This paper studies the effects of price impact upon optimal investment, as well as the pricing of, and demand for, derivative contracts. Assuming market makers have exponential preferences, we show for general utility functions that a large investor's optimal investment problem with price impact can be re-expressed as a constrained optimization problem in fictitious market without price impact. While typically the (random) constraint set is neither closed nor convex, in several important cases of interest, the constraint is non-binding. In these instances, we explicitly identify optimal demands for derivative contracts, and state three notions of an arbitrage free price. Due to price impact, even if a price is not arbitrage free, the resulting arbitrage opportunity only exists for limited position sizes, and might be ignored because of hedging considerations. Lastly, in a segmented market where large investors interact with local market makers, we show equilibrium positions in derivative contracts are inversely proportional to the market makers' representative risk aversion. Thus, large positions endogenously arise either as market makers approach risk neutrality, or as the number of market makers becomes large.
We consider a market of financial securities with restricted participation, in which traders may not have access to the trade of all securities. The market is assumed thin: traders may influence the market and strategically trade against their price impacts. We prove existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium even when traders are heterogeneous with respect to their beliefs and risk tolerance. An efficient algorithm is provided to numerically obtain the equilibrium prices and allocations given market's inputs.
We consider thin financial markets involving a finite number of tradeable securities. Traders with heterogeneous preferences and risk exposures have motive to behave strategically regarding the level of risk aversion they reveal through the transaction, thereby impacting prices and allocations. We argue that traders relatively more exposed to market risk tend to submit more elastic demand functions, revealing higher risk tolerance. Non-competitive equilibrium prices and allocations result as an outcome of a game among traders. General sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of such equilibrium are provided, with an extensive analysis of two-trader transactions. Even though strategic behaviour causes inefficient social allocations, traders with sufficiently high risk tolerance and/or large initial exposure to market risk obtain more utility surplus in the non-competitive equilibrium, when compared to the competitive one.
We study utility indifference prices and optimal purchasing quantities for a contingent claim, in an incomplete semi-martingale market, in the presence of vanishing hedging errors and/or risk aversion. Assuming that the average indifference price converges to a well defined limit, we prove that optimally taken positions become large in absolute value at a specific rate. We draw motivation from and make connections to Large Deviations theory, and in particular, the celebrated Gärtner-Ellis theorem. We analyze a series of well studied examples where this limiting behavior occurs, such as fixed markets with vanishing risk aversion, the basis risk model with high correlation, models of large markets with vanishing trading restrictions and the Black-Scholes-Merton model with either vanishing default probabilities or vanishing transaction costs. Lastly, we show that the large claim regime could naturally arise in partial equilibrium models.
We consider a market model that consists of financial investors and producers of a commodity. Producers optionally store some production for future sale and go short on forward contracts to hedge the uncertainty of the future commodity price. Financial investors take positions in these contracts in order to diversify their portfolios. The spot and forward equilibrium commodity prices are endogenously derived as the outcome of the interaction between producers and investors. Assuming that both are utility maximizers, we first prove the existence of an equilibrium in an abstract setting. Then, in a framework where the consumers' demand and the exogenously priced financial market are correlated, we provide semi-explicit expressions for the equilibrium prices and analyze their dependence on the model parameters. The model can explain why increased investors' participation in forward commodity markets and higher correlation between the commodity and the stock market could result in higher spot prices and lower forward premia.
The large majority of risk-sharing transactions involve few agents, each of whom can heavily influence the structure and the prices of securities. This paper proposes a game where agents' strategic sets consist of all possible sharing securities and pricing kernels that are consistent with Arrow-Debreu sharing rules. First, it is shown that agents' best response problems have unique solutions. The risk-sharing Nash equilibrium admits a finite-dimensional characterisation and it is proved to exist for arbitrary number of agents and be unique in the two-agent game. In equilibrium, agents declare beliefs on future random outcomes different than their actual probability assessments, and the risk-sharing securities are endogenously bounded, implying (among other things) loss of efficiency. In addition, an analysis regarding extremely risk tolerant agents indicates that they profit more from the Nash risk-sharing equilibrium as compared to the Arrow-Debreu one.
The paper studies an oligopolistic equilibrium model of financial agents who aim to share their random endowments. The risk-sharing securities and their prices are endogenously determined as the outcome of a strategic game played among all the participating agents. In the complete-market setting, each agent's set of strategic choices consists of the security payoffs and the pricing kernel that are consistent with the optimal-sharing rules; while in the incomplete setting, agents respond via demand functions on a vector of given tradeable securities. It is shown that at the (Nash) risk-sharing equilibrium, the sharing securities are suboptimal, since agents submit for sharing different risk exposures than their true endowments. On the other hand, the Nash equilibrium prices stay unaffected by the game only in the special case of agents with the same risk aversion. In addition, agents with sufficiently lower risk aversion act as predatory traders, since they absorb utility surplus from the high risk averse agents and reduce the efficiency of sharing. The main results of the paper also hold under the generalized models that allow the presence of noise traders and heterogeneity in agents' beliefs.
In a Markovian stochastic volatility model, we consider ?nancial agents whose investment criteria are modelled by forward exponential performance processes. The problem of contingent claim indi?fference valuation is ?first addressed and a number of properties are proved and discussed. Special attention is given to the comparison between the forward exponential and the backward exponential utility indiff?erence valuation. In addition, we construct the problem of optimal risk sharing in this forward setting and solve it when the agents' forward performance criteria are exponential.
In an incomplete semimartingale model of a financial market, we consider several risk-averse financial agents who negotiate the price of a bundle of contingent claims. Assuming that the agents' risk preferences are modelled by convex capital requirements, we define and analyze their demand functions and propose a notion of a partial equilibrium price. In addition to sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness, we also show that the equilibrium prices are stable with respect to misspecifications of agents' risk preferences.
In an incomplete market setting, we consider two financial agents, who wish to price and trade a non-replicable contingent claim. Assuming that the agents are utility maximizers, we propose a transaction price which is a result of the minimization of a convex combination of their utility differences. We call this price the risk sharing price, we prove its existence for a large family of utility functions and we state some of its properties. As an example, we analyze extensively the case where both agents report exponential utility.
We consider two risk-averse financial agents who negotiate the price of an illiquid indivisible contingent claim in an incomplete semimartingale market environment. Under the assumption that the agents are exponential utility maximizers with non-traded random endowments, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for negotiation to be successful, i.e., for the trade to occur. We also study the asymptotic case where the size of the claim is small compared to the random endowments and we give a full characterization in this case. Finally, we study a partial-equilibrium problem for a bundle of divisible claims and establish existence and uniqueness. A number of technical results on conditional indifference prices are provided.