results for au:Barlas_Y in:cond-mat

- May 16 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1805.05828v1For any model belonging to the classification table of strong topological condensed matter systems, we define a mapping which transforms the hermitean Hamiltonian into a real symmetric positive dynamical matrix, at the expense of doubling the degrees of freedom per site. This dynamical matrix has a certain built-in symmetry and, when projected on one of the invariant subspaces, the dynamical matrix inherits all the symmetries of the original Hamiltonian. Using an ultra-local property of the mapping, we also show that the bulk-boundary correspondence principle also transfers, entirely. Concrete procedures for exciting and driving modes from one of the invariant subspaces is given. We package these results into an algorithm for translating any topological condensed matter system into a classical topological meta-material. Several concrete topological mechanical systems are worked out in detail using the algorithm.
- Mar 26 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1803.08781v2The quantum valley Hall effect (QVHE) has been observed in a variety of experimental setups, both quantum and classical. While extremely promising for applications, one should be reminded that QVHE is not an exact topological phenomenon and that, so far, it has been fully understood only qualitatively in certain extreme limits. Here we present a technique to relate QVHE systems with exact quantum spin-Hall insulators that accept real-space representations, without taking any extreme limit. Since the bulk-boundary correspondence is well understood for the latter, we are able to formulate precise quantitative statements about the QVHE regime and its robustness against disorder. We further investigate the effect using a novel experimental platform based on magnetically coupled spinners. Visual renderings, quantitative data and various tests of the domain-wall modes are supplied, hence giving an unprecedented insight into the effect.
- Mar 15 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1803.05125v1Half-integer conductance, the signature of Majorana edge modes, has been recently observed in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator/superconductor heterostructure. Here, we analyze a scheme for gate-tunable control of degenerate ground states of Majorana zero modes (MZM) in thin film topological superconductors. Gating the top surface of a thin film magnetic topological insulator controls the topological phase in the region underneath the gate. The voltage of the transition depends on the gate width, and narrower gates require larger voltages. Relatively long gates are required, on the order of a micron, to prevent hybridization of the end modes and to allow the creation of MZMs at low gate voltages. Applying a voltage to Tshaped and Ishaped gates localizes the Majoranas at their ends. This scheme may provide a facile method for implementing quantum gates for topological quantum computing.
- Mar 13 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1803.03679v1The use of relative twist angle between adjacent atomic layers in a van der Waals heterostructure, has emerged as a new degree of freedom to tune electronic and optoelectronic properties of devices based on 2D materials. Using ABA-stacked trilayer (TLG) graphene as the model system, we show that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the band structures of 2D materials are systematically tunable depending on their relative alignment angle between hexagonal BN (hBN), even at very large twist angles. Moreover, addition or removal of the hBN substrate results in an inversion of the K and K' valley in TLG's lowest Landau level (LL). Our work illustrates the critical role played by substrates in van der Waals heterostructures and opens the door towards band structure modification and valley control via substrate and twist angle engineering.
- Feb 22 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1802.07414v1As the Fermi level and band structure of two-dimensional materials are readily tunable, they constitute an ideal platform for exploring Lifshitz transition, a change in the topology of a material's Fermi surface. Using tetralayer graphene that host two intersecting massive Dirac bands, we demonstrate multiple Lifshitz transitions and multiband transport, which manifest as non-monotonic dependence of conductivity on charge density n and out-of-plane electric fieldD, anomalous quantum Hall sequences and Landau level crossings that evolve with n, D and B.
- Jan 24 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1801.07290v1Antiferromagnetic insulators (AFMI) are robust against stray fields, and their intrinsic dynamics could enable ultrafast magneto-optics and ultrascaled magnetic information processing. Low dissipation, long distance spin transport and electrical manipulation of antiferromagnetic order are much sought-after goals of spintronics research. Here, we report the first experimental evidence of robust long-distance spin transport through an AFMI, in our case the gate-controlled, canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) state that appears at the charge neutrality point of graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field. Utilizing gate-controlled quantum Hall (QH) edge states as spin-dependent injectors and detectors, we observe large, non-local electrical signals across a 5 micron-long, insulating channel only when it is biased into the nu=0 CAF state. Among possible transport mechanisms, spin superfluidity in an antiferromagnetic state gives the most consistent interpretation of the non-local signal's dependence on magnetic field, temperature and filling factors. This work also demonstrates that graphene in the QH regime is a powerful model system for fundamental studies of antiferromagnetic, and in the case of a large in-plane field, ferromagnetic spintronics.
- Nov 16 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1711.05727v2The Landau bands of mirror symmetric 2D Dirac semi-metals (for example odd-layers of ABA-graphene) can be identified by their parity with respect to mirror symmetry. This symmetry facilitates a new class of counter-propagating Hall states at opposite but equal electron and hole filling factors $|\nu_{\pm}|=1/m$ (\it m odd). Here, we propose a Laughlin-like correlated liquid wavefunction, at the charge neutrality point, that exhibits fractionally charged quasi-particle/hole pair excitation of opposite parity. Using a bosonized one-dimensional edge state theory, we show that the longitudinal conductance of this state, $\sigma_{xx} = 2e^2/(m h)$, is robust to short-ranged inter-mode interactions.
- Oct 18 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1710.06386v1Nickel oxide (NiO) has been studied extensively for various applications ranging from electrochemistry to solar cells [1,2]. In recent years, NiO attracted much attention as an antiferromagnetic (AF) insulator material for spintronic devices [3-10]. Understanding the spin - phonon coupling in NiO is a key to its functionalization, and enabling AF spintronics' promise of ultra-high-speed and low-power dissipation [11,12]. However, despite its status as an exemplary AF insulator and a benchmark material for the study of correlated electron systems, little is known about the spin - phonon interaction, and the associated energy dissipation channel, in NiO. In addition, there is a long-standing controversy over the large discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical values for the electron, phonon, and magnon energies in NiO [13-23]. This gap in knowledge is explained by NiO optical selection rules, high Neel temperature and dominance of the magnon band in the visible Raman spectrum, which precludes a conventional approach for investigating such interaction. Here we show that by using ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy one can extract the spin - phonon coupling coefficients in NiO. We established that unlike in other materials, the spins of Ni atoms interact more strongly with the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons than with the transverse optical (TO) phonons, and produce opposite effects on the phonon energies. The peculiarities of the spin - phonon coupling are consistent with the trends given by density functional theory calculations. The obtained results shed light on the nature of the spin - phonon coupling in AF insulators and may help in developing innovative spintronic devices.
- Jul 25 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1707.07064v1Exciton condensation in an electron-hole bilayer system of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides is analyzed at three different levels of theory to account for screening and quasiparticle renormalization. The large effective masses of the transition metal dichalcogenides place them in a strong coupling regime. In this regime, mean field (MF) theory with either an unscreened or screened interlayer interaction predicts a room temperature condensate. Interlayer and intralayer interactions renormalize the quasiparticle dispersion, and this effect is included in a GW approximation. The renormalization reverses the trends predicted from the unscreened or screened MF theories. In the strong coupling regime, intralayer interactions have a large impact on the magnitude of the order parameter and its functional dependencies on effective mass and carrier density.
- Sep 07 2016 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1609.01369v1Interlayer electron transport through a graphene / hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) / graphene heterostructure is strongly affected by the misorientation angle $\theta$ of the h-BN with respect to the graphene layers with different physical mechanisms governing the transport in different regimes of angle, Fermi level, and bias. The different mechanisms and their resulting signatures in resistance and current are analyzed using two different models, a tight-binding, non-equilibrium Green function model and an effective continuum model, and the qualitative features resulting from the two different models compare well. In the large-angle regime ($\theta > 4^\circ$), the change in the effective h-BN bandgap seen by an electron at the $K$ point of the graphene causes the resistance to monotonically increase with angle by several orders of magnitude reaching a maximum at $\theta = 30^\circ$. It does not affect the peak-to-valley current ratios in devices that exhibit negative differential resistance. In the small-angle regime ($\theta < 4^\circ$), Umklapp processes open up new conductance channels that manifest themselves as non-monotonic features in a plot of resistance versus Fermi level that can serve as experimental signatures of this effect. For small angles and high bias, the Umklapp processes give rise to two new current peaks on either side of the direct tunneling peak.
- Jul 14 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1607.03635v2The co-presence of multiple Dirac bands in few-layer graphene leads to a rich phase diagram in the quantum Hall regime. Using transport measurements, we map the phase diagram of BN-encapsulated ABA-stacked trilayer graphene as a function charge density n, magnetic field B and interlayer displacement field D, and observe transitions among states with different spin, valley, orbital and parity polarizations. Such rich pattern arises from crossings between Landau levels from different subbands, which reflect the evolving symmetries that are tunable in situ. At D=0, we observe fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states at filling factors 2/3 and -11/3. Unlike those in bilayer graphene, these FQH states are destabilized by a small interlayer potential that hybridizes the different Dirac bands.
- Jun 01 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1605.09427v1The energy of exchange coupled antiferromagnetic insulators (AFMIs) is a periodic function of the relative in-plane orientation of the Néel vector fields. We show that this leads to oscillations in the relative magnetization of exchange coupled AFMIs separated by a thin metallic barrier. These oscillations pump a spin current ($I_{S}$) through the metallic spacer that is proportional to the rate of change of the relative in-plane orientation of the Néel vector fields. By considering spin-transfer torque induced by a spin chemical potential ($V_{S}$) at one of the interfaces, we predict non-Ohmic $I_{S}$-$V_{S}$ characteristics of AFMI exchange coupled hetero-structures, which leads to a non-local voltage across a spin-orbit coupled metallic spacer.
- Sep 23 2015 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1509.06427v1In a heterostructure of graphene and the ferromagnetic insulator EuO, the Eu atoms induce proximity exchange and inter-valley interactions in the graphene layer. Constrained by the lattice symmetries, and guided by ab initio calculations, a model Hamiltonian is constructed that describes the low-energy bands. Band parameters such as proximity induced exchange splitting, spin orbit coupling, and inter-valley interaction are determined. Calculations of the Chern number identify the conditions under which the hetero-structures exhibit topologically non-trivial bands that give rise to the quantum anomalous Hall effect with a Hall conductivity of $\sigma_{xy} = 2 e^2/h$.
- Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a two-channel quantum heat engine photocell, thus enabling the efficient conversion of varying incident solar spectrum at Earth's surface. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum is avoided, as it provides no inherent regulatory benefit. Our findings illuminate a quantum structural origin of regulation, provide a novel optoelectronic design strategy, and may elucidate the link between photoprotection in photosynthesis and the predominance of green plants on Earth.
- Mar 03 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1503.00242v2The intrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) originates from the topology of the Bloch bands in momentum space. The duality between real space and momentum space calls for a spin Hall effect induced from a real space topology in analogy to the topological Hall effect (THE) of skyrmions. We theoretically demonstrate the topological spin Hall effect (TSHE) in which a pure transverse spin current is generated from a skyrmion spin texture.
- Dec 05 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1412.1521v1We demonstrate the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in single-layer graphene exchange-coupled to an atomically flat yttrium iron garnet (YIG) ferromagnetic thin film. The anomalous Hall conductance has magnitude of ~0.09(2e2/h) at low temperatures and is measurable up to ~ 300 K. Our observations indicate not only proximity-induced ferromagnetism in graphene/YIG with large exchange interaction, but also enhanced spin-orbit coupling which is believed to be inherently weak in ideal graphene. The proximity-induced ferromagnetic order in graphene can lead to novel transport phenomena such as the quantized AHE which are potentially useful for spintronics.
- Dec 03 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1412.0717v2As the only non-carbon elemental layered allotrope, few-layer black phosphorus or phosphorene has emerged as a novel two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor with both high bulk mobility and a band gap. Here we report fabrication and transport measurements of phosphorene-hexagonal BN (hBN) heterostructures with one-dimensional (1D) edge contacts. These transistors are stable in ambient conditions for >300 hours, and display ambipolar behavior, a gate-dependent metal-insulator transition, and mobility up to 4000 $cm^2$/Vs. At low temperatures, we observe gate-tunable Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) magneto-oscillations and Zeeman splitting in magnetic field with an estimated g-factor ~2. The cyclotron mass of few-layer phosphorene holes is determined to increase from 0.25 to 0.31 $m_e$ as the Fermi level moves towards the valence band edge. Our results underscore the potential of few-layer phosphorene (FLP) as both a platform for novel 2D physics and an electronic material for semiconductor applications.
- Jul 24 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1407.6021v2We investigate the effect of electron-electron interactions in ABC stacked graphene trilayers. In the gapless regime, we show that the self-energy corrections lead to the renormalization of the dynamical exponent $z=3+\alpha_{1}/N$, with $\alpha_{1}\approx0.52$ and $N$ is the number of fermionic species. Although the quasiparticle residue is suppressed near the neutrality point, the lifetime has a sublinear scaling with the energy and the quasiparticles are well defined even at zero energy. We calculate the renormalization of different physical observables, which can be directly measured in experiments.
- Jun 13 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1406.3132v2Using transport measurements, we investigate multicomponent quantum Hall (QH) ferromagnetism in dual-gated rhombohedral trilayer graphene (r-TLG), in which the real spin, orbital pseudospin and layer pseudospins of the lowest Landau level form spontaneous ordering. We observe intermediate quantum Hall plateaus, indicating a complete lifting of the degeneracy of the zeroth Landau level (LL) in the hole-doped regime. In charge neutral r-TLG, the orbital degeneracy is broken first, and the layer degeneracy is broken last and only the in presence of an interlayer potential U. In the phase space of U and filling factor, we observe an intriguing hexagon pattern, which is accounted for by a model based on crossings between symmetry-broken LLs.
- Feb 27 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1402.6413v1Due to their unique electron dispersion and lack of a Fermi surface, Coulomb interactions in undoped two-dimensional Dirac systems, such as single, bi- and tri-layer graphene, can be marginal or relevant. Relevant interactions can result in spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is responsible for a large class of physical phenomena ranging from mass generation in high energy physics to correlated states such as superconductivity and magnetism in condensed matter. Here, using transport measurements, we show that rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (r-TLG) offers a simple, yet novel and tunable, platform for study of various phases with spontaneous or field-induced broken symmetries. Here, we show that, contrary to predictions by tight-binding calculations, rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (r-TLG) is an intrinsic insulator, with a giant interaction-induced gap ∆~42meV. This insulating state is a spontaneous layer antiferromagnetic with broken time reversal symmetry, and can be suppressed by increasing charge density n, an interlayer potential, a parallel magnetic field, or a critical temperature Tc~38K. This gapped collective state can be explored for switches with low input power and high on/off ratio.
- Oct 08 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1310.1418v2We show that the presence of Majorana zero-modes in a one-dimensional topological superconductor can be detected by adiabatic cooling. This cooling effect results from an increase of the topological entropy associated with the ground state degeneracy due to such modes. Here, we consider an experimentally feasible topological superconductor: a strong spin-orbit coupled semiconducting quantum wire interfaced with an s-wave superconductor and subjected to a magnetic field. Numerical simulations of realistic experimental geometries indicate that the creation of Majorana zero-modes, which can be achieved by tuning of electronic gates or the external magnetic field, results in a measurable cooling effect. We also argue that this cooling effect results in an increase in the zero bias peak conductance.
- Dec 04 2012 cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1212.0016v3We describe the formation of superconducting states in graphene in the presence of pseudo-Landau levels induced by strain, when time reversal symmetry is preserved. We show that superconductivity in strained graphene is quantum critical when the pseudo-Landau levels are completely filled, whereas at partial fillings superconductivity survives at weak coupling. In the weak coupling limit, the critical temperature scales \emphlinearly with the coupling strength and shows a sequence of quantum critical points as a function of the filling factor that can be accessed experimentally. We argue that superconductivity can be induced by electron-phonon coupling and that the transition temperature can be controlled with the amount of strain and with the filling fraction of the Landau levels.
- Dec 03 2012 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1211.7363v1A brief summary of collective mode excitations that can exist in singlet superconductors with irreducible representation $L$ is given. Such excitations may be classified as the coupled excitations of the charge density $\rho$ and the phase $\phi $ of the order parameter, or of the amplitude $\Delta$ of order parameter. Each of these classes may be further characterized in the long wavelength limit by the irreducible representation $\ell$ of the excitation, which may or may not be the same as the ground state $L$.
- Aug 13 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1208.2237v1In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, ABC-stacked trilayer graphene's chiral band structure supports a 12-fold degenerate N=0 Landau level (LL). Along with the valley and spin degrees of freedom, the zeroth LL contains additional quantum numbers associated with the LL orbital index $% n=0,1,2$. Remote inter-layer hopping terms and external potential difference $\Delta_{B}$ between the layers lead to LL splitting by introducing a gap $% \Delta_{LL}$ between the degenerate zero-energy triplet LL orbitals. Assuming that the spin and valley degrees of freedom are frozen, we study the phase diagram of this system resulting from competition of the single particle LL splitting and Coulomb interactions within the Hartree-Fock approximation at integer filling factors. Above a critical value $\Delta_{LL}^{c}$ of the external potential difference i,e, for $|\Delta_{LL}| >\Delta_{LL}^{c}$, the ground state is a uniform quantum Hall state where the electrons occupy the lowest unoccupied LL orbital index. For $|\Delta_{LL}| <\Delta_{LL}^{c}$ (which corresponds to large positive or negative values of $\Delta_{B}$) the uniform QH state is unstable to the formation of a crystal state at integer filling factors. This phase transition should be characterized by a Hall plateau transition as a function of $\Delta_{LL}$ at a fixed filling factor. We also study the properties of this crystal state and discuss its experimental detection.
- Aug 01 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1207.7282v2The discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs-based semiconductor devices has lead to new advances in condensed matter physics, in particular the possibility for exotic, topological phases of matter that possess fractional, and even non-Abelian, statistics of quasiparticles. One of the main limitations of the experimental systems based on GaAs has been the lack of tunability of the effective interactions between two-dimensional electrons, which made it difficult to stabilize some of the more fragile states, or induce phase transitions in a controlled manner. Here we review the recent studies that have explored the effects of tunability of the interactions offered by alternative two-dimensional systems, characterized by non-trivial Berry phases and including graphene, bilayer graphene and topological insulators. The tunability in these systems is achieved via external fields that change the mass gap, or by screening via dielectric plate in the vicinity of the device. Our study points to a number of different ways to manipulate the effective interactions, and engineer phase transitions between quantum Hall liquids and compressible states in a controlled manner.
- Jun 05 2012 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1206.0400v1The concept of "broken symmetry", that the symmetry of the vacuum may be lower than the Hamiltonian of a quantum theory, plays an important role in modern physics. A manifestation of this phenomena is the Higgs boson in particle physics whose long awaited discovery is imminent. An equivalent mode in superconductors is implicit in the early theories of their collective fluctuations. Spurred by some mysterious experimental results, the theory of the oscillation of the amplitude of superconductivity order parameter, which is the equivalent to the Higgs modes in s-wave superconductors and its identification in the experiments, was explicitly provided. It was also shown that a necessary condition for this to occur is the emergent Lorentz invariance in the superconducting state while the metallic state and the region just below $T_c$ is manifestly non-Lorentz invariant. Here we show that d-wave superconductors, such as the high temperature Cuprate superconductors, should have a rich assortment of Higgs bosons, each in a different irreducible representation of the point-group symmetries of the lattice. We also show that these modes have a characteristic singular spectral structure which can be discovered in Raman scattering experiments.
- Feb 21 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1202.4102v1Using the Onsager relation between electric and heat transport coefficients, and considering the very different roles played by the quantum Hall condensate and quasiparticles in transport, we argue that near the center of a quantum Hall plateau thermopower in a Corbino geometry measures \it "entropy per quasiparticle per quasiparticle charge". This relation indicates that thermopower measurement in a Corbino setup is a more direct measure of quasiparticle entropy than in a Hall bar. Treating disorder within the self-consistent Born approximation, we show through an explicit microscopic calculation that this relation holds on an integer quantum Hall plateau at low temperatures. Applying this to non-Abelian quantum Hall states, we argue that Corbino thermopower at sufficiently low temperature becomes temperature-independent, and measures the quantum dimension of non-Abelian quasiparticles that determines the topological entropy they carry.
- Feb 01 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1201.6598v1The k=3 Read-Rezayi (RR) parafermion quantum Hall state hosts non-Abelian excitations which provide a platform for the universal topological quantum computation. Although the RR state may be realized at the filling factor \nu=12/5 in GaAs-based two-dimensional electron systems, the corresponding quantum Hall state is weak and at present nearly impossible to study experimentally. Here we argue that the RR state can alternatively be realized in a class of chiral materials with massless and massive Dirac-like band structure. This family of materials encompasses monolayer and bilayer graphene, as well as topological insulators. We show that, compared to GaAs, these systems provide several important advantages in realizing and studying the RR state. Most importantly, the effective interactions can be tuned \it in situ by varying the external magnetic field, and by designing the dielectric environment of the sample. This tunability enables the realization of RR state with controllable energy gaps in different Landau levels. It also allows one to probe the quantum phase transitions to other compressible and incompressible phases.
- Jan 17 2012 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1201.3100v1We address the problem of a Coulomb impurity in graphene in the presence of a perpendicular uniform magnetic field. We show that the problem can be solved below the supercritical impurity magnitude within the WKB approximation. Without impurity the semiclassical energies correctly reproduce the Landau level spectrum. For a given Landau level the WKB energy depends on the absolute value of angular momentum in a way which is consistent with the exact diagonalization result. Below the supercritical impurity magnitude, the WKB solution can be expanded as a convergent series in powers of the effective fine structure constant. Relevance of our results to validity of the widely used Landau level projection approximation is discussed.
- Dec 14 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1112.2729v2ABC-stacked trilayer graphene's chiral band structure results in three ($n=0,1,2$) Landau level orbitals with zero kinetic energy. This unique feature has important consequences on the interaction driven states of the 12-fold degenerate (including spin and valley) N=0 Landau level. In particular, at many filling factors $\nu_{T} =\pm5,\pm4,\pm2,\pm1$ a quantum phase transition from a quantum Hall liquid state to a triangular charge density wave occurs as a function of the single-particle induced LL orbital splitting $\Delta_{LL}$. This phase transition should be characterized by a re-entrant integer quantum Hall effect with the Hall conductivity corresponding to the \it adjacent interaction driven integer quantum Hall plateau.
- Oct 06 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1110.1069v1In this article we review the quantum Hall physics of graphene based two-dimensional electron systems, with a special focus on recent experimental and theoretical developments. We explain why graphene and bilayer graphene can be viewed respectively as J=1 and J=2 chiral two-dimensional electron gases (C2DEGs), and why this property frames their quantum Hall physics. The current status of experimental and theoretical work on the role of electron-electron interactions is reviewed at length with an emphasis on unresolved issues in the field, including assessing the role of disorder in current experimental results. Special attention is given to the interesting low magnetic field limit and to the relationship between quantum Hall effects and the spontaneous anomalous Hall effects that might occur in bilayer graphene systems in the absence of a magnetic field.
- Aug 08 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1108.1339v3A partially filled Landau level (LL) hosts a variety of correlated states of matter with unique properties. The ability to control these phases requires tuning the effective electron interactions within a LL, which has been difficult to achieve in GaAs-based structures. Here we consider a class of Dirac materials in which the chiral band structure, along with the mass term, gives rise to a wide tunability of the effective interactions by the magnetic field. This tunability is such that different phases can occur in a single LL, and phase transitions between them can be driven in situ. The incompressible, Abelian and non-Abelian, liquids are stabilized in interaction regimes different from GaAs. Our study points to a realistic method of controlling the correlated phases and studying the phase transitions between them in materials such as graphene, bilayer graphene, and topological insulators.
- Feb 10 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1102.1908v1We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the charge and spin structures of a Quantum Hall strip in a triangularly confined potential. We find that the strip undergoes a spin-unpolarized to spin-polarized transition as a function of magnetic field perpendicular to the strip. For sharp confinements the spin-polarization transition is spontaneous and first develops at the softer side of the triangular potential which shows up as an "eye-structure" in the electron dispersion. For sufficiently weak confinements this spin-polarization transition is preceded by a charge reconstruction of a single spin species, which creates a spin-polarized strip of electrons with a width of the order of the magnetic length detached from the rest of the system. Relevance of our findings to the recent momentum resolved tunneling experiments is also discussed.
- Dec 02 2010 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1012.0046v1We study a single species of fermionic atoms in an "effective" magnetic field at total filling factor $\nu_{f}=1$, interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance, and show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition from a $\nu_{f} =1 $ fermionic integer quantum Hall state to $\nu_{b} =1/4 $ bosonic fractional quantum Hall state as a function of detuning. The transition is in the $(2+1)$-D Ising universality class. We formulate a dual theory in terms of quasiparticles interacting with a $\mathbb{Z}_{2}$ gauge field, and show that charge fractionalization follows from this topological quantum phase transition. Experimental consequences and possible tests of our theoretical predictions are discussed.
- Oct 05 2010 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1010.0364v1A graphene bilayer in a transverse magnetic field has a set of Landau levels with energies $E=\pm \sqrt{N(N+1)}\hslash \omega_{c}^{\ast}$ where $\omega_{c}^{\ast}$ is the effective cyclotron frequency and $% N=0,1,2,...$ All Landau levels but N=0 are four times degenerate counting spin and valley degrees of freedom. The Landau level N=0 has an extra degeneracy due to the fact that orbitals $n=0$ and $n=1$ both have zero kinetic energies. At integer filling factors, Coulomb interactions produce a set of broken-symmetry states with partial or full alignement in space of the valley and orbital pseudospins. These quantum Hall pseudo-ferromagnetic states support topological charged excitations in the form of orbital and valley Skyrmions. Away from integer fillings, these topological excitations can condense to form a rich variety of Skyrme crystals with interesting properties. We study in this paper different crystal phases that occur when an electric field is applied between the layers. We show that orbital Skyrmions, in analogy with spin Skyrmions, have a texture of electrical dipoles that can be controlled by an in-plane electric field. Moreover, the modulation of electronic density in the crystalline phases are experimentally accessible through a measurement of their local density of states
- Mar 31 2010 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1003.5679v1In a graphene bilayer with Bernal stacking both $n=0$ and $n=1$ orbital Landau levels have zero kinetic energy. An electronic state in the N=0 Landau level consequently has three quantum numbers in addition to its guiding center label: its spin, its valley index $K$ or $K^{\prime}$, and an orbital quantum number $n=0,1.$ The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the bilayer supports a wide variety of broken-symmetry states in which the pseudospins associated these three quantum numbers order in a manner that is dependent on both filling factor $\nu $ and the electric potential difference between the layers. In this paper, we study the case of $\nu =-1$ in an external field strong enough to freeze electronic spins. We show that an electric potential difference between layers drives a series of transitions, starting from interlayer-coherent states (ICS) at small potentials and leading to orbitally coherent states (OCS) that are polarized in a single layer. Orbital pseudospins carry electric dipoles with orientations that are ordered in the OCS and have Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions that can lead to spiral instabilities. We show that the microwave absorption spectra of ICSs, OCSs, and the mixed states that occur at intermediate potentials are sharply distinct.
- Oct 06 2009 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:0910.0841v1In this proceedings paper we report on a calculation of graphene's Landau levels in a magnetic field. Our calculations are based on a self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation for graphene's massless-Dirac continuum model. We find that because of graphene's chiral band structure interactions not only shift Landau-level energies, as in a non-relativistic electron gas, but also alter Landau level wavefunctions. We comment on the subtle continuum model regularization procedure necessary to correctly maintain the lattice-model's particle hole symmetry properties.
- Sep 09 2009 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:0909.1502v1In ordinary semiconductor bilayers, exciton condensates appear at total Landau level filling factor $\nu_{T}=1$. We predict that similar states will occur in Bernal stacked graphene bilayers at many non-zero integer filling factors. For $\nu_{T} = -3,1$ we find that the superfluid density of the exciton condensate vanishes and that a finite-temperature fluctuation induced first order isotropic-smectic phase transition occurs when the layer densities are not balanced. These anomalous properties of bilayer graphene exciton condensates are due to the degeneracy of Landau levels with $n=0$ and $n=1$ orbital character.
- Aug 11 2009 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:0908.1238v2We calculate the density-density response function and electron self-energy for undoped bilayer graphene, within the Random Phase Approximation (RPA). We show that the quasiparticle decay rate scales linearly with the quasiparticle energy, and quasiparticle weight vanishes logarithmically in the low-energy limit, indicating non-Fermi liquid behavior. This is a consequence of the absence of a Fermi surface for neutral bilayer graphene and corresponding larger phase space available for scattering processes. Experimental consequences of our results as well as their differences from those of single-layer graphene are discussed.
- Mar 04 2008 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:0803.0044v2Interaction driven integer quantum Hall effects are anticipated in graphene bilayers because of the near-degeneracy of the eight Landau levels which appear near the neutral system Fermi level. We predict that an intra-Landau-level cyclotron resonance signal will appear at some odd-integer filling factors, accompanied by collective modes which are nearly gapless and have approximate $k^{3/2}$ dispersion. We speculate on the possibility of unususal localization physics associated with these modes.
- Jul 31 2007 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:0707.4230v1We report on a theoretical study of the influence of electron-electron interactions on ARPES spectra in graphene that is based on the random-phase-approximation and on graphene's massless Dirac equation continuum model. We find that level repulsion between quasiparticle and plasmaron resonances gives rise to a gap-like feature at small k. ARPES spectra are sensitive to the electron-electron interaction coupling strength $\alpha_{\rm gr}$ and might enable an experimental determination of this material parameter.
- May 01 2007 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:0704.3786v1Doped graphene sheets are pseudochiral two-dimensional Fermi liquids with abnormal electron-electron interaction physics. We address graphene's Fermi liquid properties quantitatively using a microscopic random-phase-approximation theory and comment on the importance of using exchange-correlation potentials based on the properties of a chiral two-dimensional electron gas in density-functional-theory applications to graphene nanostructures.
- Jan 12 2007 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:cond-mat/0701257v2Graphene is described at low-energy by a massless Dirac equation whose eigenstates have definite chirality. We show that the tendency of Coulomb interactions in lightly doped graphene to favor states with larger net chirality leads to suppressed spin and charge susceptibilities. Our conclusions are based on an evaluation of graphene's exchange and random-phase-approximation (RPA) correlation energies. The suppression is a consequence of the quasiparticle chirality switch which enhances quasiparticle velocities near the Dirac point.