Nov 30 2017 cs.CV
We present PointFusion, a generic 3D object detection method that leverages both image and 3D point cloud information. Unlike existing methods that either use multi-stage pipelines or hold sensor and dataset-specific assumptions, PointFusion is conceptually simple and application-agnostic. The image data and the raw point cloud data are independently processed by a CNN and a PointNet architecture, respectively. The resulting outputs are then combined by a novel fusion network, which predicts multiple 3D box hypotheses and their confidences, using the input 3D points as spatial anchors. We evaluate PointFusion on two distinctive datasets: the KITTI dataset that features driving scenes captured with a lidar-camera setup, and the SUN-RGBD dataset that captures indoor environments with RGB-D cameras. Our model is the first one that is able to perform better or on-par with the state-of-the-art on these diverse datasets without any dataset-specific model tuning.
Dec 05 2016 cs.CV
We present a method for 3D object detection and pose estimation from a single image. In contrast to current techniques that only regress the 3D orientation of an object, our method first regresses relatively stable 3D object properties using a deep convolutional neural network and then combines these estimates with geometric constraints provided by a 2D object bounding box to produce a complete 3D bounding box. The first network output estimates the 3D object orientation using a novel hybrid discrete-continuous loss, which significantly outperforms the L2 loss. The second output regresses the 3D object dimensions, which have relatively little variance compared to alternatives and can often be predicted for many object types. These estimates, combined with the geometric constraints on translation imposed by the 2D bounding box, enable us to recover a stable and accurate 3D object pose. We evaluate our method on the challenging KITTI object detection benchmark both on the official metric of 3D orientation estimation and also on the accuracy of the obtained 3D bounding boxes. Although conceptually simple, our method outperforms more complex and computationally expensive approaches that leverage semantic segmentation, instance level segmentation and flat ground priors and sub-category detection. Our discrete-continuous loss also produces state of the art results for 3D viewpoint estimation on the Pascal 3D+ dataset.
Dec 09 2015 cs.CV
We present a method for detecting objects in images using a single deep neural network. Our approach, named SSD, discretizes the output space of bounding boxes into a set of default boxes over different aspect ratios and scales per feature map location. At prediction time, the network generates scores for the presence of each object category in each default box and produces adjustments to the box to better match the object shape. Additionally, the network combines predictions from multiple feature maps with different resolutions to naturally handle objects of various sizes. Our SSD model is simple relative to methods that require object proposals because it completely eliminates proposal generation and subsequent pixel or feature resampling stage and encapsulates all computation in a single network. This makes SSD easy to train and straightforward to integrate into systems that require a detection component. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC, MS COCO, and ILSVRC datasets confirm that SSD has comparable accuracy to methods that utilize an additional object proposal step and is much faster, while providing a unified framework for both training and inference. Compared to other single stage methods, SSD has much better accuracy, even with a smaller input image size. For $300\times 300$ input, SSD achieves 72.1% mAP on VOC2007 test at 58 FPS on a Nvidia Titan X and for $500\times 500$ input, SSD achieves 75.1% mAP, outperforming a comparable state of the art Faster R-CNN model. Code is available at https://github.com/weiliu89/caffe/tree/ssd .
Current state-of-the-art deep learning systems for visual object recognition and detection use purely supervised training with regularization such as dropout to avoid overfitting. The performance depends critically on the amount of labeled examples, and in current practice the labels are assumed to be unambiguous and accurate. However, this assumption often does not hold; e.g. in recognition, class labels may be missing; in detection, objects in the image may not be localized; and in general, the labeling may be subjective. In this work we propose a generic way to handle noisy and incomplete labeling by augmenting the prediction objective with a notion of consistency. We consider a prediction consistent if the same prediction is made given similar percepts, where the notion of similarity is between deep network features computed from the input data. In experiments we demonstrate that our approach yields substantial robustness to label noise on several datasets. On MNIST handwritten digits, we show that our model is robust to label corruption. On the Toronto Face Database, we show that our model handles well the case of subjective labels in emotion recognition, achieving state-of-the- art results, and can also benefit from unlabeled face images with no modification to our method. On the ILSVRC2014 detection challenge data, we show that our approach extends to very deep networks, high resolution images and structured outputs, and results in improved scalable detection.
We study the problem of large scale, multi-label visual recognition with a large number of possible classes. We propose a method for augmenting a trained neural network classifier with auxiliary capacity in a manner designed to significantly improve upon an already well-performing model, while minimally impacting its computational footprint. Using the predictions of the network itself as a descriptor for assessing visual similarity, we define a partitioning of the label space into groups of visually similar entities. We then augment the network with auxilliary hidden layer pathways with connectivity only to these groups of label units. We report a significant improvement in mean average precision on a large-scale object recognition task with the augmented model, while increasing the number of multiply-adds by less than 3%.
Dec 04 2014 cs.CV
Current high-quality object detection approaches use the scheme of salience-based object proposal methods followed by post-classification using deep convolutional features. This spurred recent research in improving object proposal methods. However, domain agnostic proposal generation has the principal drawback that the proposals come unranked or with very weak ranking, making it hard to trade-off quality for running time. This raises the more fundamental question of whether high-quality proposal generation requires careful engineering or can be derived just from data alone. We demonstrate that learning-based proposal methods can effectively match the performance of hand-engineered methods while allowing for very efficient runtime-quality trade-offs. Using the multi-scale convolutional MultiBox (MSC-MultiBox) approach, we substantially advance the state-of-the-art on the ILSVRC 2014 detection challenge data set, with $0.5$ mAP for a single model and $0.52$ mAP for an ensemble of two models. MSC-Multibox significantly improves the proposal quality over its predecessor MultiBox~method: AP increases from $0.42$ to $0.53$ for the ILSVRC detection challenge. Finally, we demonstrate improved bounding-box recall compared to Multiscale Combinatorial Grouping with less proposals on the Microsoft-COCO data set.
Sep 18 2014 cs.CV
We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed "Inception", which was responsible for setting the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC 2014). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. This was achieved by a carefully crafted design that allows for increasing the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC 2014 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.
Sep 16 2014 cs.CV
This paper introduces self-taught object localization, a novel approach that leverages deep convolutional networks trained for whole-image recognition to localize objects in images without additional human supervision, i.e., without using any ground-truth bounding boxes for training. The key idea is to analyze the change in the recognition scores when artificially masking out different regions of the image. The masking out of a region that includes the object typically causes a significant drop in recognition score. This idea is embedded into an agglomerative clustering technique that generates self-taught localization hypotheses. Our object localization scheme outperforms existing proposal methods in both precision and recall for small number of subwindow proposals (e.g., on ILSVRC-2012 it produces a relative gain of 23.4% over the state-of-the-art for top-1 hypothesis). Furthermore, our experiments show that the annotations automatically-generated by our method can be used to train object detectors yielding recognition results remarkably close to those obtained by training on manually-annotated bounding boxes.
Deep convolutional neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance on a number of image recognition benchmarks, including the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC-2012). The winning model on the localization sub-task was a network that predicts a single bounding box and a confidence score for each object category in the image. Such a model captures the whole-image context around the objects but cannot handle multiple instances of the same object in the image without naively replicating the number of outputs for each instance. In this work, we propose a saliency-inspired neural network model for detection, which predicts a set of class-agnostic bounding boxes along with a single score for each box, corresponding to its likelihood of containing any object of interest. The model naturally handles a variable number of instances for each class and allows for cross-class generalization at the highest levels of the network. We are able to obtain competitive recognition performance on VOC2007 and ILSVRC2012, while using only the top few predicted locations in each image and a small number of neural network evaluations.
Jan 24 2013 cs.AI
The clique tree algorithm is the standard method for doing inference in Bayesian networks. It works by manipulating clique potentials - distributions over the variables in a clique. While this approach works well for many networks, it is limited by the need to maintain an exact representation of the clique potentials. This paper presents a new unified approach that combines approximate inference and the clique tree algorithm, thereby circumventing this limitation. Many known approximate inference algorithms can be viewed as instances of this approach. The algorithm essentially does clique tree propagation, using approximate inference to estimate the densities in each clique. In many settings, the computation of the approximate clique potential can be done easily using statistical importance sampling. Iterations are used to gradually improve the quality of the estimation.
Building models, or maps, of robot environments is a highly active research area; however, most existing techniques construct unstructured maps and assume static environments. In this paper, we present an algorithm for learning object models of non-stationary objects found in office-type environments. Our algorithm exploits the fact that many objects found in office environments look alike (e.g., chairs, recycling bins). It does so through a two-level hierarchical representation, which links individual objects with generic shape templates of object classes. We derive an approximate EM algorithm for learning shape parameters at both levels of the hierarchy, using local occupancy grid maps for representing shape. Additionally, we develop a Bayesian model selection algorithm that enables the robot to estimate the total number of objects and object templates in the environment. Experimental results using a real robot equipped with a laser range finder indicate that our approach performs well at learning object-based maps of simple office environments. The approach outperforms a previously developed non-hierarchical algorithm that models objects but lacks class templates.
Jul 12 2012 cs.CV
We address the problem of unsupervised learning of complex articulated object models from 3D range data. We describe an algorithm whose input is a set of meshes corresponding to different configurations of an articulated object. The algorithm automatically recovers a decomposition of the object into approximately rigid parts, the location of the parts in the different object instances, and the articulated object skeleton linking the parts. Our algorithm first registers allthe meshes using an unsupervised non-rigid technique described in a companion paper. It then segments the meshes using a graphical model that captures the spatial contiguity of parts. The segmentation is done using the EM algorithm, iterating between finding a decomposition of the object into rigid parts, and finding the location of the parts in the object instances. Although the graphical model is densely connected, the object decomposition step can be performed optimally and efficiently, allowing us to identify a large number of object parts while avoiding local maxima. We demonstrate the algorithm on real world datasets, recovering a 15-part articulated model of a human puppet from just 7 different puppet configurations, as well as a 4 part model of a fiexing arm where significant non-rigid deformation was present.