Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) have shown significant improvements in semi-supervised learning on graph-structured data. Concurrently, unsupervised learning of graph embeddings has benefited from the information contained in random walks. In this paper, we propose a model: Network of GCNs (N-GCN), which marries these two lines of work. At its core, N-GCN trains multiple instances of GCNs over node pairs discovered at different distances in random walks, and learns a combination of the instance outputs which optimizes the classification objective. Our experiments show that our proposed N-GCN model improves state-of-the-art baselines on all of the challenging node classification tasks we consider: Cora, Citeseer, Pubmed, and PPI. In addition, our proposed method has other desirable properties, including generalization to recently proposed semi-supervised learning methods such as GraphSAGE, allowing us to propose N-SAGE, and resilience to adversarial input perturbations.
Graph embedding methods represent nodes in a continuous vector space, preserving information from the graph (e.g. by sampling random walks). There are many hyper-parameters to these methods (such as random walk length) which have to be manually tuned for every graph. In this paper, we replace random walk hyper-parameters with trainable parameters that we automatically learn via backpropagation. In particular, we learn a novel attention model on the power series of the transition matrix, which guides the random walk to optimize an upstream objective. Unlike previous approaches to attention models, the method that we propose utilizes attention parameters exclusively on the data (e.g. on the random walk), and not used by the model for inference. We experiment on link prediction tasks, as we aim to produce embeddings that best-preserve the graph structure, generalizing to unseen information. We improve state-of-the-art on a comprehensive suite of real world datasets including social, collaboration, and biological networks. Adding attention to random walks can reduce the error by 20% to 45% on datasets we attempted. Further, our learned attention parameters are different for every graph, and our automatically-found values agree with the optimal choice of hyper-parameter if we manually tune existing methods.
Aug 25 2017 cs.LG
Deep Neural Networks are generally trained using iterative gradient updates. Magnitudes of gradients are affected by many factors, including choice of activation functions and initialization. More importantly, gradient magnitudes can greatly differ across layers, with some layers receiving much smaller gradients than others. causing some layers to train slower than others and therefore slowing down the overall convergence. We analytically explain this disproportionality. Then we propose to explicitly train all layers at the same speed, by scaling the gradient w.r.t. every trainable tensor to be proportional to its current value. In particular, at every batch, we want to update all trainable tensors, such that the relative change of the L1-norm of the tensors is the same, across all layers of the network, throughout training time. Experiments on MNIST show that our method appropriately scales gradients, such that the relative change in trainable tensors is approximately equal across layers. In addition, measuring the test accuracy with training time, shows that our method trains faster than other methods, giving higher test accuracy given same budget of training steps.
We propose a new method for embedding graphs while preserving directed edge information. Learning such continuous-space vector representations (or embeddings) of nodes in a graph is an important first step for using network information (from social networks, user-item graphs, knowledge bases, etc.) in many machine learning tasks. Unlike previous work, we (1) explicitly model an edge as a function of node embeddings, and we (2) propose a novel objective, the "graph likelihood", which contrasts information from sampled random walks with non-existent edges. Individually, both of these contributions improve the learned representations, especially when there are memory constraints on the total size of the embeddings. When combined, our contributions enable us to significantly improve the state-of-the-art by learning more concise representations that better preserve the graph structure. We evaluate our method on a variety of link-prediction task including social networks, collaboration networks, and protein interactions, showing that our proposed method learn representations with error reductions of up to 76% and 55%, on directed and undirected graphs. In addition, we show that the representations learned by our method are quite space efficient, producing embeddings which have higher structure-preserving accuracy but are 10 times smaller.
Sep 29 2016 cs.CV
Many recent advancements in Computer Vision are attributed to large datasets. Open-source software packages for Machine Learning and inexpensive commodity hardware have reduced the barrier of entry for exploring novel approaches at scale. It is possible to train models over millions of examples within a few days. Although large-scale datasets exist for image understanding, such as ImageNet, there are no comparable size video classification datasets. In this paper, we introduce YouTube-8M, the largest multi-label video classification dataset, composed of ~8 million videos (500K hours of video), annotated with a vocabulary of 4800 visual entities. To get the videos and their labels, we used a YouTube video annotation system, which labels videos with their main topics. While the labels are machine-generated, they have high-precision and are derived from a variety of human-based signals including metadata and query click signals. We filtered the video labels (Knowledge Graph entities) using both automated and manual curation strategies, including asking human raters if the labels are visually recognizable. Then, we decoded each video at one-frame-per-second, and used a Deep CNN pre-trained on ImageNet to extract the hidden representation immediately prior to the classification layer. Finally, we compressed the frame features and make both the features and video-level labels available for download. We trained various (modest) classification models on the dataset, evaluated them using popular evaluation metrics, and report them as baselines. Despite the size of the dataset, some of our models train to convergence in less than a day on a single machine using TensorFlow. We plan to release code for training a TensorFlow model and for computing metrics.
Multi-person event recognition is a challenging task, often with many people active in the scene but only a small subset contributing to an actual event. In this paper, we propose a model which learns to detect events in such videos while automatically "attending" to the people responsible for the event. Our model does not use explicit annotations regarding who or where those people are during training and testing. In particular, we track people in videos and use a recurrent neural network (RNN) to represent the track features. We learn time-varying attention weights to combine these features at each time-instant. The attended features are then processed using another RNN for event detection/classification. Since most video datasets with multiple people are restricted to a small number of videos, we also collected a new basketball dataset comprising 257 basketball games with 14K event annotations corresponding to 11 event classes. Our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods for both event classification and detection on this new dataset. Additionally, we show that the attention mechanism is able to consistently localize the relevant players.