In this paper we present a proof to show that there exists no system of linear or nonlinear optics which can simultaneously close multiple local orbit bumps and dispersion through a single beam transport region. The second combiner ring in the CLIC drive beam recombination system, CR2, is used as an example of where such conditions are necessary. We determine the properties of a lattice which is capable of closing the local orbit bumps and dispersion and show that all resulting solutions are either unphysical or trivial.
The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK market; and to explore ways of mitigating the impact of medical radioisotopes on patient care pathways. The report incorporates details of a visit to the Cyclotron Facilities at Edmonton, Alberta and at TRIUMF, Vancouver BC in Canada by members of the report team.
The next generation of lepton flavor violation experiments need high intensity and high quality muon beams. Production of such beams requires sending a short, high intensity proton pulse to the pion production target, capturing pions and collecting the resulting muons in the large acceptance transport system. The substantial increase of beam quality can be obtained by applying the RF phase rotation on the muon beam in the dedicated FFAG ring, which was proposed for the PRISM project.This allows to reduce the momentum spread of the beam and to purify from the unwanted components like pions or secondary protons. A PRISM Task Force is addressing the accelerator and detector issues that need to be solved in order to realize the PRISM experiment. The parameters of the required proton beam, the principles of the PRISM experiment and the baseline FFAG design are introduced. The spectrum of alternative designs for the PRISM FFAG ring are shown. Progress on ring main systems like injection and RF are presented. The current status of the study and its future directions are discussed.
Recent developments for the delivery of proton and ion beam therapy have been significant, and a number of technological solutions now exist for the creation and utilisation of these particles for the treatment of cancer. In this paper we review the historical development of particle accelerators used for external beam radiotherapy and discuss the more recent progress towards more capable and cost-effective sources of particles.
The discovery by the ATLAS and CMS experiments of a new boson with mass around 125 GeV and with measured properties compatible with those of a Standard-Model Higgs boson, coupled with the absence of discoveries of phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the TeV scale, has triggered interest in ideas for future Higgs factories. A new circular e+e- collider hosted in a 80 to 100 km tunnel, TLEP, is among the most attractive solutions proposed so far. It has a clean experimental environment, produces high luminosity for top-quark, Higgs boson, W and Z studies, accommodates multiple detectors, and can reach energies up to the t-tbar threshold and beyond. It will enable measurements of the Higgs boson properties and of Electroweak Symmetry-Breaking (EWSB) parameters with unequalled precision, offering exploration of physics beyond the Standard Model in the multi-TeV range. Moreover, being the natural precursor of the VHE-LHC, a 100 TeV hadron machine in the same tunnel, it builds up a long-term vision for particle physics. Altogether, the combination of TLEP and the VHE-LHC offers, for a great cost effectiveness, the best precision and the best search reach of all options presently on the market. This paper presents a first appraisal of the salient features of the TLEP physics potential, to serve as a baseline for a more extensive design study.
Electron storage rings used for the production of synchrotron radiation (SR) have an output photon brightness that is limited by the equilibrium beam emittance. By using interleaved injection and ejection of bunches from a source with repetition rate greater than 1 kHz, we show that it is practicable to overcome this limit in rings of energy ~1 GeV. Sufficiently short kicker pulse lengths enable effective currents of many milliamperes, which can deliver a significant flux of diffraction-limited soft X-ray photons. Thus, either existing SR facilities may be adapted for non-equilibrium operation, or the technique applied to construct SR rings smaller than their storage ring equivalent.
We present a novel modular magnetic system that can introduce a large and continuously-variable path length difference without simultaneous variation of the longitudinal dispersion. This is achieved by using a combination of an electrically-adjustable magnetic chicane and a mechanically-adjustable focus- ing chicane. We describe how such a system may be made either isochronous or with a given longitudinal dispersion, and show that the nonlinear terms in such a system are relatively small.
CONSORT is the UK's last remaining civilian research reactor, and its present core is soon to be removed. This study examines the feasibility of re-using the reactor facility for accelerator-driven systems research by replacing the fuel and installing a spallation neutron target driven by an external proton accelerator. MCNP5/MCNPX were used to model alternative, high-density fuels and their coupling to the neutrons generated by 230 MeV protons from a cyclotron striking a solid tungsten spallation target side-on to the core. Low-enriched U3Si2 and U-9Mo were considered as candidates, with only U-9Mo found to be feasible in the compact core; fuel element size and arrangement were kept the same as the original core layout to minimise thermal hydraulic and other changes. Reactor thermal power up to 2.5 kW is predicted for a keff of 0.995, large enough to carry out reactor kinetic experiments.
Studies of the electron beam dynamics for the 4GLS design are presented. 4GLS will provide three different electron bunch trains to a variety of user synchrotron sources. The 1 kHz XUV-FEL and 100 mA High Average Current branches share a common 540 MeV linac, whilst the 13 MHz IR-FEL must be well-synchronised to them. An overview of the injector designs, electron transport, and energy recovery is given, including ongoing studies of coherent synchrotron radiation, beam break-up and wakefields. This work is being pursued for the forthcoming Technical Design Report due in 2008.