes is entanglement purification, which can also be implemented in a measurement-based way. We analyze the influence of noise and imperfections in these schemes, and show that measurement-based implementation allows for very large error thresholds of the order of 10\% noise per qubit and more. We show how to obtain optimal resource states for different tasks, and discuss first experimental realizations of measurement-based quantum error correction using trapped ions and photons.
- In this work we consider the problem of preparation of the stationary distribution of irreducible, time-reversible Markov chains, which is a fundamental task in algorithmic Markov chain theory. For the classical setting, this task has a complexity lower bound of $\Omega(1/\delta)$, where $\delta$ is the spectral gap of the Markov chain, and other dependencies contribute only logarithmically. In the quantum case, the conjectured complexity is $O(\sqrt{\delta^{-1}})$ (with other dependencies contributing only logarithmically). However, this bound has only been achieved for a few special classes of Markov chains. In this work, we provide a method for the sequential preparation of stationary distributions for sequences of general time-reversible $N-$state Markov chains, akin to the setting of simulated annealing methods. The complexity of preparation we achieve is $O(\sqrt{\delta^{-1}} N^{1/4})$, neglecting logarithmic factors. While this result falls short of the conjectured optimal time, it still provides at least a quadratic improvement over other straightforward approaches for quantum mixing applied in this setting.
- The preparation of the stationary distribution of irreducible, time-reversible Markov chains is a fundamental building block in many heuristic approaches to algorithmically hard problems. It has been conjectured that quantum analogs of classical mixing processes may offer a generic quadratic speed-up in realizing such stationary distributions. Such a speed-up would also imply a speed-up of a broad family of heuristic algorithms. However, a true quadratic speed up has thus far only been demonstrated for special classes of Markov chains. These results often presuppose a regular structure of the underlying graph of the Markov chain, and also a regularity in the transition probabilities. In this work, we demonstrate a true quadratic speed-up for a class of Markov chains where the restriction is only on the form of the stationary distribution, rather than directly on the Markov chain structure itself. In particular, we show efficient mixing can be achieved when it is beforehand known that the distribution is monotonically decreasing relative to a known order on the state space. Following this, we show that our approach extends to a wider class of distributions, where only a fraction of the shape of the distribution is known to be monotonic. Our approach is built on the Szegedy-type quantization of transition operators.
- Jul 11 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.2830v2A scheme that successfully employs quantum mechanics in the design of autonomous learning agents has recently been reported in the context of the projective simulation (PS) model for artificial intelligence. In that approach, the key feature of a PS agent, a specific type of memory which is explored via random walks, was shown to be amenable to quantization. In particular, classical random walks were substituted by Szegedy-type quantum walks, allowing for a speed-up. In this work we propose how such classical and quantum agents can be implemented in systems of trapped ions. We employ a generic construction by which the classical agents are `upgraded' to their quantum counterparts by nested coherent controlization, and we outline how this construction can be realized in ion traps. Our results provide a flexible modular architecture for the design of PS agents. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations of simple PS agents which analyze the robustness of our proposal under certain noise models.
- Jul 08 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.1535v2Quantum information processing devices need to be robust and stable against external noise and internal imperfections to ensure correct operation. In a setting of measurement-based quantum computation, we explore how an intelligent agent endowed with a projective simulator can act as controller to adapt measurement directions to an external stray field of unknown magnitude in a fixed direction. We assess the agent's learning behavior in static and time-varying fields and explore composition strategies in the projective simulator to improve the agent's performance. We demonstrate the applicability by correcting for stray fields in a measurement-based algorithm for Grover's search. Thereby, we lay out a path for adaptive controllers based on intelligent agents for quantum information tasks.
- May 23 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.5656v1Syndrome measurements made in quantum error correction contain more information than is typically used. We show that the statistics of data from syndrome measurements can be used to do the following: (i) estimation of parameters of an error channel, including the ability correct away the invertible part of the error channel, once it is estimated; (ii) hypothesis testing (or model selection) to distinguish error channels, e.g., to determine if the errors are correlated. The unifying theme is to make use of all of the information in the statistics of the data collected from syndrome measurements using machine learning and control algorithms.
- May 19 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.4207v1We investigate entanglement purification protocols based on hashing, where a large number of noisy entangled pairs is jointly processed to obtain a reduced number of perfect, noiseless copies. While hashing and breeding protocols are the only purification protocols that asymptotically obtain a nonzero yield, they are not applicable in a realistic scenario if local gates and measurements are imperfect. We show that such problems can be overcome by a compact measurement-based implementation, yielding entanglement purification schemes with nonzero yield that are applicable also in noisy scenarios, with tolerable noise per particle of several percent. We also generalize these findings to multiparty purification protocols for arbitrary graph states.
- Feb 03 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.8128v2We present setups for the practical realization of adding control to unknown subroutines, supplementing the existing quantum optical scheme for black-box control with a counterpart for the quantum control of the ordering of sequences of operations. We also provide schemes to realize either task using trapped ions. These practical circumventions of recent no-go theorems are based on existing technologies. We argue that the possibility to add control to unknown operations in practice is a common feature of many physical systems. Based on the proposed implementations we discuss the apparent contradictions between theory and practice.
- Jan 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.4997v2Can quantum mechanics help us in building intelligent robots and agents? One of the defining characteristics of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in any real-life situation is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Owing to, e.g., a large space of possible strategies, learning is typically slow. Even for a moderate task environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here we show that quantum physics can help and provide a significant speed-up for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. We introduce a large class of quantum learning agents for which we show a quadratic boost in their active learning efficiency over their classical analogues. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.
- Dec 18 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.4810v1We report on the experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities by entangled states of trapped ions. First we consider resource states for measurement-based quantum computation of between 3 and 7 ions and show that all strongly violate a Bell-type inequality for graph states, where the criterion for violation is a sufficiently high fidelity. Second we analyze GHZ states of up to 14 ions generated in a previous experiment using stronger Mermin-Klyshko inequalities, and show that in this case the violation of local realism increases exponentially with system size. These experiments represent a violation of multipartite Bell-type inequalities of deterministically prepared entangled states. In addition, the detection loophole is closed.
- Oct 24 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1310.6194v1We formulate a multiple-encounter model of the radical pair mechanism that is based on a random coupling of the radical pair to a minimal model environment. These occasional pulse-like couplings correspond to the radical encounters and give rise to both dephasing and recombination. While this is in agreement with the original model of Haberkorn and its extensions that assume additional dephasing, we show how a nonlinear master equation may be constructed to describe the conditional evolution of the radical pairs prior to the detection of their recombination. We propose a nonlinear master equation for the evolution of an ensemble of independently evolving radical pairs whose nonlinearity depends on the record of the fluorescence signal. We also reformulate Haberkorn's original argument on the physicality of reaction operators using the terminology of quantum optics/open quantum systems. Our model allows one to describe multiple encounters within the exponential model and connects this with the master equation approach. We include hitherto neglected effects of the encounters, such as a separate dephasing in the triplet subspace, and predict potential new effects, such as Grover reflections of radical spins, that may be observed if the strength and time of the encounters can be experimentally controlled.
- Sep 23 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1309.5253v1It has been proved by Kempe that discrete quantum walks on the hypercube (HC) hit exponentially faster than the classical analog. The same was also observed numerically by Krovi and Brun for a slightly different property, namely, the expected hitting time. Yet, to what extent this striking result survives in more general graphs, is to date an open question. Here we tackle this question by studying the expected hitting time for quantum walks on HCs that are embedded into larger symmetric structures. By performing numerical simulations of the discrete quantum walk and deriving a general expression for the classical hitting time, we observe an exponentially increasing gap between the expected classical and quantum hitting times, not only for walks on the bare HC, but also for a large family of embedded HCs. This suggests that the quantum speedup is stable with respect to such embeddings.
- Aug 26 2013 physics.chem-ph quant-ph arXiv:1308.5172v2Chemical magnetometers are radical pair systems such as solutions of pyrene and N,N-dimethylaniline (Py-DMA) that show magnetic field effects in their spin dynamics and their fluorescence. We investigate the existence and decay of quantum entanglement in free geminate Py-DMA radical pairs and discuss how entanglement can be assessed in these systems. We provide an entanglement witness and propose possible observables for experimentally estimating entanglement in radical pair systems with isotropic hyperfine couplings. As an application, we analyze how the field dependence of the entanglement lifetime in Py-DMA could in principle be used for magnetometry and illustrate the propagation of measurement errors in this approach.
- Aug 26 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.5209v2In measurement-based quantum computing an algorithm is performed by measurements on highly-entangled resource states. To date, several implementations were demonstrated, all of them assuming perfect noise-free environments. Here we consider measurement-based information processing in the presence of noise and demonstrate quantum error detection. We implement the protocol using a four-qubit photonic cluster state, where we first encode a general qubit non-locally such that phase errors can be detected. We then read out the error syndrome and analyze the output states after decoding. Our demonstration shows a building block for measurement-based quantum computing which is crucial for realistic scenarios.
- Aug 26 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.5102v1Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) represents a powerful and flexible framework for quantum information processing, based on the notion of entangled quantum states as computational resources. The most prominent application is the one-way quantum computer, with the cluster state as its universal resource. Here we demonstrate the principles of MBQC using deterministically generated graph states of up to 7 qubits, in a system of trapped atomic ions. Firstly we implement a universal set of operations for quantum computing. Secondly we demonstrate a family of measurement-based quantum error correction codes, and show their improved performance as the code length is increased. We show that all our graph states violate a multipartite Bell inequality and are therefore capable of information processing tasks that cannot be described by a local hidden variable model. The methods presented can directly be scaled up to generate graph states of several tens of qubits.
- Aug 22 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.4561v1We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within this error model we find a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication.
- Mar 13 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1303.2852v1We investigate measurement-based entanglement purification protocols (EPP) in the presence of local noise and imperfections. We derive a universal, protocol-independent threshold for the required quality of the local resource states, where we show that local noise per particle of up to 24% is tolerable. This corresponds to an increase of the noise threshold by almost an order of magnitude, based on the joint measurement-based implementation of sequential rounds of few-particle EPP. We generalize our results to multipartite EPP, where we encounter similarly high error thresholds.
- We present a new description of discrete space-time in 1+1 dimensions in terms of a set of elementary geometrical units that represent its independent classical degrees of freedom. This is achieved by means of a binary encoding that is ergodic in the class of space-time manifolds respecting coordinate invariance of general relativity. Space-time fluctuations can be represented in a classical lattice gas model whose Boltzmann weights are constructed with the discretized form of the Einstein-Hilbert action. Within this framework, it is possible to compute basic quantities such as the Ricci curvature tensor and the Einstein equations, and to evaluate the path integral of discrete gravity. The description as a lattice gas model also provides a novel way of quantization and, at the same time, to quantum simulation of fluctuating space-time.
- The yield of chemical reactions involving intermediate radical pairs is influenced by magnetic fields well beyond the levels expected from energy considerations. This dependence can be traced back to the microscopic dynamics of electron spins and constitutes the basis of the chemical compass. Here we propose a new experimental approach based on molecular photoswitches to achieve additional control on the chemical reaction and to allow short-time resolution of the spin dynamics. Our proposal enables experiments to test some of the standard assumptions of the radical pair model and improves the sensitivity of chemical magnetometers by two orders of magnitude.
- Apr 23 2012 physics.chem-ph quant-ph arXiv:1204.4634v1In theories of spin-dependent radical pair reactions, the time evolution of the radical pair, including the effect of the chemical kinetics, is described by a master equation in the Liouville formalism. For the description of the chemical kinetics, a number of possible reaction operators have been formulated in the literature. In this work, we present a framework that allows for a unified description of the various proposed mechanisms and the forms of reaction operators for the spin-selective recombination processes. Based on the concept that master equations can be derived from a microscopic description of the spin system interacting with external degrees of freedom, it is possible to gain insight into the underlying microscopic processes and to develop a systematic approach towards determining the specific form of reaction operator in concrete scenarios.
- Contrary to the usual picture that decoherence destroys quantum properties and causes the quantum-to-classical transition, we argue that decoherence can also play a constructive role in driving quantum dynamics and amplifying its results to macroscopic scales. We support this perspective by presenting an example system from spin chemistry, which is also of importance for biological systems, e.g. in avian magnetoreception.
- Apr 11 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1204.2178v1We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.
- Apr 05 2012 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1204.0904v1In d-dimensional lattices of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we analyze the heat current caused by two thermal baths of different temperature, which are coupled to opposite ends of the lattice, with focus on the validity of Fourier's law of heat conduction. We provide analytical solutions of the heat current through the quantum system in the non-equilibrium steady state using the rotating-wave approximation and bath interactions described by a master equation of Lindblad form. The influence of local dephasing in the transition of ballistic to diffusive transport is investigated.
- We analyze the steady-state energy transfer in a chain of coupled two-level systems connecting two thermal reservoirs. Through an analytic treatment we find that the energy current is independent of the system size, hence violating Fourier's law of heat conduction. The classical diffusive behavior in Fourier's law of heat conduction can be recovered by introducing decoherence to the quantum systems constituting the chain. Implications of these results on energy transfer in biological light harvesting systems, and the role of quantum coherences and entanglement are discussed.
- Nov 10 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.2126v1Very recently [Phys. Rev. E 82, 021921 (2010)] a simple mechanism was presented by which a molecule subjected to forced oscillations, out of thermal equilibrium, can maintain quantum entanglement between two of its quantum degrees of freedom. Crucially, entanglement can be maintained even in the presence of very intense noise, so intense that no entanglement is possible when the forced oscillations cease. This mechanism may allow for the presence of non-trivial quantum entanglement in biological systems. Here we significantly enlarge the study of this model. In particular, we show that the persistent generation of dynamic entanglement is not restricted to the bosonic heat bath model, but it can also be observed in other decoherence models, e.g. the spin gas model, and in non-Markovian scenarios. We also show how conformational changes can be used by an elementary machine to generate entanglement even in unfavorable conditions. In biological systems, similar mechanisms could be exploited by more complex molecular machines or motors.
- Apr 21 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1104.3883v3We revisit critically the recent claims, inspired by quantum optics and quantum information, that there is entanglement in the biological pigment protein complexes, and that it is responsible for the high transport efficiency. While unexpectedly long coherence times were experimentally demonstrated, the existence of entanglement is, at the moment, a purely theoretical conjecture; it is this conjecture that we analyze. As demonstrated by a toy model, a similar transport phenomenology can be obtained without generating entanglement. Furthermore, we also argue that even if entanglement does exist, it is purely incidental and seems to plays no essential role for the transport efficiency. We emphasize that our paper is not a proof that entanglement does not exist in light-harvesting complexes - this would require a knowledge of the system and its parameters well beyond the state of the art. Rather, we present a counter-example to the recent claims of entanglement, showing that the arguments, as they stand at the moment, are not sufficiently justified and hence cannot be taken as proof for the existence of entanglement, let alone of its essential role, in the excitation transport.
- We propose a model of a learning agent whose interaction with the environment is governed by a simulation-based projection, which allows the agent to project itself into future situations before it takes real action. Projective simulation is based on a random walk through a network of clips, which are elementary patches of episodic memory. The network of clips changes dynamically, both due to new perceptual input and due to certain compositional principles of the simulation process. During simulation, the clips are screened for specific features which trigger factual action of the agent. The scheme is different from other, computational, notions of simulation, and it provides a new element in an embodied cognitive science approach to intelligent action and learning. Our model provides a natural route for generalization to quantum-mechanical operation and connects the fields of reinforcement learning and quantum computation.
- We show that the partition function of many classical models with continuous degrees of freedom, e.g. abelian lattice gauge theories and statistical mechanical models, can be written as the partition function of an (enlarged) four-dimensional lattice gauge theory (LGT) with gauge group U(1). This result is very general that it includes models in different dimensions with different symmetries. In particular, we show that a U(1) LGT defined in a curved spacetime can be mapped to a U(1) LGT with a flat background metric. The result is achieved by expressing the U(1) LGT partition function as an inner product between two quantum states.
- Aug 02 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.5422v1We study a spin-gas model, where N_S system qubits are interacting with N_B bath qubits via many-body interactions. We consider multipartite Ising interactions and show how the effect of decoherence depends on the specific coupling between the system and its environment. For instance, we analyze the influence of decohenerce induced by k-body interactions for different values of k. Moreover, we study how the effect of decoherence depends on the correlation between baths that are coupled to different individual system qubit and compare Markovian with non-Markovian interactions. As examples we consider specific quantum many-body states and investigate their evolution under several different decoherence models. As a complementary investigation we study how the coupling to the environment can be employed to generate a desired multipartite state.
- Apr 13 2010 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1004.1907v2We show that a local Hamiltonian of spin-3/2 particles with only two-body nearest-neighbor Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki and exchange-type interactions has an unique ground state, which can be used to implement universal quantum computation merely with single-spin measurements. We prove that the Hamiltonian is gapped, independent of the system size. Our result provides a further step towards utilizing systems with condensed matter-type interactions for measurement-based quantum computation.
- Feb 03 2010 quant-ph physics.bio-ph arXiv:1002.0346v2Energy transfer plays a vital role in many natural and technological processes. In this work, we study the effects of mechanical motion on the excitation transfer through a chain of interacting molecules with application to biological scenarios of transfer processes. Our investigation demonstrates that, for various types of mechanical oscillations, the transfer efficiency is significantly enhanced over that of comparable static configurations. This enhancement is a genuine quantum signature, and requires the collaborative interplay between the quantum-coherent evolution of the excitation and the mechanical motion of the molecules; it has no analogue in the classical incoherent energy transfer. This effect may not only occur naturally, but it could be exploited in artificially designed systems to optimize transport processes. As an application, we discuss a simple and hence robust control technique.
- We present a simple mechanism for intra-molecular refrigeration, where parts of a molecule are actively cooled below the environmental temperature. We discuss the potential role and applications of such a mechanism in biology, in particular in enzymatic reactions.
- In our recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 230502 (2009)] we showed that the partition function of all classical spin models, including all discrete standard statistical models and all Abelian discrete lattice gauge theories (LGTs), can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 4-dimensional pure LGT with gauge group Z_2 (4D Z_2 LGT). This provides a unification of models with apparently very different features into a single complete model. The result uses an equality between the Hamilton function of any classical spin model and the Hamilton function of a model with all possible k-body Ising-type interactions, for all k, which we also prove. Here, we elaborate on the proof of the result, and we illustrate it by computing quantities of a specific model as a function of the partition function of the 4D Z_2 LGT. The result also allows one to establish a new method to compute the mean-field theory of Z_2 LGTs with d > 3, and to show that computing the partition function of the 4D Z_2 LGT is computationally hard (#P hard). The proof uses techniques from quantum information.
- Oct 08 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0910.1116v2Quantum computation offers a promising new kind of information processing, where the non-classical features of quantum mechanics can be harnessed and exploited. A number of models of quantum computation exist, including the now well-studied quantum circuit model. Although these models have been shown to be formally equivalent, their underlying elementary concepts and the requirements for their practical realization can differ significantly. The new paradigm of measurement-based quantum computation, where the processing of quantum information takes place by rounds of simple measurements on qubits prepared in a highly entangled state, is particularly exciting in this regard. In this article we discuss a number of recent developments in measurement-based quantum computation in both fundamental and practical issues, in particular regarding the power of quantum computation, the protection against noise (fault tolerance) and steps toward experimental realization. Moreover, we highlight a number of surprising connections between this field and other branches of physics and mathematics.
- Aug 11 2009 cond-mat.dis-nn quant-ph arXiv:0908.1312v1In this paper, we introduce a real-space renormalization transformation for random spin systems on 2D lattices. The general method is formulated for random systems and results from merging two well known real space renormalization techniques, namely the strong disorder renormalization technique (SDRT) and the contractor renormalization (CORE). We analyze the performance of the method on the 2D random transverse field Ising model (RTFIM).
- The radical pair mechanism is one of the two main hypotheses to explain the navigability of animals in weak magnetic fields, enabling e.g. birds to see the Earth's magnetic field. It also plays an essential role in the field of spin chemistry. Here, we show how quantum control can be used to either enhance or reduce the performance of such a chemical compass, providing a new route to further study the radical pair mechanism and its applications. We study the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism, and demonstrate intriguing connections between radical-pair entanglement and the magnetic field sensitivity of the compass. Beyond their immediate application to the radical pair mechanism, these results also demonstrate how state-of-the-art quantum technologies could potentially be used to probe and control biological functions.
- Apr 24 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0904.3641v2We investigate which quantum states can serve as universal resources for approximate and stochastic measurement-based quantum computation, in the sense that any quantum state can be generated from a given resource by means of single-qubit (local) operations assisted by classical communication. More precisely, we consider the approximate and stochastic generation of states, resulting e.g. from a restriction to finite measurement settings or from possible imperfections in the resources or local operations. We show that entanglement-based criteria for universality obtained for the exact, deterministic case can be lifted to the much more general approximate, stochastic case, moving from the idealized situation considered in previous works, to the practically relevant context of non-perfect state preparation. We find that any entanglement measure fulfilling some basic requirements needs to reach its maximum value on some element of an approximate, stochastic universal family of resource states, as the resource size grows. This allows us to rule out various families of states as being approximate, stochastic universal. We provide examples of resources that are efficient approximate universal, but not exact deterministic universal. We also study the robustness of universal resources for measurement-based quantum computation under realistic assumptions about the (imperfect) generation and manipulation of entangled states, giving an explicit expression for the impact that errors made in the preparation of the resource have on the possibility to use it for universal approximate and stochastic state preparation. Finally, we discuss the relation between our entanglement-based criteria and recent results regarding the uselessness of states with a high degree of geometric entanglement as universal resources.
- Feb 09 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0902.1097v2Recently, a framework was established to systematically construct novel universal resource states for measurement-based quantum computation using techniques involving finitely correlated states. With these methods, universal states were found which are in certain ways much less entangled than the original cluster state model, and it was hence believed that with this approach many of the extremal entanglement features of the cluster states could be relaxed. The new resources were constructed as "computationally universal" states--i.e. they allow one to efficiently reproduce the classical output of each quantum computation--whereas the cluster states are universal in a stronger sense since they are "universal state preparators". Here we show that the new resources are universal state preparators after all, and must therefore exhibit a whole class of extremal entanglement features, similar to the cluster states.
- We show that the partition function of all classical spin models, including all discrete Standard Statistical Models and all abelian discrete Lattice Gauge Theories (LGTs), can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of the 4D Z_2 LGT. In this way, all classical spin models with apparently very different features are unified in a single complete model, and a physical relation between all models is established. As applications of this result, we present a new method to do mean field theory for abelian discrete LGTs with d>3, and we show that the computation of the partition function of the 4D Z_2 LGT is a computationally hard (#P-hard) problem. We also extend our results to abelian continuous models, where we show the approximate completeness of the 4D Z_2 LGT. All results are proven using quantum information techniques.
- Dec 15 2008 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:0812.2368v1We study mappings between distinct classical spin systems that leave the partition function invariant. As recently shown in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 110501 (2008)], the partition function of the 2D square lattice Ising model in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field, can specialize to the partition function of any Ising system on an arbitrary graph. In this sense the 2D Ising model is said to be "complete". However, in order to obtain the above result, the coupling strengths on the 2D lattice must assume complex values, and thus do not allow for a physical interpretation. Here we show how a complete model with real -and, hence, "physical"- couplings can be obtained if the 3D Ising model is considered. We furthermore show how to map general q-state systems with possibly many-body interactions to the 2D Ising model with complex parameters, and give completeness results for these models with real parameters. We also demonstrate that the computational overhead in these constructions is in all relevant cases polynomial. These results are proved by invoking a recently found cross-connection between statistical mechanics and quantum information theory, where partition functions are expressed as quantum mechanical amplitudes. Within this framework, there exists a natural correspondence between many-body quantum states that allow universal quantum computation via local measurements only, and complete classical spin systems.
- Dec 12 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0812.2127v2We present general mappings between classical spin systems and quantum physics. More precisely, we show how to express partition functions and correlation functions of arbitrary classical spin models as inner products between quantum stabilizer states and product states, thereby generalizing mappings for some specific models established in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117207 (2007)]. For Ising- and Potts-type models with and without external magnetic field, we show how the entanglement features of the corresponding stabilizer states are related to the interaction pattern of the classical model, while the choice of product states encodes the details of interaction. These mappings establish a link between the fields of classical statistical mechanics and quantum information theory, which we utilize to transfer techniques and methods developed in one field to gain insight into the other. For example, we use quantum information techniques to recover well known duality relations and local symmetries of classical models in a simple way, and provide new classical simulation methods to simulate certain types of classical spin models. We show that in this way all inhomogeneous models of q-dimensional spins with pairwise interaction pattern specified by a graph of bounded tree-width can be simulated efficiently. Finally, we show relations between classical spin models and measurement-based quantum computation.
- An isotropic anti-ferromagnetic quantum state on a square lattice is characterized by symmetry arguments only. By construction, this quantum state is the result of an underlying valence bond structure without breaking any symmetry in the lattice or spin spaces. A detailed analysis of the correlations of the quantum state is given (using a mapping to a 2D classical statistical model and methods in field theory like mapping to the non-linear sigma model or bosonization techniques) as well as the results of numerical treatments (regarding exact diagonalization and variational methods). Finally, the physical relevance of the model is motivated. A comparison of the model to known anti-ferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulators is given by means of the two-point equal-time correlation function obtained i) numerically from the suggested state and ii) experimentally from neutron scattering on cuprates in the anti-ferromagnetic insulator phase.
- Sep 30 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0809.4906v2We demonstrate that entanglement can persistently recur in an oscillating two-spin molecule that is coupled to a hot and noisy environment, in which no static entanglement can survive. The system represents a non-equilibrium quantum system which, driven through the oscillatory motion, is prevented from reaching its (separable) thermal equilibrium state. Environmental noise, together with the driven motion, plays a constructive role by periodically resetting the system, even though it will destroy entanglement as usual. As a building block, the present simple mechanism supports the perspective that entanglement can exist also in systems which are exposed to a hot environment and to high levels of de-coherence, which we expect e.g. for biological systems. Our results furthermore suggest that entanglement plays a role in the heat exchange between molecular machines and environment. Experimental simulation of our model with trapped ions is within reach of the current state-of-the-art quantum technologies.
- We discuss the possibility of existence of entanglement in biological systems. Our arguments centre on the fact that biological systems are thermodynamic open driven systems far from equilibrium. In such systems error correction can occur which may maintain entanglement despite high levels of de-coherence. We also discuss the possibility of cooling (classical or quantum) at molecular level.
- What is the relation between spin squeezing and entanglement? To clarify this, we derive the full set of generalized spin squeezing inequalities for the detection of entanglement. These are inequalities for the mean values and variances of the collective angular momentum components J_k. They can be used for the experimental detection of entanglement in a system of spin-1/2 particles in which the spins cannot be individually addressed. We present various sets of inequalities that can detect all entangled states that can be detected based on the knowledge of: (i) the mean values and variances of J_k in three orthogonal directions, or (ii) the variances of J_k in three orthogonal directions, or (iii) the mean values of J_k^2 in three orthogonal directions or (iv) the mean values and variances of J_k in arbitrary directions. We compare our inequalities to known spin squeezing entanglement criteria and discuss to which extent spin squeezing is related to entanglement in the reduced two-qubit states. Finally, we apply our criteria for the detection of entanglement in spin models, showing that they can be used to detect bound entanglement in these systems.
- May 09 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0805.1214v1We present elementary mappings between classical lattice models and quantum circuits. These mappings provide a general framework to obtain efficiently simulable quantum gate sets from exactly solvable classical models. For example, we recover and generalize the simulability of Valiant's match-gates by invoking the solvability of the free-fermion eight-vertex model. Our mappings furthermore provide a systematic formalism to obtain simple quantum algorithms to approximate partition functions of lattice models in certain complex-parameter regimes. For example, we present an efficient quantum algorithm for the six-vertex model as well as a 2D Ising-type model. We finally show that simulating our quantum algorithms on a classical computer is as hard as simulating universal quantum computation (i.e. BQP-complete).
- Feb 28 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0802.4051v1We associate to every entanglement measure a family of measures which depend on a precision parameter, and which we call epsilon-measures of entanglement. Their definition aims at addressing a realistic scenario in which we need to estimate the amount of entanglement in a state that is only partially known. We show that many properties of the original measure are inherited by the family, in particular weak monotonicity under transformations applied by means of Local Operations and Classical Communication (LOCC). On the other hand, they may increase on average under stochastic LOCC. Remarkably, the epsilon-version of a convex entanglement measure is continuous even if the original entanglement measure is not, so that the epsilon-version of an entanglement measure may be actually considered a smoothed version of it.
- A quantum anti-ferromagnetic spin-1 model is characterised on a 2D lattice with the following requirements: i) The Hamiltonian is made out of nearest neighbour interactions. ii) It is homogeneous, translational and rotational invariant. iii) The ground state is a real singlet state of SU(2) (non-chiral). iv) It has a local spin-1 representation. Along the way to characterise the system, connections with classical statistical mechanics and integrable models are explored. Finally, the relevance of the model in the physics of low dimensional anti-ferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulators is discussed.
- Aug 20 2007 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:0708.2275v2We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins w.r.t the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.
- Jun 05 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.0423v2In a recent article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006), 107206], we have presented a class of states which is suitable as a variational set to find ground states in spin systems of arbitrary spatial dimension and with long-range entanglement. Here, we continue the exposition of our technique, extend from spin 1/2 to higher spins and use the boson Hubbard model as a non-trivial example to demonstrate our scheme.
- Jun 04 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.0154v1We consider the simulation of interacting high-dimensional systems using pairwise interacting qubits. The main tool in this context is the generation of effective many-body interactions, and we examine a number of different protocols for obtaining them. These methods include the usage of higher-order processes (commutator method), unitary conjugation or graph state encoding, as well as teleportation based approaches. We illustrate and compare these methods in detail and analyze the time cost for simulation. In the second part of the article, we investigate the influence of noise on the simulation process. We concentrate on errors in the interaction Hamiltonians and consider two generic noise models, (i) timing errors in pairwise interactions and (ii) noisy pairwise interactions described by Master equations of Lindblad form. We analyze and compare the effect of noise for the different simulation methods and propose a way to significantly reduce the influence of noise by making use of entanglement purification together with a teleportation based protocol.
- May 30 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0705.4165v2We give a review on entanglement purification for bipartite and multipartite quantum states, with the main focus on theoretical work carried out by our group in the last couple of years. We discuss entanglement purification in the context of quantum communication, where we emphasize its close relation to quantum error correction. Various bipartite and multipartite entanglement purification protocols are discussed, and their performance under idealized and realistic conditions is studied. Several applications of entanglement purification in quantum communication and computation are presented, which highlights the fact that entanglement purification is a fundamental tool in quantum information processing.
- Mar 16 2007 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0703138v1Quantum mechanical entanglement can exist in noisy open quantum systems at high temperature. A simple mechanism, where system particles are randomly reset to some standard initial state, can counteract the deteriorating effect of decoherence, resulting in an entangled steady state far from thermodynamical equilibrium. We present models for both gas-type systems and for strongly coupled systems. We point out in which way the entanglement resulting from such a reset mechanism is different from the entanglement that one can find in thermal states. We develop master equations to describe the system and its interaction with an environment, study toy models with two particles (qubits), where the master equation can often be solved analytically, and finally examine larger systems with possibly fluctuating particle numbers. We find that in gas-type systems, the reset mechanism can produce an entangled steady state for an arbitrary temperature of the environment, while this is not true in strongly coupled systems. But even then, the temperature range where one can find entangled steady states is typically much higher with the reset mechanism.
- We determine the complete set of generalized spin squeezing inequalities. These are entanglement criteria that can be used for the experimental detection of entanglement in a system of spin-1/2 particles in which the spins cannot be individually addressed. They can also be used to show the presence of bound entanglement in the thermal states of several spin models.
- Feb 26 2007 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0702211v2Given a single copy of a mixed state of the form \rho=\lambda\rho_1+(1-\lambda)\rho_2, what is the optimal measurement to estimate the parameter \lambda, if \rho_1 and \rho_2 are known? We present a general strategy to obtain the optimal measurements employing a Bayesian estimator. The measurements are chosen to minimize the deviation between the estimated- and the true value of \lambda. We explicitly determine the optimal measurements for a general two-dimensional system and for important higher dimensional cases.