We present a machine learning-based approach to lossy image compression which outperforms all existing codecs, while running in real-time. Our algorithm typically produces files 2.5 times smaller than JPEG and JPEG 2000, 2 times smaller than WebP, and 1.7 times smaller than BPG on datasets of generic images across all quality levels. At the same time, our codec is designed to be lightweight and deployable: for example, it can encode or decode the Kodak dataset in around 10ms per image on GPU. Our architecture is an autoencoder featuring pyramidal analysis, an adaptive coding module, and regularization of the expected codelength. We also supplement our approach with adversarial training specialized towards use in a compression setting: this enables us to produce visually pleasing reconstructions for very low bitrates.
Nov 23 2015 cs.CV
Over the last few years deep learning methods have emerged as one of the most prominent approaches for video analysis. However, so far their most successful applications have been in the area of video classification and detection, i.e., problems involving the prediction of a single class label or a handful of output variables per video. Furthermore, while deep networks are commonly recognized as the best models to use in these domains, there is a widespread perception that in order to yield successful results they often require time-consuming architecture search, manual tweaking of parameters and computationally intensive pre-processing or post-processing methods. In this paper we challenge these views by presenting a deep 3D convolutional architecture trained end to end to perform voxel-level prediction, i.e., to output a variable at every voxel of the video. Most importantly, we show that the same exact architecture can be used to achieve competitive results on three widely different voxel-prediction tasks: video semantic segmentation, optical flow estimation, and video coloring. The three networks learned on these problems are trained from raw video without any form of preprocessing and their outputs do not require post-processing to achieve outstanding performance. Thus, they offer an efficient alternative to traditional and much more computationally expensive methods in these video domains.
Distance metric learning (DML) approaches learn a transformation to a representation space where distance is in correspondence with a predefined notion of similarity. While such models offer a number of compelling benefits, it has been difficult for these to compete with modern classification algorithms in performance and even in feature extraction. In this work, we propose a novel approach explicitly designed to address a number of subtle yet important issues which have stymied earlier DML algorithms. It maintains an explicit model of the distributions of the different classes in representation space. It then employs this knowledge to adaptively assess similarity, and achieve local discrimination by penalizing class distribution overlap. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this idea on several tasks. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art classification results on a number of fine-grained visual recognition datasets, surpassing the standard softmax classifier and outperforming triplet loss by a relative margin of 30-40%. In terms of computational performance, it alleviates training inefficiencies in the traditional triplet loss, reaching the same error in 5-30 times fewer iterations. Beyond classification, we further validate the saliency of the learnt representations via their attribute concentration and hierarchy recovery properties, achieving 10-25% relative gains on the softmax classifier and 25-50% on triplet loss in these tasks.
Nov 13 2015 cs.CV
This paper aims to classify and locate objects accurately and efficiently, without using bounding box annotations. It is challenging as objects in the wild could appear at arbitrary locations and in different scales. In this paper, we propose a novel classification architecture ProNet based on convolutional neural networks. It uses computationally efficient neural networks to propose image regions that are likely to contain objects, and applies more powerful but slower networks on the proposed regions. The basic building block is a multi-scale fully-convolutional network which assigns object confidence scores to boxes at different locations and scales. We show that such networks can be trained effectively using image-level annotations, and can be connected into cascades or trees for efficient object classification. ProNet outperforms previous state-of-the-art significantly on PASCAL VOC 2012 and MS COCO datasets for object classification and point-based localization.
May 19 2015 cs.CV
With the widespread availability of cellphones and cameras that have GPS capabilities, it is common for images being uploaded to the Internet today to have GPS coordinates associated with them. In addition to research that tries to predict GPS coordinates from visual features, this also opens up the door to problems that are conditioned on the availability of GPS coordinates. In this work, we tackle the problem of performing image classification with location context, in which we are given the GPS coordinates for images in both the train and test phases. We explore different ways of encoding and extracting features from the GPS coordinates, and show how to naturally incorporate these features into a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), the current state-of-the-art for most image classification and recognition problems. We also show how it is possible to simultaneously learn the optimal pooling radii for a subset of our features within the CNN framework. To evaluate our model and to help promote research in this area, we identify a set of location-sensitive concepts and annotate a subset of the Yahoo Flickr Creative Commons 100M dataset that has GPS coordinates with these concepts, which we make publicly available. By leveraging location context, we are able to achieve almost a 7% gain in mean average precision.
Jan 26 2015 cs.CV
We explore the task of recognizing peoples' identities in photo albums in an unconstrained setting. To facilitate this, we introduce the new People In Photo Albums (PIPA) dataset, consisting of over 60000 instances of 2000 individuals collected from public Flickr photo albums. With only about half of the person images containing a frontal face, the recognition task is very challenging due to the large variations in pose, clothing, camera viewpoint, image resolution and illumination. We propose the Pose Invariant PErson Recognition (PIPER) method, which accumulates the cues of poselet-level person recognizers trained by deep convolutional networks to discount for the pose variations, combined with a face recognizer and a global recognizer. Experiments on three different settings confirm that in our unconstrained setup PIPER significantly improves on the performance of DeepFace, which is one of the best face recognizers as measured on the LFW dataset.
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) has become the most promising method for object recognition, repeatedly demonstrating record breaking results for image classification and object detection in recent years. However, a very deep CNN generally involves many layers with millions of parameters, making the storage of the network model to be extremely large. This prohibits the usage of deep CNNs on resource limited hardware, especially cell phones or other embedded devices. In this paper, we tackle this model storage issue by investigating information theoretical vector quantization methods for compressing the parameters of CNNs. In particular, we have found in terms of compressing the most storage demanding dense connected layers, vector quantization methods have a clear gain over existing matrix factorization methods. Simply applying k-means clustering to the weights or conducting product quantization can lead to a very good balance between model size and recognition accuracy. For the 1000-category classification task in the ImageNet challenge, we are able to achieve 16-24 times compression of the network with only 1% loss of classification accuracy using the state-of-the-art CNN.
Dec 03 2014 cs.CV
We propose a simple, yet effective approach for spatiotemporal feature learning using deep 3-dimensional convolutional networks (3D ConvNets) trained on a large scale supervised video dataset. Our findings are three-fold: 1) 3D ConvNets are more suitable for spatiotemporal feature learning compared to 2D ConvNets; 2) A homogeneous architecture with small 3x3x3 convolution kernels in all layers is among the best performing architectures for 3D ConvNets; and 3) Our learned features, namely C3D (Convolutional 3D), with a simple linear classifier outperform state-of-the-art methods on 4 different benchmarks and are comparable with current best methods on the other 2 benchmarks. In addition, the features are compact: achieving 52.8% accuracy on UCF101 dataset with only 10 dimensions and also very efficient to compute due to the fast inference of ConvNets. Finally, they are conceptually very simple and easy to train and use.
Jul 04 2014 cs.CV
We address the problem of detecting people in natural scenes using a part approach based on poselets. We propose a bootstrapping method that allows us to collect millions of weakly labeled examples for each poselet type. We use these examples to train a Convolutional Neural Net to discriminate different poselet types and separate them from the background class. We then use the trained CNN as a way to represent poselet patches with a Pose Discriminative Feature (PDF) vector -- a compact 256-dimensional feature vector that is effective at discriminating pose from appearance. We train the poselet model on top of PDF features and combine them with object-level CNNs for detection and bounding box prediction. The resulting model leads to state-of-the-art performance for human detection on the PASCAL datasets.
The availability of large labeled datasets has allowed Convolutional Network models to achieve impressive recognition results. However, in many settings manual annotation of the data is impractical; instead our data has noisy labels, i.e. there is some freely available label for each image which may or may not be accurate. In this paper, we explore the performance of discriminatively-trained Convnets when trained on such noisy data. We introduce an extra noise layer into the network which adapts the network outputs to match the noisy label distribution. The parameters of this noise layer can be estimated as part of the training process and involve simple modifications to current training infrastructures for deep networks. We demonstrate the approaches on several datasets, including large scale experiments on the ImageNet classification benchmark.
May 05 2014 cs.CV
We present a new dataset with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in object recognition by placing the question of object recognition in the context of the broader question of scene understanding. This is achieved by gathering images of complex everyday scenes containing common objects in their natural context. Objects are labeled using per-instance segmentations to aid in precise object localization. Our dataset contains photos of 91 objects types that would be easily recognizable by a 4 year old. With a total of 2.5 million labeled instances in 328k images, the creation of our dataset drew upon extensive crowd worker involvement via novel user interfaces for category detection, instance spotting and instance segmentation. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the dataset in comparison to PASCAL, ImageNet, and SUN. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for bounding box and segmentation detection results using a Deformable Parts Model.
Nov 23 2013 cs.CV
We propose a method for inferring human attributes (such as gender, hair style, clothes style, expression, action) from images of people under large variation of viewpoint, pose, appearance, articulation and occlusion. Convolutional Neural Nets (CNN) have been shown to perform very well on large scale object recognition problems. In the context of attribute classification, however, the signal is often subtle and it may cover only a small part of the image, while the image is dominated by the effects of pose and viewpoint. Discounting for pose variation would require training on very large labeled datasets which are not presently available. Part-based models, such as poselets and DPM have been shown to perform well for this problem but they are limited by shallow low-level features. We propose a new method which combines part-based models and deep learning by training pose-normalized CNNs. We show substantial improvement vs. state-of-the-art methods on challenging attribute classification tasks in unconstrained settings. Experiments confirm that our method outperforms both the best part-based methods on this problem and conventional CNNs trained on the full bounding box of the person.