results for au:Aistleitner_C in:math

- We give metric theorems for the property of Borel normality for real numbers under the assumption of digit dependencies in their expansion in a given integer base. We quantify precisely how much digit dependence can be allowed such that, still, almost all real numbers are normal. Our theorem states that almost all real numbers are normal when at least slightly more than $\log \log n$ consecutive digits with indices starting at position $n$ are independent. As the main application, we consider the Toeplitz set $T_P$, which is the set of all sequences $a_1a_2 \ldots $ of symbols from $\{0, \ldots, b-1\}$ such that $a_n$ is equal to $a_{pn}$, for every $p$ in $P$ and $n=1,2,\ldots$. Here~$b$ is an integer base and~$P$ is a finite set of prime numbers. We show that almost every real number whose base $b$ expansion is in~$T_P$ is normal to base~$b$. In the case when $P$ is the singleton set $\{2\}$ we prove that more is true: almost every real number whose base $b$ expansion is in $T_P$ is normal to all integer bases. We also consider the Toeplitz transform which maps the set of all sequences to the set $T_P$ and we characterize the normal sequences whose Toeplitz transform is normal as well.
- Mar 16 2018 math.NT arXiv:1803.05703v1The Duffin-Schaeffer conjecture is a fundamental unsolved problem in metric number theory. It asserts that for every non-negative function $\psi:~\mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ for almost all reals $x$ there are infinitely many coprime solutions $(a,n)$ to the inequality $|nx - a| < \psi(n)$, provided that the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \psi(n) \varphi(n) /n$ is divergent. In the present paper we prove that the conjecture is true under the "extra divergence" assumption that divergence of the series still holds when $\psi(n)$ is replaced by $\psi(n) / (\log n)^\varepsilon$ for some $\varepsilon > 0$. This improves a result of Beresnevich, Harman, Haynes and Velani, and solves a problem posed by Haynes, Pollington and Velani.
- Mar 05 2018 math.NT arXiv:1803.00760v2In recent years a variant of the resonance method was developed which allowed to obtain improved $\Omega$-results for the Riemann zeta function along vertical lines in the critical strip. In the present paper we show how this method can be adapted to prove the existence of large values of $|L(\sigma, \chi)|$ in the range $\sigma \in (1/2,1]$, and to estimate the proportion of characters for which $|L(\sigma, \chi)|$ is of such a large order. More precisely, for every fixed $\sigma \in (1/2,1)$ we show that for all sufficiently large $q$ there is a non-principal character $\chi$ mod $q$ such that $\log |L(\sigma,\chi)| \geq C(\sigma) (\log q)^{1-\sigma} (\log \log q)^{-\sigma}$. In the case $\sigma=1$ we show that there is a non-principal character $\chi$ mod $q$ for which $|L(1,\chi)| \geq e^\gamma \left(\log_2 q + \log_3 q - C \right)$. In both cases, our results essentially match the prediction for the actual order of such extreme values, based on probabilistic models.
- Feb 09 2018 math.NT arXiv:1802.02659v2Let $\mathcal{A}\left(\alpha\right)$ denote the sequence $\left(\alpha a_{n}\right)_{n}$, where $\alpha\in\left[0,1\right]$ and where $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n}$ is a strictly increasing sequence of positive integers. If the asymptotic distribution of the pair correlations of these sequences follows the Poissonian model for almost all $\alpha$ in the sense of Lebesgue measure, we say that $(a_n)_n$ has the metric pair correlation property. Recent research has revealed a connection between the metric theory of pair correlations of such sequences, and the additive energy of truncations of $(a_n)_{n}$. Bloom, Chow, Gafni and Walker speculated that there might actually be a convergence/divergence criterion which fully characterizes the metric pair correlation property in terms of the additive energy, similar to Khintchine's criterion in the metric theory of Diophantine approximation. In the present paper we give a negative answer to such speculations, by showing that such a criterion does not exist. To this end, we construct a sequence $(a_n)_n$ having large additive energy which, however, maintains the metric pair correlation property.
- The investigation of the pair correlation statistics of sequences was initially motivated by questions concerning quasi-energy-spectra of quantum systems. However, the subject has been developed far beyond its roots in mathematical physics, and many challenging number-theoretic questions on the distribution of the pair correlations of certain sequences are still open. We give a short introduction into the subject, recall some known results and open problems, and in particular explain the recently established connection between the distribution of pair correlations of sequences on the torus and certain concepts from additive combinatorics. Furthermore, we slightly improve a result recently given by Jean Bourgain.
- Jul 11 2017 math.NT arXiv:1707.02628v1We give a construction of an absolutely normal real number $x$ such that for every integer $b $ greater than or equal to $2$, the discrepancy of the first $N$ terms of the sequence $(b^n x \mod 1)_{n\geq 0}$ is of asymptotic order $\mathcal{O}(N^{-1/2})$. This is below the order of discrepancy which holds for almost all real numbers. Even the existence of absolutely normal numbers having a discrepancy of such a small asymptotic order was not known before.
- Mar 27 2017 math.NT arXiv:1703.08315v2We prove that there are arbitrarily large values of $t$ such that $|\zeta(1+it)| \geq e^{\gamma} (\log_2 t + \log_3 t) + \mathcal{O}(1)$. This essentially matches the prediction for the optimal lower bound in a conjecture of Granville and Soundararajan. Our proof uses a new variant of the "long resonator" method. While earlier implementations of this method crucially relied on a "sparsification" technique to control the mean-square of the resonator function, in the present paper we exploit certain self-similarity properties of a specially designed resonator function.
- It is well-known that for every $N \geq 1$ and $d \geq 1$ there exist point sets $x_1, \dots, x_N \in [0,1]^d$ whose discrepancy with respect to the Lebesgue measure is of order at most $(\log N)^{d-1} N^{-1}$. In a more general setting, the first author proved together with Josef Dick that for any normalized measure $\mu$ on $[0,1]^d$ there exist points $x_1, \dots, x_N$ whose discrepancy with respect to $\mu$ is of order at most $(\log N)^{(3d+1)/2} N^{-1}$. The proof used methods from combinatorial mathematics, and in particular a result of Banaszczyk on balancings of vectors. In the present note we use a version of the so-called transference principle together with recent results on the discrepancy of red-blue colorings to show that for any $\mu$ there even exist points having discrepancy of order at most $(\log N)^{d-\frac12} N^{-1}$, which is almost as good as the discrepancy bound in the case of the Lebesgue measure.
- A deterministic sequence of real numbers in the unit interval is called \emphequidistributed if its empirical distribution converges to the uniform distribution. Furthermore, the limit distribution of the pair correlation statistics of a sequence is called Poissonian if the number of pairs $x_k,x_l \in (x_n)_{1 \leq n \leq N}$ which are within distance $s/N$ of each other is asymptotically $\sim 2sN$. A randomly generated sequence has both of these properties, almost surely. There seems to be a vague sense that having Poissonian pair correlations is a "finer" property than being equidistributed. In this note we prove that this really is the case, in a precise mathematical sense: a sequence whose asymptotic distribution of pair correlations is Poissonian must necessarily be equidistributed. Furthermore, for sequences which are not equidistributed we prove that the square-integral of the asymptotic density of the sequence gives a lower bound for the asymptotic distribution of the pair correlations.
- In 2004 the second author of the present paper proved that a point set in $[0,1]^d$ which has star-discrepancy at most $\varepsilon$ must necessarily consist of at least $c_{abs} d \varepsilon^{-1}$ points. Equivalently, every set of $n$ points in $[0,1]^d$ must have star-discrepancy at least $c_{abs} d n^{-1}$. The original proof of this result uses methods from Vapnik--Chervonenkis theory and from metric entropy theory. In the present paper we give an elementary combinatorial proof for the same result, which is based on identifying a sub-box of $[0,1]^d$ which has approximately $d$ elements of the point set on its boundary. Furthermore, we show that a point set for which no such box exists is rather irregular, and must necessarily have a large star-discrepancy.
- Sep 19 2016 math.NT arXiv:1609.04929v1In the present paper we study the asymptotic behavior of trigonometric products of the form $\prod_{k=1}^N 2 \sin(\pi x_k)$ for $N \to \infty$, where the numbers $\omega=(x_k)_{k=1}^N$ are evenly distributed in the unit interval $[0,1]$. The main result are matching lower and upper bounds for such products in terms of the star-discrepancy of the underlying points $\omega$, thereby improving earlier results obtained by Hlawka in 1969. Furthermore, we consider the special cases when the points $\omega$ are the initial segment of a Kronecker or van der Corput sequence. The paper concludes with some probabilistic analogues.
- We consider strictly increasing sequences $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ of integers and sequences of fractional parts $\left(\left\{a_{n} \alpha\right\}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ where $\alpha \in \mathbb{R}$. We show that a small additive energy of $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ implies that for almost all $\alpha$ the sequence $\left(\left\{a_{n} \alpha\right\}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ has large discrepancy. We prove a general result, provide various examples, and show that the converse assertion is not necessarily true.
- For a sequence of integers $\{a(x)\}_{x \geq 1}$ we show that the distribution of the pair correlations of the fractional parts of $\{ \langle \alpha a(x) \rangle \}_{x \geq 1}$ is asymptotically Poissonian for almost all $\alpha$ if the additive energy of truncations of the sequence has a power savings improvement over the trivial estimate. Furthermore, we give an estimate for the Hausdorff dimension of the exceptional set as a function of the density of the sequence and the power savings in the energy estimate. A consequence of these results is that the Hausdorff dimension of the set of $\alpha$ such that $\{\langle \alpha x^d \rangle\}$ fails to have Poissonian pair correlation is at most $\frac{d+2}{d+3} < 1$. This strengthens a result of Rudnick and Sarnak which states that the exceptional set has zero Lebesgue measure. On the other hand, classical examples imply that the exceptional set has Hausdorff dimension at least $\frac{2}{d+1}$. An appendix by Jean Bourgain was added after the first version of this paper was written. In this appendix two problems raised in the paper are solved.
- The recently introduced concept of $\mathcal{D}$-variation unifies previous concepts of variation of multivariate functions. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to the open question from Pausinger \& Svane (J. Complexity, 2014) whether every function of bounded Hardy--Krause variation is Borel measurable and has bounded $\mathcal{D}$-variation. Moreover, we show that the space of functions of bounded $\mathcal{D}$-variation can be turned into a commutative Banach algebra.
- Jul 24 2015 math.NT arXiv:1507.06472v1An important result of H. Weyl states that for every sequence $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n\geq 1}$ of distinct positive integers the sequence of fractional parts of $\left(a_{n} \alpha \right)_{n \geq1}$ is uniformly distributed modulo one for almost all $\alpha$. However, in general it is a very hard problem to calculate the precise order of convergence of the discrepancy $D_{N}$ of $\left(\left\{a_{n} \alpha \right\}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ for almost all $\alpha$. By a result of R. C. Baker this discrepancy always satisfies $N D_{N} = \mathcal{O} \left(N^{\frac{1}{2}+\varepsilon}\right)$ for almost all $\alpha$ and all $\varepsilon >0$. In the present note for arbitrary $\gamma \in \left(0, \frac{1}{2}\right]$ we construct a sequence $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ such that for almost all $\alpha$ we have $ND_{N} = \mathcal{O} \left(N^{\gamma}\right)$ and $ND_{N} = \Omega \left(N^{\gamma-\varepsilon}\right)$ for all $\varepsilon > 0$, thereby proving that any prescribed metric discrepancy behavior within the admissible range can actually be realized.
- Jul 23 2015 math.NT arXiv:1507.06066v2In the present paper we prove lower bounds for L-functions from the Selberg class, by this means improving earlier results obtained by the second author together with Jörn Steuding. We formulate two theorems which use slightly different technical assumptions, and give two totally different proofs. The first proof uses the "resonance method", which was introduced by Soundararajan, while the second proof uses methods from Diophantine approximation which resemble those used by Montgomery. Interestingly, both methods lead to roughly the same lower bounds, which fall short of those known for the Riemann zeta function and seem to be difficult to be improved. Additionally to these results, we also prove upper bounds for L-functions in the Selberg class and present a further application of a theorem of Chen which is used in the Diophantine approximation method mentioned above.
- The problem of finding the largest empty axis-parallel box amidst a point configuration is a classical problem in computational geometry. It is known that the volume of the largest empty box is of asymptotic order $1/n$ for $n\to\infty$ and fixed dimension $d$. However, it is natural to assume that the volume of the largest empty box increases as $d$ gets larger. In the present paper we prove that this actually is the case: for every set of $n$ points in $[0, 1]^d$ there exists an empty box of volume at least $c_d n^{-1}$ , where $c_d \to \infty$ as $d\to \infty$. More precisely, $c_d$ is at least of order roughly $\log d$.
- An important result of H. Weyl states that for every sequence $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ of distinct positive integers the sequence of fractional parts of $\left(a_{n} \alpha \right)_{n\geq 1}$ is uniformly distributed modulo one for almost all $\alpha$. However, in general it is a very hard problem to calculate the precise order of convergence of the discrepancy of $\left(\left\{a_{n} \alpha\right\}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ for almost all $\alpha$. In particular it is very difficult to give sharp lower bounds for the speed of convergence. Until now this was only carried out for lacunary sequences $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ and for some special cases such as the Kronecker sequence $\left(\left\{n \alpha\right\}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ or the sequence $\left(\left\{n^2 \alpha\right\}\right)_{n \geq1}$. In the present paper we answer the question for a large class of sequences $\left(a_{n}\right)_{n \geq 1}$ including as a special case all polynomials $a_{n} = P\left(n\right)$ with $P \in \mathbb{Z} \left[x\right]$ of degree at least 2.
- In the present paper we obtain fully explicit large deviation inequalities for empirical processes indexed by a Vapnik--Chervonenkis class of sets (or functions). Furthermore we illustrate the importance of such results for the theory of information-based complexity.
- One of the fundamental theorems of uniform distribution theory states that the fractional parts of the sequence $(n \alpha)_{n \geq 1}$ are uniformly distributed modulo one (u.d. mod 1) for every irrational number $\alpha$. Another important result of Weyl states that for every sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ of distinct positive integers the sequence of fractional parts of $(n_k \alpha)_{k \geq 1}$ is u.d. mod 1 for almost all $\alpha$. However, in this general case it is usually extremely difficult to classify those $\alpha$ for which uniform distribution occurs, and to measure the speed of convergence of the empirical distribution of $(\{n_1 \alpha\}, ..., \{n_N \alpha\})$ towards the uniform distribution. In the present paper we investigate this problem in the case when $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ is the Thue--Morse sequence of integers, which means the sequence of positive integers having an even sum of digits in base 2. In particular we utilize a connection with lacunary trigonometric products $\prod^{L}_{\ell=0} |\sin \pi 2^{\ell} \alpha |$, and by giving sharp metric estimates for such products we derive sharp metric estimates for exponential sums of $(n_{k} \alpha)_{k \geq 1}$ and for the discrepancy of $(\{n_{k} \alpha\})_{k \geq 1}.$ Furthermore, we comment on the connection between our results and an open problem in the metric theory of Diophantine approximation, and we provide some explicit examples of numbers $\alpha$ for which we can give estimates for the discrepancy of $(\{n_{k} \alpha\})_{k \geq1}$.
- Sep 23 2014 math.NT arXiv:1409.6035v3Let $\alpha \in (1/2,1)$ be fixed. We prove that $$ \max_0 ≤t ≤T |\zeta(\alpha+it)| ≥\exp\left(\fracc_\alpha (\log T)^1-\alpha(\log \log T)^\alpha\right) $$ for all sufficiently large $T$, where we can choose $c_\alpha = 0.18 (2\alpha-1)^{1-\alpha}$. The same result has already been obtained by Montgomery, with a smaller value for $c_\alpha$. However, our proof, which uses a modified version of Soundararajan's "resonance method" together with ideas of Hilberdink, is completely different from Montgomery's. This new proof also allows us to obtain lower bounds for the measure of those $t \in [0,T]$ for which $|\zeta(\alpha+it)|$ is of the order mentioned above.
- We establish a connection between the $L^2$ norm of sums of dilated functions whose $j$th Fourier coefficients are $\mathcal{O}(j^{-\alpha})$ for some $\alpha \in (1/2,1)$, and the spectral norms of certain greatest common divisor (GCD) matrices. Utilizing recent bounds for these spectral norms, we obtain sharp conditions for the convergence in $L^2$ and for the almost everywhere convergence of series of dilated functions.
- In some of his final papers, V.I. Arnold studied pseudorandomness properties of finite deterministic sequences, which he measured in terms of their "stochasticity parameter". In the present paper we illustrate the background in probability theory and number theory of some of his considerations, and give answers to some of the questions raised in his papers.
- In this paper we prove a correspondence principle between multivariate functions of bounded variation in the sense of Hardy and Krause and signed measures of finite total variation, which allows us to obtain a simple proof of a generalized Koksma--Hlawka inequality for non-uniform measures. Applications of this inequality to importance sampling in Quasi-Monte Carlo integration and tractability theory are given. Furthermore, we discuss the problem of transforming a low-discrepancy sequence with respect to the uniform measure into a sequence with low discrepancy with respect to a general measure $\mu$, and show the limitations of a method suggested by Chelson.
- In 1975 Walter Philipp proved the law of the iterated logarithm (LIL) for the discrepancy of lacunary sequences: for any sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying the Hadamard gap condition $n_{k+1} / n_k \geq q > 1,~k \geq 1,$ we have $$ \frac14 \sqrt2 ≤\limsup_N \to ∞ \fracN D_N({ n_1 x }, \dots, {n_N x})\sqrt2 N \log \log N ≤C_q $$ for almost all $x$. In recent years there has been significant progress concerning the precise value of the limsup in this LIL for special sequences $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ having a ``simple'' number-theoretic structure. However, since the publication of Philipp's paper there has been no progress concerning the lower bound in this LIL for generic lacunary sequences $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$. The purpose of the present paper is to collect known results concerning this problem, to investigate what the optimal value in the lower bound could be, and for which special sequences $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ a small value of the limsup in this LIL can be obtained. We formulate three open problems, which could serve as the main targets for future research.
- It is well-known that for a quickly increasing sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ the functions $(\cos 2 \pi n_k x)_{k \geq 1}$ show a behavior which is typical for sequences of independent random variables. If the growth condition on $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ is relaxed then this almost-independent behavior generally fails. Still, probabilistic constructions show that for \emphsome very slowly increasing sequences $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ this almost-independence property is preserved. For example, there exists $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ having bounded gaps such that the normalized sums $\sum \cos 2 \pi n_k x$ satisfy the central limit theorem (CLT). However, due to a ``loss of mass'' phenomenon the variance in the CLT for a sequence with bounded gaps is always smaller than $1/2$. In the case of the law of the iterated logarithm (LIL) the situation is different; as we proved in an earlier paper, there exists $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ with bounded gaps such that $$ \limsup_N \to ∞ \frac\left| \sum_k=1^N \cos 2 \pi n_k x \right|\sqrtN \log \log N = ∞\qquad \textrmfor almost all $x$. $$ In the present paper we prove a complementary results showing that any prescribed limsup-behavior in the LIL is possible for sequences with bounded gaps. More precisely, we show that for any real number $\Lambda \geq 0$ there exists a sequence of integers $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying $n_{k+1} - n_{k} \in \{1,2\}$ such that the limsup in the LIL equals $\Lambda$ for almost all $x$. Similar results are proved for sums $\sum f(n_k x)$ and for the discrepancy of $(\langle n_k x \rangle)_{k \geq 1}$.
- Let ${\cal H}=(q_1, \ldots q_r)$ be a finite set of coprime integers and let $n_1, n_2, \ldots$ denote the multiplicative semigroup generated by $\cal H$ and arranged in increasing order. The distribution of such sequences has been studied intensively in number theory and they have remarkable probabilistic and ergodic properties. For example, the asymptotic properties of the sequence $\{n_kx\}$ are very similar to those of independent, identically distributed random variables; here $\{\cdot \}$ denotes fractional part. However, the behavior of this sequence depends sensitively on the generating elements of $(n_k)$ and the combination of probabilistic and number-theoretic effects results in a unique, highly interesting asymptotic behavior. In particular, the properties of $\{n_kx\}$ are not permutation invariant, in contrast to i.i.d. behavior. The purpose of this paper is to show that $\{n_kx\}$ satisfies a strong independence property ("interlaced mixing"), enabling one to determine the precise asymptotic behavior of permuted sums $S_N (\sigma)= \sum_{k=1}^N f(n_{\sigma(k)} x)$. As we will see, the behavior of $S_N(\sigma)$ still follows that of sums of independent random variables, but its growth speed (depending on $\sigma$) is given by the classical Gál function of Diophantine approximation theory. Some examples describing the class of possible growth functions are given.
- Let $f$ be a measurable function satisfying $$f(x+1)=f(x), \qquad \int_0^1 f(x) dx=0, \qquad \textrmVar ~f < + ∞,$$ and let $(n_k)_{k\ge 1}$ be a sequence of integers satisfying $n_{k+1}/n_k \ge q >1$ $(k=1, 2, \ldots)$. By the classical theory of lacunary series, under suitable Diophantine conditions on $n_k$, $(f(n_kx))_{k\ge 1}$ satisfies the central limit theorem and the law of the iterated logarithm. These results extend for a class of subexponentially growing sequences $(n_k)_{k\ge 1}$ as well, but as Fukuyama (2009) showed, the behavior of $f(n_kx)$ is generally not permutation-invariant, e.g. a rearrangement of the sequence can ruin the CLT and LIL. In this paper we construct an infinite order Diophantine condition implying the permutation-invariant CLT and LIL without any growth conditions on $(n_k)_{k\ge 1}$ and show that the known finite order Diophantine conditions in the theory do not imply permutation-invariance even if $f(x)=\sin 2\pi x$ and $(n_k)_{k\ge 1}$ grows almost exponentially. Finally we prove that, in a suitable statistical sense, for almost all sequences $(n_k)_{k\ge 1}$ growing faster than polynomially, $(f(n_kx))_{k\ge 1}$ has permutation-invariant behavior.
- By a classical principle of analysis, sufficiently thin subsequences of general sequences of functions behave like sequences of independent random variables. This observation not only explains the remarkable properties of lacunary trigonometric series, but also provides a powerful tool in many areas of analysis. In contrast to "true" random processes, however, the probabilistic structure of lacunary sequences is not permutation-invariant and the analytic properties of such sequences can change radically after rearrangement. The purpose of this paper is to survey some recent results of the authors on permuted function series. We will see that rearrangement properties of lacunary trigonometric series $\sum (a_k\cos n_kx+b_k \sin n_kx)$ and their nonharmonic analogues $\sum c_k f(n_kx)$ are intimately connected with the number theoretic properties of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ and we will give a complete characterization of permutational invariance in terms of the Diophantine properties of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$. We will also see that in a certain statistical sense, permutational invariance is the "typical" behavior of lacunary sequences.
- It is a well known fact that for periodic measurable $f$ and rapidly increasing $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ the sequence $(f(n_kx))_{k\ge 1}$ behaves like a sequence of independent, identically distributed random variables. For example, if $f$ is a periodic Lipschitz function, then $(f(2^kx))_{k\ge 1}$ satisfies the central limit theorem, the law of the iterated logarithm and several further limit theorems for i.i.d.\ random variables. Since an i.i.d.\ sequence remains i.i.d.\ after any permutation of its terms, it is natural to expect that the asymptotic properties of lacunary series are also permutation-invariant. Recently, however, Fukuyama (2009) showed that a rearrangement of the sequence $(f(2^kx))_{k\ge 1}$ can change substantially its asymptotic behavior, a very surprising result. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this interesting phenomenon in detail and to give necessary and sufficient criteria for the permutation-invariance of the CLT and LIL for $f(n_kx)$.
- It is known that for any smooth periodic function $f$ the sequence $(f(2^kx))_{k\ge 1}$ behaves like a sequence of i.i.d.\ random variables, for example, it satisfies the central limit theorem and the law of the iterated logarithm. Recently Fukuyama showed that permuting $(f(2^kx))_{k\ge 1}$ can ruin the validity of the law of the iterated logarithm, a very surprising result. In this paper we present an optimal condition on $(n_k)_{k\ge 1}$, formulated in terms of the number of solutions of certain Diophantine equations, which ensures the validity of the law of the iterated logarithm for any permutation of the sequence $(f(n_k x))_{k \geq 1}$. A similar result is proved for the discrepancy of the sequence $(\{n_k x\})_{k \geq 1}$, where $\{ \cdot \}$ denotes fractional part.
- Nov 21 2013 math.NT arXiv:1311.4926v2Let $f: {\mathbb R}\to {\mathbb R}$ be a measurable function satisfying \beginequation* f(x+1)=f(x), \qquad \int_0^1 f(x)\,dx=0, \qquad \int_0^1 f^2(x)\,dx<∞. \endequation* The asymptotic properties of series $\sum c_k f(kx)$ have been studied extensively in the literature and turned out to be, in general, quite different from those of the trigonometric system. As the theory shows, the behavior of such series is determined by a combination of analytic, probabilistic and number theoretic effects, resulting in highly interesting phenomena not encountered in classical harmonic analysis. In this paper we survey some recent results in the field and prove asymptotic results for the system $\{f(nx), n\ge 1\}$ in the case when the function $f$ is not square integrable.
- In the present paper we prove several results concerning the existence of low-discrepancy point sets with respect to an arbitrary non-uniform measure $\mu$ on the $d$-dimensional unit cube. We improve a theorem of Beck, by showing that for any $d \geq 1$, $N \geq 1,$ and any non-negative, normalized Borel measure $\mu$ on $[0,1]^d$ there exists a point set $x_1, \dots, x_N \in [0,1]^d$ whose star-discrepancy with respect to $\mu$ is of order $$ D_N^*(x_1, \dots, x_N; \mu) ≪\frac(\log N)^(3d+1)/2N. $$ For the proof we use a theorem of Banaszczyk concerning the balancing of vectors, which implies an upper bound for the linear discrepancy of hypergraphs. Furthermore, the theory of large deviation bounds for empirical processes indexed by sets is discussed, and we prove a numerically explicit upper bound for the inverse of the discrepancy for Vapnik--Červonenkis classes. Finally, using a recent version of the Koksma--Hlawka inequality due to Brandolini, Colzani, Gigante and Travaglini, we show that our results imply the existence of cubature rules yielding fast convergence rates for the numerical integration of functions having discontinuities of a certain form.
- The weighted star-discrepancy has been introduced by Sloan and Woźniakowski to reflect the fact that in multidimensional integration problems some coordinates of a function may be more important than others. It provides upper bounds for the error of multidimensional numerical integration algorithms for functions belonging to weighted function spaces of Sobolev type. In the present paper, we prove several tractability results for the weighted star-discrepancy. In particular, we obtain rather sharp sufficient conditions under which the weighted star-discrepancy is strongly tractable. The proofs are probabilistic, and use empirical process theory.
- By a classical result of Weyl, for any increasing sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ of integers the sequence of fractional parts $(\{n_k x\})_{k \geq 1}$ is uniformly distributed modulo 1 for almost all $x \in [0,1]$. Except for a few special cases, e.g. when $n_k=k, k \geq 1$, the exceptional set cannot be described explicitly. The exact asymptotic order of the discrepancy of $(\{n_k x\})_{k \geq 1}$ is only known in a few special cases, for example when $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ is a (Hadamard) lacunary sequence, that is when $n_{k+1}/n_k \geq q > 1, k \geq 1$. In this case of quickly increasing $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ the system $(\{n_k x\})_{k \geq 1}$ (or, more general, $(f(n_k x))_{k \geq 1}$ for a 1-periodic function $f$) shows many asymptotic properties which are typical for the behavior of systems of \emphindependent random variables. Precise results depend on a fascinating interplay between analytic, probabilistic and number-theoretic phenomena. Without any growth conditions on $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ the situation becomes much more complicated, and the system $(f(n_k x))_{k \geq 1}$ will typically fail to satisfy probabilistic limit theorems. An important problem which remains is to study the almost everywhere convergence of series $\sum_{k=1}^\infty c_k f(k x)$, which is closely related to finding upper bounds for maximal $L^2$-norms of the form $$ \int_0^1 (\max_1 ≤M ≤N| \sum_k=1^M c_k f(kx)|^2 dx. $$ The most striking example of this connection is the equivalence of the Carleson convergence theorem and the Carleson--Hunt inequality for maximal partial sums of Fourier series. For general functions $f$ this is a very difficult problem, which is related to finding upper bounds for certain sums involving greatest common divisors.
- May 09 2013 math.NT arXiv:1305.1685v3For a non-negative function $\psi: ~ \N \mapsto \R$, let $W(\psi)$ denote the set of real numbers $x$ for which the inequality $|n x - a| < \psi(n)$ has infinitely many coprime solutions $(a,n)$. The Duffin--Schaeffer conjecture, one of the most important unsolved problems in metric number theory, asserts that $W(\psi)$ has full measure provided equation \labeldsccond \sum_n=1^∞\frac\psi(n) \varphi(n)n = ∞. equation Recently Beresnevich, Harman, Haynes and Velani proved that $W(\psi)$ has full measure under the \emphextra divergence condition $$ \sum_n=1^∞\frac\psi(n) \varphi(n)n \exp(c (\log \log n) (\log \log \log n)) = ∞\qquad \textrmfor some $c>0$. $$ In the present note we establish a \emphslow divergence counterpart of their result: $W(\psi)$ has full measure, provided\eqrefdsccond holds and additionally there exists some $c>0$ such that $$ \sum_n=2^2^h+1^2^2^h+1 \frac\psi(n) \varphi(n)n ≤\fracch \qquad \textrmfor all \quad $h \geq 1$. $$
- The normality measure $\mathcal{N}$ has been introduced by Mauduit and Sárközy in order to describe the pseudorandomness properties of finite binary sequences. Alon, Kohayakawa, Mauduit, Moreira and Rödl proved that the minimal possible value of the normality measure of an $N$-element binary sequence satisfies $$ (1/2 + o(1)) \log_2 N ≤\min_E_N ∈{0,1}^N \mathcalN(E_N) ≤3 N^1/3 (\log N)^2/3 $$ for sufficiently large $N$. In the present paper we improve the upper bound to $c (\log N)^2$ for some constant $c$, by this means solving the problem of the asymptotic order of the minimal value of the normality measure up to a logarithmic factor, and disproving a conjecture of Alon \emphet al.. The proof is based on relating the normality measure of binary sequences to the discrepancy of normal numbers in base 2.
- We prove the existence of a limit distribution for the normalized normality measure $\mathcal{N}(E_N)/\sqrt{N}$ (as $N \to \infty$) for random binary sequences $E_N$, by this means confirming a conjecture of Alon, Kohayakawa, Mauduit, Moreira and Rödl. The key point of the proof is to approximate the distribution of the normality measure by the exiting probabilities of a multidimensional Wiener process from a certain polytope.
- Nov 21 2012 math.CA arXiv:1211.4640v1Bourgain posed the problem of calculating $$ \Sigma = \sup_n ≥1 ~\sup_k_1 <... < k_n \frac1\sqrtn\| \sum_j=1^n e^2 \pi i k_j \theta\|_L^1([0,1]). $$ It is clear that $\Sigma \leq 1$; beyond that, determining whether $\Sigma < 1$ or $\Sigma=1$ would have some interesting implications, for example concerning the problem whether all rank one transformations have singular maximal spectral type. In the present paper we prove $\Sigma \geq \sqrt{\pi}/2 \approx 0.886$, by this means improving a result of Karatsuba. For the proof we use a quantitative two-dimensional version of the central limit theorem for lacunary trigonometric series, which in its original form is due to Salem and Zygmund.
- Ingrid Carbone introduced the notion of so-called LS-sequences of points, which are obtained by a generalization of Kakutani's interval splitting procedure. Under an appropriate choice of the parameters $L$ and $S$, such sequences have low discrepancy, which means that they are natural candidates for Quasi-Monte Carlo integration. It is tempting to assume that LS-sequences can be combined coordinatewise to obtain a multidimensional low-discrepancy sequence. However, in the present paper we prove that this is not always the case: if the parameters $L_1,S_1$ and $L_2,S_2$ of two one-dimensional low-discrepancy LS-sequences satisfy certain number-theoretic conditions, then their two-dimensional combination is not even dense in $[0,1]^2$.
- Nov 13 2012 math.NA arXiv:1211.2511v2The inverse of the star-discrepancy $N^*(d,\ve)$ denotes the smallest possible cardinality of a set of points in $[0,1]^d$ achieving a star-discrepancy of at most $\ve$. By a result of Heinrich, Novak, Wasilkowski and Woźniakowski, $$ N^*(d,\ve) ≤c_\textupabs d \ve^-2. $$ Here the dependence on the dimension $d$ is optimal, while the precise dependence on $\ve$ is an open problem. In the present paper we prove that $$ N^*(d,\ve) ≤c_\textupabs d \ve^-3/2 (\log (\ve^-1))^1/2. $$ This is a surprising result, which disproves a conjecture of Novak and Woźniakowski.
- By a profound result of Heinrich, Novak, Wasilkowski, and Woźniakowski the inverse of the star-discrepancy $n^*(s,\ve)$ satisfies the upper bound $n^*(s,\ve) \leq c_{\mathrm{abs}} s \ve^{-2}$. This is equivalent to the fact that for any $N$ and $s$ there exists a set of $N$ points in $[0,1]^s$ whose star-discrepancy is bounded by $c_{\mathrm{abs}} s^{1/2} N^{-1/2}$. The proof is based on the observation that a random point set satisfies the desired discrepancy bound with positive probability. In the present paper we prove an applied version of this result, making it applicable for computational purposes: for any given number $q \in (0,1)$ there exists an (explicitly stated) number $c(q)$ such that the star-discrepancy of a random set of $N$ points in $[0,1]^s$ is bounded by $c(q) s^{1/2} N^{-1/2}$ with probability at least $q$, uniformly in $N$ and $s$.
- Oct 17 2012 math.NT arXiv:1210.4215v2By a classical theorem of Koksma the sequence of fractional parts $(\{x^n\})_{n \geq 1}$ is uniformly distributed for almost all values of $x$. In the present paper we obtain an exact quantitative version of Koksma's theorem, by calculating the precise asymptotic order of the discrepancy of $(\{\xi x^{s_n}\})_{n \geq 1}$ for typical values of $x>1$ (in the sense of Lebesgue measure). Here $\xi>0$ is an arbitrary constant, and $(s_n)_{n \geq 1}$ can be any increasing sequence of positive integers.
- Upper bounds for GCD sums of the form [\sum_k,\ell=1^N\frac(\gcd(n_k,n_\ell))^2\alpha(n_k n_\ell)^\alpha] are proved, where $(n_k)_{1 \leq k \leq N}$ is any sequence of distinct positive integers and $0<\alpha \le 1$; the estimate for $\alpha=1/2$ solves in particular a problem of Dyer and Harman from 1986, and the estimates are optimal except possibly for $\alpha=1/2$. The method of proof is based on identifying the sum as a certain Poisson integral on a polydisc; as a byproduct, estimates for the largest eigenvalues of the associated GCD matrices are also found. The bounds for such GCD sums are used to establish a Carleson--Hunt-type inequality for systems of dilated functions of bounded variation or belonging to $\lip12$, a result that in turn settles two longstanding problems on the a.e.\ behavior of systems of dilated functions: the a.e. growth of sums of the form $\sum_{k=1}^N f(n_k x)$ and the a.e.\ convergence of $\sum_{k=1}^\infty c_k f(n_kx)$ when $f$ is 1-periodic and of bounded variation or in $\lip12$.
- Sep 16 2011 math.NA arXiv:1109.3265v1In this paper we study the geometric discrepancy of explicit constructions of uniformly distributed points on the two-dimensional unit sphere. We show that the spherical cap discrepancy of random point sets, of spherical digital nets and of spherical Fibonacci lattices converges with order $N^{-1/2}$. Such point sets are therefore useful for numerical integration and other computational simulations. The proof uses an area-preserving Lambert map. A detailed analysis of the level curves and sets of the pre-images of spherical caps under this map is given.