results for au:Allen_J in:quant-ph

- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1703.06077v1Optimization of the fidelity of control operations is of critical importance in the pursuit of fault tolerant quantum computation. We apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate that a single drive via the cavity in circuit quantum electrodynamics can implement a high fidelity two-qubit all-microwave gate that directly entangles the qubits via the mutual qubit-cavity couplings. This is performed by driving at one of the qubits' frequencies which generates a conditional two-qubit gate, but will also generate other spurious interactions. These optimal control techniques are used to find pulse shapes that can perform this two-qubit gate with high fidelity, robust against errors in the system parameters. The simulations were all performed using experimentally relevant parameters and constraints.
- Oct 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.00022v2Macro-realism is the position that certain "macroscopic" observables must always possess definite values: e.g. the table is in some definite position, even if we don't know what that is precisely. The traditional understanding is that by assuming macro-realism one can derive the Leggett-Garg inequalities, which constrain the possible statistics from certain experiments. Since quantum experiments can violate the Leggett-Garg inequalities this is taken to rule out the possibility of macro-realism in a quantum universe. However, recent analyses have exposed loopholes in the Leggett-Garg argument, which allow many types of macro-realism to be compatible with quantum theory and hence violation of the Leggett-Garg inequalities. This paper takes a different approach to ruling out macro-realism and the result is a no-go theorem for macro-realism in quantum theory that is stronger than the Leggett-Garg argument. This approach uses the framework of ontological models: an elegant way to reason about foundational issues in quantum theory which has successfully produced many other recent results, such as the PBR theorem.
- Sep 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.09487v1Reichenbach's principle asserts that if two observed variables are found to be correlated, then there should be a causal explanation of these correlations. Furthermore, if the explanation is in terms of a common cause, then the conditional probability distribution over the variables given the complete common cause should factorize. The principle is generalized by the formalism of causal models, in which the causal relationships among variables constrain the form of their joint probability distribution. In the quantum case, however, the observed correlations in Bell experiments cannot be explained in the manner Reichenbach's principle would seem to demand. Motivated by this, we introduce a quantum counterpart to the principle. We demonstrate that under the assumption that quantum dynamics is fundamentally unitary, if a quantum channel with input A and outputs B and C is compatible with A being a complete common cause of B and C, then it must factorize in a particular way. Finally, we show how to generalize our quantum version of Reichenbach's principle to a formalism for quantum causal models, and provide examples of how the formalism works.
- Jan 27 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1501.05969v2Quantum superposition states are behind many of the curious phenomena exhibited by quantum systems, including Bell non-locality, quantum interference, quantum computational speed-up, and the measurement problem. At the same time, many qualitative properties of quantum superpositions can also be observed in classical probability distributions leading to a suspicion that superpositions may be explicable as probability distributions over less problematic states, that is, a suspicion that superpositions are \emphepistemic. Here, it is proved that, for any quantum system of dimension $d>3$, this cannot be the case for almost all superpositions. Equivalently, any underlying ontology must contain ontic superposition states. A related question concerns the more general possibility that some pairs of non-orthogonal quantum states $|\psi\rangle,|\phi\rangle$ could be ontologically indistinct (there are ontological states which fail to distinguish between these quantum states). A similar method proves that if $|\langle\phi|\psi\rangle|^{2}\in(0,\frac{1}{4})$ then $|\psi\rangle,|\phi\rangle$ must approach ontological distinctness as $d\rightarrow\infty$. The robustness of these results to small experimental error is also discussed.
- The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilising the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their non-linearity and time travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"---which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory---is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of new theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features---such as time travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish non-orthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states---that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with non-linear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.
- Nov 20 2012 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1211.4182v2The ultimate goal and the theoretical limit of weak signal detection is the ability to detect a single photon against a noisy background. [...] In this paper we show, that a combination of a quantum metamaterial (QMM)-based sensor matrix and quantum non-demolition (QND) readout of its quantum state allows, in principle, to detect a single photon in several points, i.e., to observe its wave front. Actually, there are a few possible ways of doing this, with at least one within the reach of current experimental techniques for the microwave range. The ability to resolve the quantum-limited signal from a remote source against a much stronger local noise would bring significant advantages to such diverse fields of activity as, e.g., microwave astronomy and missile defence. The key components of the proposed method are 1) the entangling interaction of the incoming photon with the QMM sensor array, which produces the spatially correlated quantum state of the latter, and 2) the QND readout of the collective observable (e.g., total magnetic moment), which characterizes this quantum state. The effects of local noise (e.g., fluctuations affecting the elements of the matrix) will be suppressed relative to the signal from the spatially coherent field of (even) a single photon.
- Aug 22 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0508147v3The difference between faults and errors is that, unlike faults, errors can be corrected using control codes. In classical test and verification one develops a test set separating a correct circuit from a circuit containing any considered fault. Classical faults are modelled at the logical level by fault models that act on classical states. The stuck fault model, thought of as a lead connected to a power rail or to a ground, is most typically considered. A classical test set complete for the stuck fault model propagates both binary basis states, 0 and 1, through all nodes in a network and is known to detect many physical faults. A classical test set complete for the stuck fault model allows all circuit nodes to be completely tested and verifies the function of many gates. It is natural to ask if one may adapt any of the known classical methods to test quantum circuits. Of course, classical fault models do not capture all the logical failures found in quantum circuits. The first obstacle faced when using methods from classical test is developing a set of realistic quantum-logical fault models. Developing fault models to abstract the test problem away from the device level motivated our study. Several results are established. First, we describe typical modes of failure present in the physical design of quantum circuits. From this we develop fault models for quantum binary circuits that enable testing at the logical level. The application of these fault models is shown by adapting the classical test set generation technique known as constructing a fault table to generate quantum test sets. A test set developed using this method is shown to detect each of the considered faults.