results for au:Bernuzzi_S in:gr-qc

- Mar 22 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1803.07965v1The recent detection of gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts emitted during and after the collision of two neutron stars marks a breakthrough in the field of multi-messenger astronomy. Numerical relativity simulations are the only tool to describe the binary's merger dynamics in the regime when speeds are largest and gravity is strongest. In this work we report state-of-the-art binary neutron star simulations for irrotational (non-spinning) and spinning configurations. The main use of these simulations is to model the gravitational-wave signal. Key numerical requirements are the understanding of the convergence properties of the numerical data and a detailed error budget. The simulations have been performed on different HPC clusters, they use multiple grid resolutions, and are based on eccentricity reduced quasi-circular initial data. We obtain convergent waveforms with phase errors of 0.5-1.5 rad accumulated over approximately 12 orbits to merger. The waveforms have been used for the construction of a phenomenological waveform model which has been applied for the analysis of the recent binary neutron star detection. Additionally, we show that the data can also be used to test other state-of-the-art semi-analytical waveform models.
- Dec 13 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1712.04267v1We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant. We quantify the gravitational-wave luminosity of binary neutron star merger events, and set upper limits on the radiated energy and the remnant angular momentum from these events. We find that there is an empirical universal relation connecting the total gravitational radiation and the angular momentum of the remnant. Our results constrain the final spin of the remnant black-hole and also indicate that stable neutron star remnant forms with super-Keplerian angular momentum.
- Dec 11 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1712.02992v1We present the first set of numerical relativity simulations of binary neutron mergers that include spin precession effects and are evolved with multiple resolutions. Our simulations employ consistent initial data in general relativity with different spin configurations and dimensionless spin magnitudes $\sim 0.1$. They start at a gravitational-wave frequency of $\sim392$~Hz and cover more than $1$ precession period and about 15 orbits up to merger. We discuss the spin precession dynamics by analyzing coordinate trajectories, quasi-local spin measurements, and energetics, by comparing spin aligned, antialigned, and irrotational configurations. Gravitational waveforms from different spin configuration are compared by calculating the mismatch between pairs of waveforms in the late inspiral. We find that precession effects are not distinguishable from nonprecessing configurations with aligned spins for approximately face-on binaries, while the latter are distinguishable from a nonspinning configurations. Spin precession effects are instead clearly visible for approximately edge-on binaries. For the parameters considered here, precession does not significantly affect the characteristic postmerger gravitational-wave frequencies nor the mass ejection. Our results pave the way for the modeling of spin precession effects in the gravitational waveform from binary neutron star events.
- Nov 13 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.03647v3Gravitational waves detected from the binary neutron star (NS) merger GW170817 constrained the NS equation of state by placing an upper bound on certain parameters describing the binary's tidal interactions. We show that the interpretation of the UV/optical/infrared counterpart of GW170817 with kilonova models, combined with new numerical relativity results, imply a complementary lower bound on the tidal deformability parameter. The joint constraints tentatively rule out both extremely stiff and soft NS equations of state.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Jul 25 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.07537v1In a recent work, [Phys. Rev. D. 94, 104010 (2016)], hereafter Paper I, we have numerically studied different prescriptions for the dynamics of a spinning particle in circular motion around a Schwarzschild black hole. In the present work, we continue this line of investigation to the rotating Kerr black hole. We consider the Mathisson-Papapetrou formalism under three different spin-supplementary-conditions (SSC), the Tulczyjew SSC, the Pirani SSC and the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC, and analyze the different circular dynamics in terms of the ISCO shifts and the frequency parameter ${x \equiv (M \Omega)^{2/3}}$, where $\Omega$ is the orbital frequency and $M$ is the Kerr black hole mass. Then, we solve numerically the inhomogeneous $(2+1)D$ Teukolsky equation to contrast the asymptotic gravitational wave fluxes for the three cases. Our central observation made in Paper I for the Schwarzschild limit is found to hold true for the Kerr background: the three SSCs reduce to the same circular dynamics and the same radiation fluxes for small frequency parameters but differences arise as $x$ grows close to the ISCO. For a positive Kerr parameter $a=0.9$ the energy fluxes mutually agree with each other within a $0.2\%$ uncertainty up to $x<0.14$, while for $a=-0.9$ this level of agreement is preserved up to $x<0.1$. For large frequencies ($x \gtrsim 0.1$), however, the spin coupling of the Kerr black hole and the spinning body results in significant differences of the circular orbit parameters and the fluxes, especially for the $a=-0.9$ case. Instead, in the study of ISCO the negative Kerr parameter $a=-0.9$ results in less discrepancies in comparison with the positive Kerr parameter $a=0.9$.
- Jun 12 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1706.02969v1We construct closed-form gravitational waveforms (GWs) with tidal effects for the coalescence and merger of binary neutron stars. The method relies on a new set of eccentricity-reduced and high-resolution numerical relativity (NR) simulations and is composed of three steps. First, tidal contributions to the GW phase are extracted from the time-domain NR data. Second, those contributions are employed to fix high-order coefficients in an effective and resummed post-Newtonian expression. Third, frequency-domain tidal approximants are built using the stationary phase approximation. Our tidal approximants are valid from the low frequencies to the strong-field regime and up to merger. They can be analytically added to any binary black hole GW model to obtain a binary neutron star waveform, either in the time or in the frequency domain. This work provides simple, flexible, and accurate models ready to be used in both searches and parameter estimation of binary neutron star events.
- Jan 02 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1612.09566v2For a brief moment, a binary black hole (BBH) merger can be the most powerful astrophysical event in the visible universe. Here we present a model fit for this gravitational-wave peak luminosity of nonprecessing quasicircular BBH systems as a function of the masses and spins of the component black holes, based on numerical relativity (NR) simulations and the hierarchical fitting approach introduced by X. Jiménez-Forteza et al. [Phys. Rev. D 95, 064024 (2017), arXiv:1611.00332]. This fit improves over previous results in accuracy and parameter-space coverage and can be used to infer posterior distributions for the peak luminosity of future astrophysical signals like GW150914 and GW151226. The model is calibrated to the l<=6 modes of 378 nonprecessing NR simulations up to mass ratios of 18 and dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.995, and includes unequal-spin effects. We also constrain the fit to perturbative numerical results for large mass ratios. Studies of key contributions to the uncertainty in NR peak luminosities, such as (i) mode selection, (ii) finite resolution, (iii) finite extraction radius, and (iv) different methods for converting NR waveforms to luminosity, allow us to use NR simulations from four different codes as a homogeneous calibration set. This study of systematic fits to combined NR and large-mass-ratio data, including higher modes, also paves the way for improved inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform models.
- We present a proof-of-concept study, based on numerical-relativity simulations, of how gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star merger remnants can probe the nature of matter at extreme densities. Phase transitions and extra degrees of freedom can emerge at densities beyond those reached during the inspiral, and typically result in a softening of the equation of state (EOS). We show that such physical effects change the qualitative dynamics of the remnant evolution, but they are not identifiable as a signature in the GW frequency, with the exception of possible black-hole formation effects. The EOS softening is, instead, encoded in the GW luminosity and phase and is in principle detectable up to distances of the order of several Mpcs with advanced detectors and up to hundreds of Mpcs with third generation detectors. Probing extreme-density matter will require going beyond the current paradigm and developing a more holistic strategy for modeling and analyzing postmerger GW signals.
- We present new (3+1) dimensional numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) mergers that take into account the NS spins. We consider different spin configurations, aligned or antialigned to the orbital angular momentum, for equal and unequal mass BNS and for two equations of state. All the simulations employ quasiequilibrium circular initial data in the constant rotational velocity approach, i.e. they are consistent with Einstein equations and in hydrodynamical equilibrium. We study the NS rotation effect on the energetics, the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. For dimensionless spin magnitudes of $\chi\sim0.1$ we find that spin-orbit interactions and also spin-induced-quadrupole deformations affect the late-inspiral-merger dynamics. The latter is, however, dominated by finite-size effects. Spin (tidal) effects contribute to GW phase differences up to 5 (20) radians accumulated during the last eight orbits to merger. Similarly, after merger the collapse time of the remnant and the GW spectrogram are affected by the NSs rotation. Spin effects in dynamical ejecta are clearly observed in unequal mass systems in which mass ejection originates from the tidal tail of the companion. Consequently kilonovae and other EM counterparts are affected by spins. We find that spin aligned to the orbital angular momentum leads to brighter EM counterparts than antialigned spin with luminosities up to a factor of two higher.
- Oct 18 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1610.04742v1Gravitational-wave observations of binary neutron star systems can provide information about the masses, spins, and structure of neutron stars. However, this requires accurate and computationally efficient waveform models that take <1s to evaluate for use in Bayesian parameter estimation codes that perform 10^7 - 10^8 waveform evaluations. We present a surrogate model of a nonspinning effective-one-body waveform model with l = 2, 3, and 4 tidal multipole moments that reproduces waveforms of binary neutron star numerical simulations up to merger. The surrogate is built from compact sets of effective-one-body waveform amplitude and phase data that each form a reduced basis. We find that 12 amplitude and 7 phase basis elements are sufficient to reconstruct any binary neutron star waveform with a starting frequency of 10Hz. The surrogate has maximum errors of 3.8% in amplitude (0.04% excluding the last 100M before merger) and 0.043 radians in phase. The version implemented in the LIGO Algorithm Library takes ~0.07s to evaluate for a starting frequency of 30Hz and ~0.8s for a starting frequency of 10Hz, resulting in a speed-up factor of ~10^3 - 10^4 relative to the original Matlab code. This allows parameter estimation codes to run in days to weeks rather than years, and we demonstrate this with a Nested Sampling run that recovers the masses and tidal parameters of a simulated binary neutron star system.
- Sep 02 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1609.00356v1We consider a spinning test-body in circular motion around a nonrotating black hole and analyze different prescriptions for the body's dynamics. We compare, for the first time, the Mathisson-Papapetrou formalism under the Tulczyjew spin-supplementary-condition (SSC), the Pirani SSC and the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC, and the spinning particle limit of the effective-one-body Hamiltonian of [Phys.~Rev.~D.90,~044018(2014)]. We analyze the four different dynamics in terms of the ISCO shifts and in terms of the coordinate invariant binding energies, separating higher-order spin contributions from spin-orbit contributions. The asymptotic gravitational wave fluxes produced by the spinning body are computed by solving the inhomogeneous $(2+1)D$ Teukolsky equation and contrasted for the different cases. For small orbital frequencies $\Omega$, all the prescriptions reduce to the same dynamics and the same radiation fluxes. For large frequencies, ${x \equiv (M \Omega)^{2/3} >0.1 }$, where $M$ is the black hole mass, and especially for positive spins (aligned with orbital angular momentum) a significant disagreement between the different dynamics is observed. The ISCO shifts can differ up to a factor two for large positive spins; for the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak and the Pirani SSC the ISCO diverges around dimensionless spins $\sim0.52$ and $\sim0.94$ respectively. In the spin-orbit part of the energetics the deviation from the Hamiltonian dynamics is largest for the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC; it exceeds $10\%$ for $x>0.17$. The Tulczyjew and the Pirani SSCs behave compatible across almost the whole spin and frequency range. Our results will have direct application in including spin effects to effective-one-body waveform models for circularized binaries in the extreme-mass-ratio limit.
- Jul 25 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1607.06636v1We present new (3+1)D numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) merger and postmerger phase. We focus on a previously inaccessible region of the binary parameter space spanning the binary's mass-ratio $q\sim1.00-1.75$ for different total masses and equations of state, and up to $q\sim2$ for a stiff BNS system. We study the mass-ratio effect on the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. We compute waveforms, spectra, and spectrograms of the GW strain including all the multipoles up to $l=4$. The mass-ratio has a specific imprint on the GW multipoles in the late-inspiral-merger signal, and it affects qualitatively the spectra of the merger remnant. The multipole effect is also studied by considering the dependency of the GW spectrograms on the source's sky location. Unequal mass BNSs produce more ejecta than equal mass systems with ejecta masses and kinetic energies depending almost linearly on $q$. We estimate luminosity peaks and light curves of macronovae events associated to the mergers using a simple approach. For $q\sim2$ the luminosity peak is delayed for several days and can be up to four times larger than for the $q=1$ cases. The macronova emission associated with the $q\sim2$ BNS is more persistent in time and could be observed for weeks instead of few days ($q=1$) in the near infrared. Finally, we estimate the flux of possible radio flares produced by the interaction of relativistic outflows with the surrounding medium. Also in this case a large $q$ can significantly enhance the emission and delay the peak luminosity. Overall, our results indicate that BNS merger with large mass ratio have EM signatures distinct from the equal mass case and more similar to black hole - neutron star binaries.
- Apr 28 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1604.07999v2The theoretical modeling of gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star mergers requires precise numerical relativity simulations. Assessing convergence of the numerical data and building the error budget is currently challenging due to the low accuracy of general-relativistic hydrodynamics schemes and to the grid resolutions that can be employed in $(3+1)$-dimensional simulations. In this work, we explore the use of high-order weighted-essentially-nonoscillatory (WENO) schemes in neutron star merger simulations and investigate the accuracy of the waveforms obtained with such methods. We find that high-order WENO schemes can be robustly employed for simulating the inspiral-merger phase and they significantly improve the assessment of the waveform's error budget with respect to finite-volume methods. High-order WENO schemes can be thus efficiently used for high-quality waveforms production, also in future large-scale investigations of the binary parameter space.
- Mar 21 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1603.05726v2We study the development and saturation of the $m=1$ one-armed spiral instability in remnants of binary neutron star mergers by means of high-resolution long-term numerical relativity simulations. Our results suggest that this instability is a generic outcome of neutron stars mergers in astrophysically relevant configurations; including both "stiff" and "soft" nuclear equations of state. We find that, once seeded at merger, the $m=1$ mode saturates within $\sim 10\ \mathrm{ms}$ and persists over secular timescales. Gravitational waves emitted by the $m=1$ instability have a peak frequency around $1-2\ \mathrm{kHz}$ and, if detected, could be used to constrain the equation of state of neutron stars. We construct hybrid waveforms spanning the entire Advanced LIGO band by combining our high-resolution numerical data with state-of-the-art effective-one-body waveforms including tidal effects. We use the complete hybrid waveforms to study the detectability of the one-armed spiral instability for both Advanced LIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We conclude that the one-armed spiral instability is not an efficient gravitational wave emitter. Its observation by current generation detectors is unlikely and will require third-generation interferometers.
- Dec 22 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1512.06397v2We present results from the first large parameter study of neutron star mergers using fully general relativistic simulations with finite-temperature microphysical equations of state and neutrino cooling. We consider equal and unequal-mass binaries drawn from the galactic population and simulate each binary with three different equations of state. Our focus is on the emission of energy and angular momentum in gravitational waves in the postmerger phase. We find that the emitted gravitational-wave energy in the first $\sim$$10\,\mathrm{ms}$ of the life of the resulting hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) is about twice the energy emitted over the entire inspiral history of the binary. The total radiated energy per binary mass is comparable to or larger than that of nonspinning black hole inspiral-mergers. About $0.8-2.5\%$ of the binary mass-energy is emitted at kHz frequencies in the early HMNS evolution. We find a clear dependence of the postmerger GW emission on binary configuration and equation of state and show that it can be encoded as a broad function of the binary tidal coupling constant $\kappa^T_2$. Our results also demonstrate that the dimensionless spin of black holes resulting from subsequent HMNS collapse are limited to $\lesssim0.7-0.8$. This may significantly impact the neutrino pair annihilation mechanism for powering short gamma-ray bursts (sGRB).
- Oct 20 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1510.05548v2We present a new computation of the asymptotic gravitational wave energy fluxes emitted by a \it spinning particle in circular equatorial orbits about a Kerr black hole. The particle dynamics is computed in the pole-dipole approximation, solving the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations with the Tulczyjew spin-supplementary-condition. The fluxes are computed, for the first time, by solving the 2+1 Teukolsky equation in the time-domain using hyperboloidal and horizon-penetrating coordinates. Denoting by $M$ the black hole mass and by $\mu$ the particle mass, we cover dimensionless background spins $a/M=(0,\pm0.9)$ and dimensionless particle spins $-0.9\leq S/\mu^2 \leq +0.9$. Our results span orbits of Boyer-Lindquist coordinate radii $4\leq r/M \leq 30$; notably, we investigate the strong-field regime, in some cases even beyond the last-stable-orbit. We confirm, numerically, the Tanaka \it et al. [Phys.\ Rev.\ D 54, 3762] 2.5th order accurate Post-Newtonian (PN) predictions for the gravitational wave fluxes of a spinning particle in circular equatorial orbit: we find an unambiguos trend of the PN-prediction towards the numerical results when $r$ is large. At $r/M=30$ the fractional agreement between the full numerical flux, approximated as the sum over the modes $m=1,2,3$, and the PN prediction is $\lesssim0.5\%$ in all cases tested. This is close to our fractional numerical accuracy ($\sim 0.2\%$). For smaller radii, the agreement between the 2.5PN prediction and the numerical result progressively deteriorates. Our numerical data will be essential to develop suitably resummed expressions of the 2.5PN analytical fluxes in order to improve their accuracy in the strong-field regime.
- Sep 22 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1509.05782v3Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the nontidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of $<1$ radian over $\sim 15$ orbits. The numerical phase accuracy required of BNS simulations to measure the accuracy of the method we present here is estimated as a function of the tidal deformability parameter ${\lambda}$.
- Aug 31 2015 gr-qc physics.comp-ph arXiv:1508.07147v1Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods coupled to WENO algorithms allow high order convergence for smooth problems and for the simulation of discontinuities and shocks. In this work, we investigate WENO-DG algorithms in the context of numerical general relativity, in particular for general relativistic hydrodynamics. We implement the standard WENO method at different orders, a compact (simple) WENO scheme, as well as an alternative subcell evolution algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the different numerical schemes, we study non-relativistic, special relativistic, and general relativistic testbeds. We present the first three-dimensional simulations of general relativistic hydrodynamics, albeit for a fixed spacetime background, within the framework of WENO-DG methods. The most important testbed is a single TOV-star in three dimensions, showing that long term stable simulations of single isolated neutron stars can be obtained with WENO-DG methods.
- Information about the last stages of a binary neutron star inspiral and the final merger can be extracted from quasi-equilibrium configurations and dynamical evolutions. In this article, we construct quasi-equilibrium configurations for different spins, eccentricities, mass ratios, compactnesses, and equations of state. For this purpose we employ the SGRID code, which allows us to construct such data in previously inaccessible regions of the parameter space. In particular, we consider spinning neutron stars in isolation and in binary systems; we incorporate new methods to produce highly eccentric and eccentricity reduced data; we present the possibility of computing data for significantly unequal-mass binaries; and we create equal-mass binaries with individual compactness up to 0.23. As a proof of principle, we explore the dynamical evolution of three new configurations. First, we simulate a $q=2.06$ mass ratio which is the highest mass ratio for a binary neutron star evolved in numerical relativity to date. We find that mass transfer from the companion star sets in a few revolutions before merger and a rest mass of $\sim10^{-2}M_\odot$ is transferred between the two stars. This configuration also ejects a large amount of material during merger, imparting a substantial kick to the remnant. Second, we simulate the first merger of a precessing binary neutron star. We present the dominant modes of the gravitational waves for the precessing simulation, where a clear imprint of the precession is visible in the (2,1) mode. Finally, we quantify the effect of an eccentricity reduction procedure on the gravitational waveform. The procedure improves the waveform quality and should be employed in future precision studies, but also other errors, notably truncation errors, need to be reduced in order for the improvement due to eccentricity reduction to be effective. [abridged]
- Apr 09 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1504.01764v3In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency $f_2$ related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that $f_2$ is correlated with the tidal coupling constant $\kappa^T_2$ that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral--merger. The relation $f_2(\kappa^T_2)$ depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass-ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.
- We study equal and unequal-mass neutron star mergers by means of new numerical relativity simulations in which the general relativistic hydrodynamics solver employs an algorithm that guarantees mass conservation across the refinement levels of the computational mesh. We consider eight binary configurations with total mass $M=2.7\,M_\odot$, mass-ratios $q=1$ and $q=1.16$, and four different equation of states (EOSs), and one configuration with a stiff EOS, $M=2.5M_\odot$ and $q=1.5$. We focus on the post-merger dynamics and study the merger remnant, dynamical ejecta and the postmerger gravitational wave spectrum. Although most of the merger remnants form a hypermassive neutron star collapsing to a black hole+disk system on dynamical timescales, stiff EOSs can eventually produce a stable massive neutron star. Ejecta are mostly emitted around the orbital plane; favored by large mass ratios and softer EOS. The postmerger wave spectrum is mainly characterized by non-axisymmetric oscillations of the remnant. The stiff EOS configuration consisting of a $1.5M_\odot$ and a $1.0M_\odot$ neutron star shows a rather peculiar dynamics. During merger the companion star is very deformed; about~$\sim0.03M_\odot$ of rest-mass becomes unbound from the tidal tail due torque; and the merger remnant forms stable neutron star surrounded by a massive accretion disk $\sim0.3M_\odot$. Similar configurations might be particularly interesting for electromagnetic counterparts. Comparing results obtained with and without the conservative mesh refinement algorithm, we find that post-merger simulations can be affected by systematic errors if mass conservation is not enforced in the mesh refinement strategy. However, mass conservation also depends on grid details and on the artificial atmosphere setup. [abridged]
- Dec 18 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1412.5499v3We reexamine the gravitational collapse of rotating neutron stars to black holes by new 3+1 numerical relativity simulations employing the Z4c formulation of Einstein equations, the moving puncture gauge conditions, and a conservative mesh refinement scheme for the general relativistic hydrodynamics. The end state of the collapse is compared to the vacuum spacetime resulting from the evolution of spinning puncture initial data. Using a local analysis for the metric fields, we demonstrate that the two spacetimes actually agree. Gravitational waveforms are analyzed in some detail. We connect the emission of radiation to the collapse dynamics using simplified spacetime diagrams, and discuss the similarity of the waveform structure with the one of black hole perturbation theory.
- Dec 16 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1412.4553v3The data analysis of the gravitational wave signals emitted by coalescing neutron star binaries requires the availability of an accurate analytical representation of the dynamics and waveforms of these systems. We propose an effective-one-body (EOB) model that describes the general relativistic dynamics of neutron star binaries from the early inspiral up to merger. Our EOB model incorporates an enhanced attractive tidal potential motivated by recent analytical advances in the post-Newtonian and gravitational self-force description of relativistic tidal interactions. No fitting parameters are introduced for the description of tidal interaction in the late, strong-field dynamics. We compare the model energetics and the gravitational wave phasing with new high-resolution multi-orbit numerical relativity simulations of equal-mass configurations with different equations of state. We find agreement within the uncertainty of the numerical data for all configurations. Our model is the first semi-analytical model which captures the tidal amplification effects close to merger. It thereby provides the most accurate analytical representation of binary neutron star dynamics and waveforms currently available.
- Jul 21 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1407.5033v1Gravitational waves emitted from a generic binary black-hole merger carry away linear momentum anisotropically, resulting in a gravitational recoil, or "kick", of the center of mass. For certain merger configurations the time evolution of the magnitude of the kick velocity has a local maximum followed by a sudden drop. Perturbative studies of this "antikick" in a limited range of black hole spins have found that the antikick decreases for retrograde orbits as a function of negative spin. We analyze this problem using a recently developed code to evolve gravitational perturbations from a point-particle in Kerr spacetime driven by an effective-one-body resummed radiation reaction force at linear order in the mass ratio $\nu\ll 1$. Extending previous studies to nearly-extremal negative spins, we find that the well-known decrease of the antikick is overturned and, instead of approaching zero, the antikick increases again to reach $\Delta v/(c\nu^{2})=3.37\times10^{-3}$ for dimensionless spin $\hat{a}=-0.9999$. The corresponding final kick velocity is $v_{end}/(c\nu^{2})=0.076$. This result is connected to the nonadiabatic character of the emission of linear momentum during the plunge. We interpret it analytically by means of the quality factor of the flux to capture quantitatively the main properties of the kick velocity. The use of such quality factor of the flux does not require trajectories nor horizon curvature distributions and should therefore be useful both in perturbation theory and numerical relativity.
- Jun 24 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1406.5983v2We present a new approach to solve the 2+1 Teukolsky equation for gravitational perturbations of a Kerr black hole. Our approach relies on a new horizon penetrating, hyperboloidal foliation of Kerr spacetime and spatial compactification. In particular, we present a framework for waveform generation from point-particle perturbations. Extensive tests of a time domain implementation in the code \it Teukode are presented. The code can efficiently deliver waveforms at future null infinity. As a first application of the method, we compute the gravitational waveforms from inspiraling and coalescing black-hole binaries in the large-mass-ratio limit. The smaller mass black hole is modeled as a point particle whose dynamics is driven by an effective-one-body-resummed analytical radiation reaction force. We compare the analytical angular momentum loss to the gravitational wave angular momentum flux. We find that higher-order post-Newtonian corrections are needed to improve the consistency for rapidly spinning binaries. Close to merger, the subdominant multipolar amplitudes (notably the $m=0$ ones) are enhanced for retrograde orbits with respect to prograde ones. We argue that this effect mirrors nonnegligible deviations from circularity of the dynamics during the late-plunge and merger phase. We compute the gravitational wave energy flux flowing into the black hole during the inspiral using a time-domain formalism proposed by Poisson. Finally, a self-consistent, iterative method to compute the gravitational wave fluxes at leading-order in the mass of the particle is presented. For a specific case study with $\hat{a}$=0.9, a simulation that uses the consistent flux differs from one that uses the analytical flux by $\sim35$ gravitational wave cycles over a total of about $250$ cycles. In this case the horizon absorption accounts for about $+5$ gravitational wave cycles.
- Feb 26 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1402.6244v2Binary neutron star mergers are studied using nonlinear 3+1 numerical relativity simulations and the analytical effective-one-body (EOB) model. The EOB model predicts quasiuniversal relations between the mass-rescaled gravitational wave frequency and the binding energy at the moment of merger, and certain dimensionless binary tidal coupling constants depending on the stars Love numbers, compactnesses and the binary mass ratio. These relations are quasiuniversal in the sense that, for a given value of the tidal coupling constant, they depend significantly neither on the equation of state nor on the mass ratio, though they do depend on stars spins. The spin dependence is approximately linear for small spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. The quasiuniversality is a property of the conservative dynamics; nontrivial relations emerge as the binary interaction becomes tidally dominated. This analytical prediction is qualitatively consistent with new, multi-orbit numerical relativity results for the relevant case of equal-mass irrotational binaries. Universal relations are thus expected to characterize neutron star mergers dynamics. In the context of gravitational wave astronomy, these universal relations may be used to constrain the neutron star equation of state using waveforms that model the merger accurately.
- Nov 19 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1311.4443v2Simulations of binary neutron stars have seen great advances in terms of physical detail and numerical quality. However, the spin of the neutron stars, one of the simplest global parameters of binaries, remains mostly unstudied. We present the first, fully nonlinear general relativistic dynamical evolutions of the last three orbits for constraint satisfying initial data of spinning neutron star binaries, with astrophysically realistic spins aligned and anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum. The initial data is computed with the constant rotational velocity approach. The dynamics of the systems is analyzed in terms of gauge-invariant binding energy vs. orbital angular momentum curves. By comparing to a binary black hole configuration we can estimate the different tidal and spin contributions to the binding energy for the first time. First results on the gravitational wave forms are presented. The phase evolution during the orbital motion is significantly affected by spin-orbit interactions, leading to delayed or early mergers. Furthermore, a frequency shift in the main emission mode of the hyper massive neutron star is observed. Our results suggest that a detailed modeling of merger waveforms requires the inclusion of spin, even for the moderate magnitudes observed in binary neutron star systems.
- Jul 22 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1307.5307v3The Numerical-Relativity-Analytical-Relativity (NRAR) collaboration is a joint effort between members of the numerical relativity, analytical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The goal of the NRAR collaboration is to produce numerical-relativity simulations of compact binaries and use them to develop accurate analytical templates for the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration to use in detecting gravitational-wave signals and extracting astrophysical information from them. We describe the results of the first stage of the NRAR project, which focused on producing an initial set of numerical waveforms from binary black holes with moderate mass ratios and spins, as well as one non-spinning binary configuration which has a mass ratio of 10. All of the numerical waveforms are analysed in a uniform and consistent manner, with numerical errors evaluated using an analysis code created by members of the NRAR collaboration. We compare previously-calibrated, non-precessing analytical waveforms, notably the effective-one-body (EOB) and phenomenological template families, to the newly-produced numerical waveforms. We find that when the binary's total mass is ~100-200 solar masses, current EOB and phenomenological models of spinning, non-precessing binary waveforms have overlaps above 99% (for advanced LIGO) with all of the non-precessing-binary numerical waveforms with mass ratios <= 4, when maximizing over binary parameters. This implies that the loss of event rate due to modelling error is below 3%. Moreover, the non-spinning EOB waveforms previously calibrated to five non-spinning waveforms with mass ratio smaller than 6 have overlaps above 99.7% with the numerical waveform with a mass ratio of 10, without even maximizing on the binary parameters.
- Interferometric detectors will very soon give us an unprecedented view of the gravitational-wave sky, and in particular of the explosive and transient Universe. Now is the time to challenge our theoretical understanding of short-duration gravitational-wave signatures from cataclysmic events, their connection to more traditional electromagnetic and particle astrophysics, and the data analysis techniques that will make the observations a reality. This paper summarizes the state of the art, future science opportunities, and current challenges in understanding gravitational-wave transients.
- Jan 09 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1301.1591v1In this work we present a formulation of the Teukolsky equation for generic spin perturbations on the hyperboloidal and horizon penetrating foliation of Kerr recently proposed by Racz and Toth. An additional, spin-dependent rescaling of the field variable can be used to achieve stable, long-term, and accurate time-domain evolutions of generic spin perturbations. As an application (and a severe numerical test), we investigate the late-time decays of electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations at the horizon and future null infinity by means of 2+1 evolutions. As initial data we consider four combinations of (non-)stationary and (non-)compact-support initial data with a pure spin-weighted spherical harmonic profile. We present an extensive study of late time decays of axisymmetric perturbations. We verify the power-law decay rates predicted analytically, together with a certain "splitting" behaviour of the power-law exponent. We also present results for non-axisymmetric perturbations. In particular, our approach allows to study the behaviour of the late time decays of gravitational fields for nearly extremal and extremal black holes. For rapid rotation we observe a very prolonged, weakly damped, quasi-normal-mode phase. For extremal rotation the field at future null infinity shows an oscillatory behaviour decaying as the inverse power of time, while at the horizon it is amplified by several orders of magnitude over long time scales. This behaviour can be understood in terms of the superradiance cavity argument.
- Dec 19 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1212.4357v2We improve the effective-one-body (EOB) description of nonspinning coalescing black hole binaries by incorporating several recent analytical advances, notably: (i) logarithmic contributions to the conservative dynamics; (ii) resummed horizon-absorption contribution to the orbital angular momentum loss; and (iii) a specific radial component of the radiation reaction force implied by consistency with the azimuthal one. We then complete this analytically improved EOB model by comparing it to accurate numerical relativity (NR) simulations performed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA group for mass ratios $q=(1,2,3,4,6)$. In particular, the comparison to NR data allows us to determine with high-accuracy ($\sim 10^{-4}$) the value of the main EOB radial potential: $A(u;\,\nu)$, where $u=GM/(R c^2)$ is the inter-body gravitational potential and $\nu=q/(q+1)^2$ is the symmetric mass ratio. We introduce a new technique for extracting from NR data an intrinsic measure of the phase evolution, ($Q_\omega(\omega)$ diagnostics). Aligning the NR-completed EOB quadrupolar waveform and the NR one at low frequencies, we find that they keep agreeing (in phase and amplitude) within the NR uncertainties throughout the evolution for all mass ratios considered. We also find good agreement for several subdominant multipoles without having to introduce and tune any extra parameters.
- Dec 13 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1212.2901v1Numerical relativity simulations of compact binaries with the Z4c and BSSNOK formulations are compared. The Z4c formulation is advantageous in every case considered. In simulations of non-vacuum spacetimes the constraint violations due to truncation errors are between one and three orders of magnitude lower in the Z4c evolutions. Improvements are also found in the accuracy of the computed gravitational radiation. For equal-mass irrotational binary neutron star evolutions we find that the absolute errors in phase and amplitude of the waveforms can be up to a factor of four smaller. The quality of the Z4c numerical data is also demonstrated by a remarkably accurate computation of the ADM mass from surface integrals. For equal-mass non-spinning binary puncture black hole evolutions we find that the absolute errors in phase and amplitude of the waveforms can be up to a factor of two smaller. In the same evolutions we find that away from the punctures the Hamiltonian constraint violation is reduced by between one and two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the utility of gravitational radiation controlling, constraint preserving boundary conditions for the Z4c formulation is demonstrated. The evolution of spacetimes containing a single compact object confirm earlier results in spherical symmetry. The boundary conditions avoid spurious and non-convergent effects present in high resolution runs with either formulation with a more naive boundary treatment. We conclude that Z4c is preferable to BSSNOK for the numerical solution of the 3+1 Einstein equations with the puncture gauge.
- Jul 04 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1207.0769v2We study the horizon absorption of gravitational waves in coalescing, circularized, nonspinning black hole binaries. The horizon absorbed fluxes of a binary with a large mass ratio (q=1000) obtained by numerical perturbative simulations are compared with an analytical, effective-one-body (EOB) resummed expression recently proposed. The perturbative method employs an analytical, linear in the mass ratio, effective-one-body (EOB) resummed radiation reaction, and the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli (RWZ) formalism for wave extraction. Hyperboloidal (transmitting) layers are employed for the numerical solution of the RWZ equations to accurately compute horizon fluxes up to the late plunge phase. The horizon fluxes from perturbative simulations and the EOB-resummed expression agree at the level of a few percent down to the late plunge. An upgrade of the EOB model for nonspinning binaries that includes horizon absorption of angular momentum as an additional term in the resummed radiation reaction is then discussed. The effect of this term on the waveform phasing for binaries with mass ratios spanning 1 to 1000 is investigated. We confirm that for comparable and intermediate-mass-ratio binaries horizon absorbtion is practically negligible for detection with advanced LIGO and the Einstein Telescope (faithfulness greater than or equal to 0.997).
- May 16 2012 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1205.3403v1We compare dynamics and waveforms from binary neutron star coalescence as computed by new long-term ($\sim 10 $ orbits) numerical relativity simulations and by the tidal effective-one-body (EOB) model including analytical tidal corrections up to second post-Newtonian order (2PN). The current analytical knowledge encoded in the tidal EOB model is found to be sufficient to reproduce the numerical data up to contact and within their uncertainties. Remarkably, no calibration of any tidal EOB free parameters is required, beside those already fitted to binary black holes data. The inclusion of 2PN tidal corrections minimizes the differences with the numerical data, but it is not possible to significantly distinguish them from the leading-order tidal contribution. The presence of a relevant amplification of tidal effects is likely to be excluded, although it can appear as a consequence of numerical inaccuracies. We conclude that the tidally-completed effective-one-body model provides nowadays the most advanced and accurate tool for modelling gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star inspiral up to contact. This work also points out the importance of extensive tests to assess the uncertainties of the numerical data, and the potential need of new numerical strategies to perform accurate simulations.
- Sep 26 2011 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1109.5128v2Neutron star binaries offer a rich phenomenology in terms of gravitational waves and merger remnants. However, most general relativistic studies have been performed for nearly circular binaries, with the exception of head-on collisions. We present the first numerical relativity investigation of mergers of eccentric equal-mass neutron-star binaries that probes the regime between head-on and circular. In addition to gravitational waves generated by the orbital motion, we find that the signal also contains a strong component due to stellar oscillations (f-modes) induced by tidal forces, extending a classical result for Newtonian binaries. The merger can lead to rather massive disks on the order of 10% of the total initial mass.
- Sep 19 2011 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1109.3611v3We present numerical relativity simulations of nine-orbit equal-mass binary neutron star covering the quasicircular late inspiral and merger. The extracted gravitational waveforms are analyzed for convergence and accuracy. Second order convergence is observed up to contact, i.e. about 3-4 cycles to merger; error estimates can be made up to this point. The uncertainties on the phase and the amplitude are dominated by truncation errors and can be minimized to 0.13 rad and less then 1%, respectively, by using several simulations and extrapolating in resolution. In the latter case finite-radius extraction uncertainties become a source of error of the same order and have to be taken into account. The waveforms are tested against accuracy standards for data analysis. The uncertainties on the waveforms are such that accuracy standards are generically not met for signal-to-noise ratios relevant for detection, except for some best cases using extrapolation from several runs. A detailed analysis of the errors is thus imperative for the use of numerical relativity waveforms from binary neutron stars in quantitative studies. The waveforms are compared with the post-Newtonian Taylor T4 approximants both for point-particle and including the analytically known tidal corrections. The T4 approximants accumulate significant phase differences of 2 rad at contact and 4 rad at merger, underestimating the influence of finite size effects. Tidal signatures in the waveforms are thus important at least during the last six orbits of the merger process.
- Jul 28 2011 gr-qc arXiv:1107.5402v2We compute and analyze the gravitational waveform emitted to future null infinity by a system of two black holes in the large mass ratio limit. We consider the transition from the quasi-adiabatic inspiral to plunge, merger, and ringdown. The relative dynamics is driven by a leading order in the mass ratio, 5PN-resummed, effective-one-body (EOB), analytic radiation reaction. To compute the waveforms we solve the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli equations in the time-domain on a spacelike foliation which coincides with the standard Schwarzschild foliation in the region including the motion of the small black hole, and is globally hyperboloidal, allowing us to include future null infinity in the computational domain by compactification. This method is called the hyperboloidal layer method, and is discussed here for the first time in a study of the gravitational radiation emitted by black hole binaries. We consider binaries characterized by five mass ratios, $\nu=10^{-2,-3,-4,-5,-6}$, that are primary targets of space-based or third-generation gravitational wave detectors. We show significative phase differences between finite-radius and null-infinity waveforms. We test, in our context, the reliability of the extrapolation procedure routinely applied to numerical relativity waveforms. We present an updated calculation of the gravitational recoil imparted to the merger remnant by the gravitational wave emission. As a self consistency test of the method, we show an excellent fractional agreement (even during the plunge) between the 5PN EOB-resummed mechanical angular momentum loss and the gravitational wave angular momentum flux computed at null infinity. New results concerning the radiation emitted from unstable circular orbits are also presented.
- Jul 28 2011 gr-qc arXiv:1107.5539v2One possibility for avoiding constraint violation in numerical relativity simulations adopting free-evolution schemes is to modify the continuum evolution equations so that constraint violations are damped away. Gundlach et. al. demonstrated that such a scheme damps low amplitude, high frequency constraint violating modes exponentially for the Z4 formulation of General Relativity. Here we analyze the effect of the damping scheme in numerical applications on a conformal decomposition of Z4. After reproducing the theoretically predicted damping rates of constraint violations in the linear regime, we explore numerical solutions not covered by the theoretical analysis. In particular we examine the effect of the damping scheme on low-frequency and on high-amplitude perturbations of flat spacetime as well and on the long-term dynamics of puncture and compact star initial data in the context of spherical symmetry. We find that the damping scheme is effective provided that the constraint violation is resolved on the numerical grid. On grid noise the combination of artificial dissipation and damping helps to suppress constraint violations. We find that care must be taken in choosing the damping parameter in simulations of puncture black holes. Otherwise the damping scheme can cause undesirable growth of the constraints, and even qualitatively incorrect evolutions. In the numerical evolution of a compact static star we find that the choice of the damping parameter is even more delicate, but may lead to a small decrease of constraint violation. For a large range of values it results in unphysical behavior.
- We present a new numerical relativity code designed for simulations of compact binaries involving matter. The code is an upgrade of the BAM code to include general relativistic hydrodynamics and implements state-of-the-art high-resolution-shock-capturing schemes on a hierarchy of mesh refined Cartesian grids with moving boxes. We test and validate the code in a series of standard experiments involving single neutron star spacetimes. We present test evolutions of quasi-equilibrium equal-mass irrotational binary neutron star configurations in quasi-circular orbits which describe the late inspiral to merger phases. Neutron star matter is modeled as a zero-temperature fluid; thermal effects can be included by means of a simple ideal-gas prescription. We analyze the impact that the use of different values of damping parameter in the Gamma-driver shift condition has on the dynamics of the system. The use of different reconstruction schemes and their impact in the post-merger dynamics is investigated. We compute and characterize the gravitational radiation emitted by the system. Self-convergence of the waves is tested, and we consistently estimate error-bars on the numerically generated waveforms in the inspiral phase.
- Dec 17 2010 gr-qc arXiv:1012.3703v2We investigate the stationary end-state obtained by evolving a collapsing spherical star with the gauges routinely adopted to study puncture black holes. We compare the end-state of the collapse with the trumpet solution found in the evolution of a single wormhole slice and show that the two solutions closely agree. We demonstrate that the agreement is caused by the use of the Gamma-driver shift condition, which allows the matter to fall inwards into a region of spacetime that is not resolved by the numerical grid, and which simultaneously finds the stationary coordinates of the trumpet outside the matter.
- Dec 14 2010 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1012.2456v2We discuss the properties of the effective-one-body (EOB) multipolar gravitational waveform emitted by nonspinning black-hole binaries of masses $\mu$ and $M$ in the extreme-mass-ratio limit, $\mu/M=\nu\ll 1$. We focus on the transition from quasicircular inspiral to plunge, merger and ringdown.We compare the EOB waveform to a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli (RWZ) waveform computed using the hyperboloidal layer method and extracted at null infinity. Because the EOB waveform keeps track analytically of most phase differences in the early inspiral, we do not allow for any arbitrary time or phase shift between the waveforms. The dynamics of the particle, common to both wave-generation formalisms, is driven by leading-order ${\cal O}(\nu)$ analytically--resummed radiation reaction. The EOB and the RWZ waveforms have an initial dephasing of about $5\times 10^{-4}$ rad and maintain then a remarkably accurate phase coherence during the long inspiral ($\sim 33$ orbits), accumulating only about $-2\times 10^{-3}$ rad until the last stable orbit, i.e. $\Delta\phi/\phi\sim -5.95\times 10^{-6}$. We obtain such accuracy without calibrating the analytically-resummed EOB waveform to numerical data, which indicates the aptitude of the EOB waveform for LISA-oriented studies. We then improve the behavior of the EOB waveform around merger by introducing and tuning next-to-quasi-circular corrections both in the gravitational wave amplitude and phase. For each multipole we tune only four next-to-quasi-circular parameters by requiring compatibility between EOB and RWZ waveforms at the light-ring. The resulting phase difference around merger time is as small as $\pm 0.015$ rad, with a fractional amplitude agreement of 2.5%. This suggest that next-to-quasi-circular corrections to the phase can be a useful ingredient in comparisons between EOB and numerical relativity waveforms.
- Oct 05 2010 gr-qc arXiv:1010.0523v2We discuss high order absorbing constraint preserving boundary conditions for the Z4c formulation of general relativity coupled to the moving puncture family of gauges. We are primarily concerned with the constraint preservation and absorption properties of these conditions. In the frozen coefficient approximation, with an appropriate first order pseudo-differential reduction, we show that the constraint subsystem is boundary stable on a four dimensional compact manifold. We analyze the remainder of the initial boundary value problem for a spherical reduction of the Z4c formulation with a particular choice of the puncture gauge. Numerical evidence for the efficacy of the conditions is presented in spherical symmetry.
- Mar 03 2010 gr-qc arXiv:1003.0597v2Building up on previous work, we present a new calculation of the gravitational wave (GW) emission generated during the transition from quasi-circular inspiral to plunge, merger and ringdown by a binary system of nonspinning black holes, of masses $m_1$ and $m_2$, in the extreme mass ratio limit, $m_1 m_2\ll(m_1+m_2)^2$. The relative dynamics of the system is computed \it without making any adiabatic approximation by using an effective one body (EOB) description, namely by representing the binary by an effective particle of mass $\mu=m_1 m_2/(m_1+m_2)$ moving in a (quasi-)Schwarzschild background of mass $M=m_1+m_2$ and submitted to an $\O(\nu)$ 5PN-resummed analytical radiation reaction force, with $\nu=\mu/M$. The gravitational wave emission is calculated via a multipolar Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type perturbative approach (valid in the limit $\nu\ll 1$). We consider three mass ratios, $\nu={10^{-2},10^{-3},10^{-4}}$,and we compute the multipolar waveform up to $\ell=8$. We estimate energy and angular momentum losses during the quasi-universal and quasi-geodesic part of the plunge phase and we analyze the structure of the ringdown. We calculate the gravitational recoil, or "kick", imparted to the merger remnant by the gravitational wave emission and we emphasize the importance of higher multipoles to get a final value of the recoil $v/(c\nu^2)=0.0446$. We finally show that there is an \it excellent fractional agreement ($\sim 10^{-3}$) (even during the plunge) between the 5PN EOB analytically-resummed radiation reaction flux and the numerically computed gravitational wave angular momentum flux. This is a further confirmation of the aptitude of the EOB formalism to accurately model extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, as needed for the future space-based LISA gravitational wave detector.
- Jan 30 2010 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1001.5281v2We present new results on instabilities in rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars. We model the stars in full general relativity and describe the stellar matter adopting a cold realistic equation of state based on the unified SLy prescription. We provide evidence that rapidly and differentially rotating stars that are below the expected threshold for the dynamical bar-mode instability, beta_c = T/|W| ~ 0.25, do nevertheless develop a shear instability on a dynamical timescale and for a wide range of values of beta. This class of instability, which has so far been found only for small values of beta and with very small growth rates, is therefore more generic than previously found and potentially more effective in producing strong sources of gravitational waves. Overall, our findings support the phenomenological predictions made by Watts, Andersson and Jones on the nature of the low-T/|W|.
- Dec 16 2009 gr-qc arXiv:0912.2920v2We compare numerical evolutions performed with the BSSNOK formulation and a conformal decomposition of a Z4-like formulation of General Relativity. The important difference between the two formulations is that the Z4 formulation has a propagating Hamiltonian constraint, whereas BSSNOK has a zero-speed characteristic variable in the constraint subsystem. In spherical symmetry we evolve both puncture and neutron star initial data. We demonstrate that the propagating nature of the Z4 constraints leads to results that compare favorably with BSSNOK evolutions, especially when matter is present in the spacetime. From the point of view of implementation the new system is a simple modification of BSSNOK.
- Feb 17 2009 gr-qc arXiv:0902.2720v3We compare different gravitational-wave extraction methods used in three-dimensional nonlinear simulations against linear simulations of perturbations of spherical spacetimes with matter. We present results from fully general-relativistic simulations of a system composed by an oscillating and non-rotating star emitting gravitational radiation. Results about the onset of non-linear effects are also shown.
- The main aim of this study is the comparison of gravitational waveforms obtained from numerical simulations which employ different numerical evolution approaches and different wave-extraction techniques. For this purpose, we evolve an oscillating, non-rotating polytropic neutron-star model with two different approaches: a full nonlinear relativistic simulation (in three dimensions) and a linear simulation based on perturbation theory. The extraction of the gravitational-wave signal is performed with three methods: The gauge-invariant curvature-perturbation theory based on the Newman-Penrose scalar $\psi_4$; The gauge-invariant Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief metric-perturbation theory of a Schwarzschild space-time; Some generalization of the quadrupole emission formula.
- In this work we discuss the time-evolution of nonspherical perturbations of a nonrotating neutron star described by a realistic Equation of State (EOS). We analyze 10 different EOS for a large sample of neutron star models. Various kind of generic initial data are evolved and the corresponding gravitational wave signals are computed. We focus on the dynamical excitation of fluid and spacetime modes and extract the corresponding frequencies. We employ a constrained numerical algorithm based on standard finite differencing schemes which permits stable and long term evolutions. Our code provides accurate waveforms and allows to capture, via Fourier analysis of the energy spectra, the frequencies of the fluid modes with an accuracy comparable to that of frequency domain calculations. The results we present here are useful for provindig comparisons with simulations of nonlinear oscillations of (rotating) neutron star models as well as testbeds for 3D nonlinear codes.
- Jan 15 2008 gr-qc arXiv:0801.2090v3We discuss, in the perturbative regime, the scattering of Gaussian pulses of odd-parity gravitational radiation off a non-rotating relativistic star and a Schwarzschild Black Hole. We focus on the excitation of the $w$-modes of the star as a function of the width $b$ of the pulse and we contrast it with the outcome of a Schwarzschild Black Hole of the same mass. For sufficiently narrow values of $b$, the waveforms are dominated by characteristic space-time modes. On the other hand, for sufficiently large values of $b$ the backscattered signal is dominated by the tail of the Regge-Wheeler potential, the quasi-normal modes are not excited and the nature of the central object cannot be established. We view this work as a useful contribution to the comparison between perturbative results and forthcoming $w$-mode 3D-nonlinear numerical simulation.