- Jul 24 2017 physics.hist-ph quant-ph arXiv:1707.06910v1It is universally accepted that the quantum no-cloning theorem was not officially discovered until 1982. I show here that an article published in 1970 [J. L. Park, Foundations of Physics, 1, 23-33 (1970)] contained an explicit proof of the theorem. Park's demonstration has been overlooked until now and the paper remains virtually unknown. Reasons and implications of this fact are analyzed in the light of existing explanations concerning the genesis of the theorem.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05391v1The exponential speedups promised by Hamiltonian simulation on a quantum computer depends crucially on structure in both the Hamiltonian $\hat{H}$, and the quantum circuit $\hat{U}$ that encodes its description. In the quest to better approximate time-evolution $e^{-i\hat{H}t}$ with error $\epsilon$, we motivate a systematic approach to understanding and exploiting structure, in a setting where Hamiltonians are encoded as measurement operators of unitary circuits $\hat{U}$ for generalized measurement. This allows us to define a \emphuniform spectral amplification problem on this framework for expanding the spectrum of encoded Hamiltonian with exponentially small distortion. We present general solutions to uniform spectral amplification in a hierarchy where factoring $\hat{U}$ into $n=1,2,3$ unitary oracles represents increasing structural knowledge of the encoding. Combined with structural knowledge of the Hamiltonian, specializing these results allow us simulate time-evolution by $d$-sparse Hamiltonians using $\mathcal{O}\left(t(d \|\hat H\|_{\text{max}}\|\hat H\|_{1})^{1/2}\log{(t\|\hat{H}\|/\epsilon)}\right)$ queries, where $\|\hat H\|\le \|\hat H\|_1\le d\|\hat H\|_{\text{max}}$. Up to logarithmic factors, this is a polynomial improvement upon prior art using $\mathcal{O}\left(td\|\hat H\|_{\text{max}}+\frac{\log{(1/\epsilon)}}{\log\log{(1/\epsilon)}}\right)$ or $\mathcal{O}(t^{3/2}(d \|\hat H\|_{\text{max}}\|\hat H\|_{1}\|\hat H\|/\epsilon)^{1/2})$ queries. In the process, we also prove a matching lower bound of $\Omega(t(d\|\hat H\|_{\text{max}}\|\hat H\|_{1})^{1/2})$ queries, present a distortion-free generalization of spectral gap amplification, and an amplitude amplification algorithm that performs multiplication on unknown state amplitudes.
- It is well known in the realm of quantum mechanics and information theory that the entropy is non-decreasing for the class of unital physical processes. However, in general, the entropy does not exhibit monotonic behavior. This has restricted the use of entropy change in characterizing evolution processes. Recently, a lower bound on the entropy change was provided in [Buscemi, Das, & Wilde, Phys. Rev. A 93(6), 062314 (2016)]. We explore the limit that this bound places on the physical evolution of a quantum system and discuss how these limits can be used as witnesses to characterize quantum dynamics. In particular, we derive a lower limit on the rate of entropy change for memoryless quantum dynamics, and we argue that it provides a witness of non-unitality. This limit on the rate of entropy change leads to definitions of several witnesses for testing memory effects in quantum dynamics. Furthermore, from the aforementioned lower bound on entropy change, we obtain a measure of non-unitarity for unital evolutions.
- We introduce a framework unifying the mathematical characterisation of different measures of general quantum resources and allowing for a systematic way to define a variety of faithful quantifiers for any given convex quantum resource theory. The approach allows us to describe many commonly used measures such as matrix norm-based quantifiers, robustness measures, convex roof-based measures, and witness-based quantifiers together in a common formalism based on the convex geometry of the underlying sets of resource-free states. We establish easily verifiable criteria for a measure to possess desirable properties such as faithfulness and strong monotonicity under relevant free operations, and show that many quantifiers obtained in this framework indeed satisfy them for any considered quantum resource. We derive various bounds and relations between the measures as well as their dual forms, generalising and in many cases simplifying results found in the resource theories of quantum entanglement and coherence. We also prove that the quantification of resources in this framework simplifies for pure states, allowing us to obtain more easily computable forms of the considered measures, and show that many of them are in fact equal on pure states. We present an explicit application of the results to the resource theories of multi-level coherence, entanglement of Schmidt number k, multipartite entanglement, as well as magic states, providing insight into the quantification of the four resources and introducing new quantifiers, such as a measure of entanglement of Schmidt number k which generalises the convex roof-extended negativity, a measure of k-coherence which generalises the L1 norm of coherence, and a hierarchy of norm-based quantifiers of k-partite entanglement generalising the greatest cross norm.
- This Letter discusses topological quantum computation with gapped boundaries of two-dimensional topological phases. Systematic methods are presented to encode quantum information topologically using gapped boundaries, and to perform topologically protected operations on this encoding. In particular, we introduce a new and general computational primitive of topological charge measurement and present a symmetry-protected implementation of this primitive. Throughout the Letter, a concrete physical example, the $\mathbb{Z}_3$ toric code ($\mathfrak{D}(\mathbb{Z}_3)$), is discussed. For this example, we have a qutrit encoding and an abstract universal gate set. Physically, gapped boundaries of $\mathfrak{D}(\mathbb{Z}_3)$ can be realized in bilayer fractional quantum Hall $1/3$ systems. If a practical implementation is found for the required topological charge measurement, these boundaries will give rise to a direct physical realization of a universal quantum computer based on a purely abelian topological phase.
- Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. Along this line, a prime question is to find whether gravity is a quantum entity subject to the rules of quantum mechanics. It is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test the quantum coherent behaviour of gravity directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple correlation measurements between two spins: one embedded in each test mass. Fundamentally, the above entanglement is shown to certify the presence of non-zero off-diagonal terms in the coherent state basis of the gravitational field modes.
- Jul 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06597v1The field of device-independent quantum cryptography has seen enormous success in the past several years, including security proofs for key distribution and random number generation that account for arbitrary imperfections in the devices used. Full security proofs in the field so far are long and technically deep. In this paper we show that the concept of the mirror adversary can be used to simplify device-independent proofs. We give a short proof that any bipartite Bell violation can be used to generate private random numbers. The proof is based on elementary techniques and is self-contained.
- We construct entanglement renormalization schemes which provably approximate the ground states of non-interacting fermion nearest-neighbor hopping Hamiltonians on the one-dimensional discrete line and the two-dimensional square lattice. These schemes give hierarchical quantum circuits which build up the states from unentangled degrees of freedom. The circuits are based on pairs of discrete wavelet transforms which are approximately related by a "half-shift": translation by half a unit cell. The presence of the Fermi surface in the two-dimensional model requires a special kind of circuit architecture to properly capture the entanglement in the ground state. We show how the error in the approximation can be controlled without ever performing a variational optimization.
- Jul 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06534v1A timely enterprise nowadays is understanding which states can be device-independently self-tested and how. This question has been answered recently in the bipartite case [Nat. Comm. 8, 15485 (2017)], while it is largely unexplored in the multipartite case, with only a few scattered results, using a variety of different methods: maximal violation of a Bell inequality, numerical SWAP method, stabilizer self-testing etc. In this work, we investigate a simple, and potentially unifying, approach: combining projections onto two-qubit spaces (projecting parties or degrees of freedom) and then using maximal violation of the tilted CHSH inequalities. This allows to obtain self-testing of Dicke states and partially entangled GHZ states with two measurements per party, and also to recover self-testing of graph states (previously known only through stabilizer methods). Finally, we give the first self-test of a class multipartite qudit states: we generalize the self-testing of partially entangled GHZ states by adapting techniques from [Nat. Comm. 8, 15485 (2017)], and show that all multipartite states which admit a Schmidt decomposition can be self-tested with few measurements.
- Jul 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06131v1The landscape of causal relations that can hold among a set of systems in quantum theory is richer than in classical physics. In particular, a pair of time-ordered systems can be related as cause and effect or as the effects of a common cause, and each of these causal mechanisms can be coherent or not. Furthermore, one can combine these mechanisms in different ways: by probabilistically realizing either one or the other or by having both act simultaneously (termed a physical mixture). In the latter case, it is possible for the two mechanisms to be combined quantum-coherently. Previous work has shown how to experimentally realize one example of each class of possible causal relations. Here, we make a theoretical and experimental study of the transitions between these classes. In particular, for each of the two distinct types of coherence that can exist in mixtures of common-cause and cause-effect relations--coherence in the individual causal pathways and coherence in the way the causal relations are combined--we determine how it degrades under noise and we confirm these expectations in a quantum-optical experiment.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph physics.hist-ph arXiv:1707.05602v1We give a condensed and accessible summary of a recent derivation of quantum theory from information-theoretic principles, and use it to study the consequences of this and other reconstructions for our conceptual understanding of the quantum world. Since these principles are to a large extent expressed in computational terminology, we argue that the hypothesis of "physics as computation", if suitably interpreted, attains surprising explanatory power. Similarly as Jeffrey Bub and others, we conclude that quantum theory should be understood as a "principle theory of information", and we regard this view as a partial interpretation of quantum theory. We outline three options for completion into a full-fledged interpretation of quantum theory, but argue that, despite their interpretational agnosticism, the principled reconstructions pose a challenge for existing psi-ontic interpretations. We also argue that continuous reversible time evolution can be understood as a characteristic property of quantum theory, offering a possible answer to Chris Fuchs' search for a "glimpse of quantum reality".
- The causal inference problem consists in determining whether a probability distribution over a set of observed variables is compatible with a given causal structure. In [arXiv:1609.00672], one of us introduced a hierarchy of necessary linear programming constraints which all the observed distributions compatible with the considered causal structure must satisfy. In this work, we prove that the inflation hierarchy is complete, i.e., any distribution of the observed variables which does not admit a realization within the considered causal structure will fail one of the inflation tests. More quantitatively, we show that any distribution of measurable events satisfying the $n^{th}$ inflation test is $O\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{n}}\right)$-close in Euclidean norm to a distribution realizable within the given causal structure. In addition, we show that the corresponding $n^{th}$-order relaxation of the dual problem consisting in maximizing a $k^{th}$ degree polynomial on the observed variables is $O\left(\frac{k^2}{n}\right)$-close to the optimal solution.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05631v2Entanglement in the angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs is given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. Using this result, we study how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.
- Jul 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06869v1We present an example of a Thermal Operation for a system of $d>1$ energy levels, which cannot be performed without an instant access to the whole energy space. Pursuing the question about the decomposability of global Thermal Operations into convex combinations of processes acting non-trivially on smaller subspaces, we investigate the set of Thermal Operations for transitions within the subspace of states diagonal in the energy basis. For 3 level systems, we determine the set of extremal points of these operations and connect it with thermo-majorization criterion. In particular, we show that the structure of the set depends on temperature. Finally, we show the connection between a low temperature realization in 3 level systems of the non-decomposable operation introduced in the beginning with higher temperature extremal points.
- Jul 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06498v1We present a blueprint for building a fault-tolerant universal quantum computer with Rydberg atoms. Our scheme, which is based on the surface code, uses individually-addressable optically-trapped atoms as qubits and exploits electromagnetically induced transparency to perform the multi-qubit gates required for error correction and computation. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using Rydberg atoms to build such a quantum computer, and we perform error correction simulations to obtain an error threshold for our scheme. Our findings suggest that Rydberg atoms are a promising candidate for quantum computation, but gate fidelities need to improve before fault-tolerant universal quantum computation can be achieved.
- Jul 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06481v1Using the most basic mathematical tools, I present the full analysis of the experiment decribed in [A. Danan, D. Farfurnik, S. Bar-Ad, and L. Vaidman, \em Phys. Rev. Lett. \bf 111, 240402 (2013)]. First, I confirm that the data presented therein are in full agreement with the standard quantum mechanics. I then show other symptoms of presence of photons at all mirrors in the setup. I then analytically explain both the absence of peaks a Readers of [A. Danan, D. Farfurnik, S. Bar-Ad, and L. Vaidman, \em Phys. Rev. Lett. \bf 111, 240402 (2013)] are made to expect and presence of those not discussed in the Reference.
- Jul 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06960v1We discuss the connection between the incompatibility of quantum measurements, as captured by the notion of joint measurability, and the violation of Bell inequalities. Specifically, we present explicitly a given a set of non jointly measurable POVMs $\mathcal{M}_A$ with the following property. Considering a bipartite Bell test where Alice uses $\mathcal{M}_A$, then for any possible shared entangled state $\rho$ and any set of (possibly infinitely many) POVMs $\mathcal{N}_B$ performed by Bob, the resulting statistics admits a local model, and can thus never violate any Bell inequality. This shows that quantum measurement incompatibility does not imply Bell nonlocality in general.
- We introduce a game related to the $I_{3322}$ game and analyze the value of this game over various families of synchronous quantum probability densities.
- In this paper we study the ways to use a global entangling operator to efficiently implement circuitry common to a selection of important quantum algorithms. In particular, we focus on the circuits composed with global Ising entangling gates and arbitrary addressable single-qubit gates. We show that under certain circumstances the use of global operations can substantially improve the entangling gate count.
- All existing quantum gravity proposals share the same deep problem. Their predictions are extremely hard to test in practice. Quantum effects in the gravitational field are exceptionally small, unlike those in the electromagnetic field. The fundamental reason is that the gravitational coupling constant is about 43 orders of magnitude smaller than the fine structure constant, which governs light-matter interactions. For example, the detection of gravitons -- the hypothetical quanta of energy of the gravitational field predicted by certain quantum-gravity proposals -- is deemed to be practically impossible. In this letter we adopt a radically different, quantum-information-theoretic approach which circumvents the problem that quantum gravity is hard to test. We propose an experiment to witness quantum-like features in the gravitational field, by probing it with two masses each in a superposition of two locations. First, we prove the fact that any system (e.g. a field) capable of mediating entanglement between two quantum systems must itself be quantum. This argument is general and does not rely on any specific dynamics. Then, we propose an experiment to detect the entanglement generated between two masses via gravitational interaction. By our argument, the degree of entanglement between the masses is an indirect witness of the quantisation of the field mediating the interaction. Remarkably, this experiment does not require any quantum control over gravity itself. It is also closer to realisation than other proposals, such as detecting gravitons or detecting quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations.
- Variational Study of Fermionic and Bosonic Systems with Non-Gaussian States: Theory and ApplicationsJul 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1707.05902v1We present a new variational method for investigating the ground state and out of equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body bosonic and fermionic systems. Our approach is based on constructing variational wavefunctions which extend Gaussian states by including generalized canonical transformations between the fields. The key advantage of such states compared to simple Gaussian states is presence of non-factorizable correlations and the possibility of describing states with strong entanglement between particles. In contrast to the commonly used canonical transformations, such as the polaron or Lang-Firsov transformations, we allow parameters of the transformations to be time dependent, which extends their regions of applicability. We derive equations of motion for the parameters characterizing the states both in real and imaginary time using the differential structure of the variational manifold. The ground state can be found by following the imaginary time evolution until it converges to a steady state. Collective excitations in the system can be obtained by linearizing the real-time equations of motion in the vicinity of the imaginary time steady-state solution. Our formalism allows us not only to determine the energy spectrum of quasiparticles and their lifetime, but to obtain the complete spectral functions and to explore far out of equilibrium dynamics such as coherent evolution following a quantum quench. We illustrate and benchmark this framework with several examples: a single polaron in the Holstein and Su-Schrieer-Heeger models, non-equilibrium dynamics in the spin-boson and Kondo models, the superconducting to charge density wave phase transitions in the Holstein model.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05543v1We provide a versatile upper bound on the number of maximally entangled qubits, or private bits, shared by two parties via a generic adaptive communication protocol over a quantum network when the use of classical communication is not restricted. Although our result follows the idea of splitting the network into two parts developed by Azuma et al. [Nat. Comm. 7, 13523 (2016)], our approach relaxes their strong restriction on the use of a single entanglement measure in the quantification of the maximum amount of entanglement generated by the channels. In particular, in our bound the measure can be chosen on a channel-by-channel basis, in order to make our bound as tight as possible. This enables us to apply the relative entropy of entanglement, known to give a state-of-the-art upper bound, on every Choi-stretchable channel in the network, even when the other channels do not satisfy this property. We also develop tools to compute, or bound, the max-relative entropy of entanglement for qubit channels that are invariant under phase rotations.
- Jul 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06655v1We derive a bound on the ability of a linear optical network to estimate a linear combination of independent phase shifts by using an arbitrary non-classical but unentangled input state, thereby elucidating the quantum resources required to obtain the Heisenberg limit with a multi-port interferometer. Our bound reveals that while linear networks can generate highly entangled states, they cannot effectively combine quantum resources that are well distributed across multiple modes for the purposes of metrology: in this sense linear networks endowed with well-distributed quantum resources behave classically. Conversely, our bound shows that linear networks can achieve the Heisenberg limit for distributed metrology when the input photons are hoarded in a small number of input modes, and we present an explicit scheme for doing so. Our results also have implications for measures of non-classicality.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1707.05770v1We propose a new implementation of real-space renormalization group (RG) transformations for quantum states on a lattice. Key to this approach is the removal of short-ranged entanglement, similar to Vidal's entanglement renormalization (ER), which allows a proper RG flow to be achieved. However, our proposal only uses operators that act locally within each block, such that the use of disentanglers acting across block boundaries is not required. By avoiding the use of disentanglers we argue many tensor network algorithms for studying quantum many-body systems can be significantly improved. The effectiveness of this RG approach is demonstrated through application to the ground state of a 1D system at criticality, which is shown to reach a scale-invariant fixed point.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05760v1The Bell basis is a distinctive set of maximally entangled two-particle quantum states that forms the foundation for many quantum protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement swapping. While the generation, manipulation, and measurement of two-level quantum states is well understood, the same is not true in higher dimensions. Here we present the experimental generation of a complete set of Bell states in a four-dimensional Hilbert space, comprising of 16 orthogonal entangled Bell-like states encoded in the orbital angular momentum of photons. The states are created by the application of generalized high-dimensional Pauli gates on an initial entangled state. Our results pave the way for the application of high-dimensional quantum states in complex quantum protocols such as quantum dense coding.
- Jul 21 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1707.06479v1We demonstrate a scalable device architecture that facilitates indirect exchange between singlet-triplet spin qubits, mediated by an intermediate quantum state. The device comprises five quantum dots, which can be independently loaded and unloaded via tunneling to adjacent reservoirs, avoiding charge latch-up common in linear dot arrays. In a step towards realizing two-qubit entanglement based on indirect exchange, the architecture permits precise control over tunnel rates between the singlet-triplet qubits and the intermediate state. We show that by separating qubits by 1 um, the residual capacitive coupling between them is reduced to 7 ueV.
- Jul 20 2017 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1707.05787v1We present a unified perspective on symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases in one dimension and address the open question of what characterizes their phase transitions. In the first part of this work we use symmetry as a guide to map various well-known fermionic and spin SPTs to a Kitaev chain with coupling of range $\alpha \in \mathbb Z$. This unified picture uncovers new properties of old models --such as how the cluster state is the fixed point limit of the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state in disguise-- and leads to new SPTs --such as the Hubbard chain interpolating between the stack of four Kitaev chains and a spin chain in the Haldane phase. In the second part, we study the topological phase transitions between these models in the presence of interactions. This leads us to conjecture that the critical point between any SPT with $d$-dimensional edge modes and the trivial phase has a central charge $c \geq \log_2 d$. We analytically verify this for many known transitions. This agrees with the intuitive notion that the phase transition is described by a delocalized edge mode, and that the central charge of a conformal field theory is a measure of the gapless degrees of freedom.
- We consider energy-constrained infinite-dimensional quantum channels from a given system (satisfying a certain condition) to any other systems. We show that dealing with basic capacities of these channels we may assume (accepting arbitrarily small error $\epsilon$) that all channels have the same finite-dimensional input space -- the subspace corresponding to the $m(\epsilon)$ minimal eigenvalues of the input Hamiltonian. By using this result we prove uniform continuity of basic capacities on the set of all quantum channels equipped with the strong (pointwise) convergence topology. For all the capacities we obtain continuity bounds depending only on the input energy and the energy-constrained-diamond-norm distance between quantum channels (generating the strong convergence on the set of quantum channels).
- The efficient representation of quantum many-body states with classical resources is a key challenge in quantum many-body theory. In this work we analytically construct classical networks for the description of the quantum dynamics in transverse-field Ising models that can be solved efficiently using Monte-Carlo techniques. Our perturbative construction encodes time-evolved quantum states of spin-1/2 systems in a network of classical spins with local couplings and can be directly generalized to other spin systems and higher spins. Using this construction we compute the transient dynamics in one, two, and three dimensions including local observables, entanglement production, and Loschmidt amplitudes using Monte-Carlo algorithms and demonstrate the accuracy of this approach by comparisons to exact results. We include a mapping to equivalent artificial neural networks as introduced in [G. Carleo and M. Troyer, Science 355 (2017)].
- Jul 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06408v1Harnessing the full power of nascent quantum processors requires the efficient management of a limited number of quantum bits with finite lifetime. Hybrid algorithms leveraging classical resources have demonstrated promising initial results in the efficient calculation of Hamiltonian ground states--an important eigenvalue problem in the physical sciences that is often classically intractable. In these protocols, a Hamiltonian is parsed and evaluated term-wise with a shallow quantum circuit, and the resulting energy minimized using classical resources. This reduces the number of consecutive logical operations that must be performed on the quantum hardware before the onset of decoherence. We demonstrate a complete implementation of the Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE), augmented with a novel Quantum Subspace Expansion, to calculate the complete energy spectrum of the H2 molecule with near chemical accuracy. The QSE also enables the mitigation of incoherent errors, potentially allowing the implementation of larger-scale algorithms without complex quantum error correction techniques.
- We derive the timescale for two initially pure subsystems to become entangled with each other through an arbitrary Hamiltonian that couples them. The entanglement timescale is inversely proportional to the "correlated uncertainty" between the two subsystems, a quantity which we will define and analyze in this paper. Our result is still applicable when one of the subsystems started in an arbitrarily mixed state, thus it generalizes the well-known "decoherence timescale" while coupled to a thermal state.
- Jul 24 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1707.06950v1Exploiting the relative entropy of coherence, we isolate the coherent contribution in the energetics of a driven non-equilibrium quantum system. We prove that a division of the irreversible work can be made into a coherent and incoherent part, which provides an operational criterion for quantifying the coherent contribution in a generic non-equilibrium transformation on a closed quantum system. We then study such a contribution in two physical models of a driven qubit and kicked rotor. In addition, we also show that coherence generation is connected to the non-adiabaticity of a processes, for which it gives the dominant contribution for slow-enough transformation. The amount of generated coherence in the energy eigenbasis is equivalent to the change in diagonal entropy, and here we show that it fulfills a fluctuation theorem.
- This paper is primarily a semi-tutorial introduction to elementary algebraic topology and its applications to Ising-type models of statistical physics, using graphical models of linear and group codes. It contains new material on systematic (n,k) group codes and their information sets; normal realizations of (co)homology spaces; dual and hybrid models; and connections with system-theoretic concepts such as observability, controllability and input/output realizations.
- We propose an explicit formulation of the physical subspace for a 1+1 dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory, where the gauge degrees of freedom are integrated out. Our formulation is completely general, and might be potentially suited for the design of future quantum simulators. Additionally, it allows for addressing the theory numerically with matrix product states. We apply this technique to explore the spectral properties of the model and the effect of truncating the gauge degrees of freedom to a small finite dimension. In particular, we determine the scaling exponents for the vector mass. Furthermore, we also compute the entanglement entropy in the ground state and study its scaling towards the continuum limit.
- Jul 21 2017 physics.chem-ph stat.ML arXiv:1707.06338v1Understanding the relationship between the structure of light-harvesting systems and their excitation energy transfer properties is of fundamental importance in many applications including the development of next generation photovoltaics. Natural light harvesting in photosynthesis shows remarkable excitation energy transfer properties, which suggests that pigment-protein complexes could serve as blueprints for the design of nature inspired devices. Mechanistic insights into energy transport dynamics can be gained by leveraging numerically involved propagation schemes such as the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM). Solving these equations, however, is computationally costly due to the adverse scaling with the number of pigments. Therefore virtual high-throughput screening, which has become a powerful tool in material discovery, is less readily applicable for the search of novel excitonic devices. We propose the use of artificial neural networks to bypass the computational limitations of established techniques for exploring the structure-dynamics relation in excitonic systems. Once trained, our neural networks reduce computational costs by several orders of magnitudes. Our predicted transfer times and transfer efficiencies exhibit similar or even higher accuracies than frequently used approximate methods such as secular Redfield theory
- This paper is first-line research expanding GANs into graph topology analysis. By leveraging the hierarchical connectivity structure of a graph, we have demonstrated that generative adversarial networks (GANs) can successfully capture topological features of any arbitrary graph, and rank edge sets by different stages according to their contribution to topology reconstruction. Moreover, in addition to acting as an indicator of graph reconstruction, we find that these stages can also preserve important topological features in a graph.
- Jul 20 2017 cond-mat.stat-mech quant-ph arXiv:1707.05921v1Nonequilibrium dynamics of a nonintegrable system without the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is studied. It is shown that, in the thermodynamic limit, this model thermalizes after an arbitrary quantum quench at finite temperature, although it does not satisfy the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. In contrast, when the system size is finite and the temperature is low enough, the system may not thermalize. In this case, the steady state is well described by the generalized Gibbs ensemble constructed by using highly nonlocal conserved quantities. We also show that this model exhibits prethermalization, in which the prethermalized state is characterized by nonthermal energy eigenstates.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05339v1Nonlocality is the most characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. John Bell, in his seminal 1964 work, proved that local-realism imposes a bound on the correlations among the measurement statistics of distant observers. Surpassing this bound rules out local-realistic description of microscopic phenomena, establishing the presence of nonlocal correlation. To manifest nonlocality, it requires, in the simplest scenario, two measurements performed randomly by each of two distant observers. In this work, we propose a novel framework where three measurements, two on Alice's side and one on Bob's side, suffice to reveal quantum nonlocality and hence does not require all-out randomness in measurement choice. Our method relies on a very naive operational task in quantum information theory, namely, the minimal error state discrimination. As a practical implication this method constitutes an economical entanglement detection scheme, which uses a less number of entangled states compared to all such existing schemes. Moreover, the method applies to class of generalized probability theories containing quantum theory as a special example.
- We study perfect state transfer in a discrete quantum walk. In particular, we show that there are infinitely many $4$-regular circulant graphs that admit perfect state transfer between antipodal vertices. To the best of our knowledge, previously there was no infinite family of $k$-regular graphs with perfect state transfer, for any $k\ge 3$.
- Jul 24 2017 cs.CC arXiv:1707.06860v1We present a non-commutative algorithm for multiplying $5 \times 5$ matrices using 99 multiplications. This algorithm is a minor modification of Makarov algorithm [4].
- Distributional semantics models are known to struggle with small data. It is generally accepted that in order to learn 'a good vector' for a word, a model must have sufficient examples of its usage. This contradicts the fact that humans can guess the meaning of a word from a few occurrences only. In this paper, we show that a neural language model such as Word2Vec only necessitates minor modifications to its standard architecture to learn new terms from tiny data, using background knowledge from a previously learnt semantic space. We test our model on word definitions and on a nonce task involving 2-6 sentences' worth of context, showing a large increase in performance over state-of-the-art models on the definitional task.
- Jul 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06430v1We present a quantum algorithm solving the greatest common divisor (GCD) problem. This quantum algorithm possesses similar computational complexity with classical algorithms, such as the well-known Euclidean algorithm for GCD. This algorithm is an application of the quantum algorithms for the hidden subgroup problems, the same as Shor factoring algorithm. Explicit quantum circuits realized by quantum gates for this quantum algorithm are provided. We also give a computer simulation of this quantum algorithm and present the expected outcomes for the corresponding quantum circuit.
- Progress in quantum computing hardware raises questions about how these devices can be controlled, programmed, and integrated with existing computational workflows. We briefly describe several prominent quantum computational models, their associated quantum processing units (QPUs), and the adoption of these devices as accelerators within high-performance computing systems. Emphasizing the interface to the QPU, we analyze instruction set architectures based on reduced and complex instruction sets, i.e., RISC and CISC architectures. We clarify the role of conventional constraints on memory addressing and instruction widths within the quantum computing context. Finally, we examine existing quantum computing platforms, including the D-Wave 2000Q and IBM Quantum Experience, within the context of future ISA development and HPC needs.
- Jul 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06200v1A nonlocal game with a synchronous correlation is a natural generalization of a function between two finite sets, and has frequently appeared in the context of graph homomorphisms. In this work we examine analogues of Bell's inequalities for synchronous correlations. We show that unlike in the general case with the CHSH inequality there can be no quantum Bell violation among synchronous correlations with two measurement settings. However we exhibit explicit analogues of Bell's inequalities for synchronous correlation with three measurement settings and two outputs that do admit quantum violations.
- Jul 19 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1707.05652v1Chaos and ergodicity are the cornerstones of statistical physics and thermodynamics. While classically even small systems like a particle in a two-dimensional cavity, can exhibit chaotic behavior and thereby relax to a microcanonical ensemble, quantum systems formally can not. Recent theoretical breakthroughs and, in particular, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) however indicate that quantum systems can also thermalize. In fact ETH provided us with a framework connecting microscopic models and macroscopic phenomena, based on the notion of highly entangled quantum states. Such thermalization was beautifully demonstrated experimentally by A. Kaufman et. al. who studied relaxation dynamics of a small lattice system of interacting bosonic particles. By directly measuring the entanglement entropy of subsystems, as well as other observables, they showed that after the initial transient time the system locally relaxes to a thermal ensemble while globally maintaining a zero-entropy pure state.
- Jul 19 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1707.05425v1We propose a highly efficient and faster Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) model with Deep Convolutional neural networks (Deep CNN). Deep CNN have recently shown that they have a significant reconstruction performance on single-image super-resolution. Current trend is using deeper CNN layers to improve performance. However, deep models demand larger computation resources and is not suitable for network edge devices like mobile, tablet and IoT devices. Our model achieves state of the art reconstruction performance with at least 10 times lower calculation cost by Deep CNN with Residual Net, Skip Connection and Network in Network (DCSCN). A combination of Deep CNNs and Skip connection layers is used as a feature extractor for image features on both local and global area. Parallelized 1x1 CNNs, like the one called Network in Network, is also used for image reconstruction. That structure reduces the dimensions of the previous layer's output for faster computation with less information loss, and make it possible to process original images directly. Also we optimize the number of layers and filters of each CNN to significantly reduce the calculation cost. Thus, the proposed algorithm not only achieves the state of the art performance but also achieves faster and efficient computation. Code is available at https://github.com/jiny2001/dcscn-super-resolution.
- Eigenstates of fully many-body localized (FMBL) systems are described by quasilocal operators $\tau_i^z$ (l-bits), which are conserved exactly under Hamiltonian time evolution. The algebra of the operators $\tau_i^z$ and $\tau_i^x$ associated with l-bits ($\boldsymbol{\tau}_i$) completely define the eigenstates and the matrix elements of local operators between eigenstates at all energies. We develop a non-perturbative construction of the full set of l-bit algebras in the many-body localized phase for the canonical model of MBL. Our algorithm to construct the Pauli-algebra of l-bits combines exact diagonalization and a tensor network algorithm developed for efficient diagonalization of large FMBL Hamiltonians. The distribution of localization lengths of the l-bits is evaluated in the MBL phase and used to characterize the MBL-to-thermal transition.
- Jul 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.05337v1Supra-quantum nonlocality refers to correlations that are more nonlocal than allowed by quantum theory but still physically conceivable in post-quantum theories, in the sense of respecting the basic no-faster-than-light communication principle. While supra-quantum correlations are relatively well understood for finite-dimensional systems, little is known in the infinite-dimensional case. Here, we study supra-quantum nonlocality for bipartite systems with two measurement settings and infinitely many outcomes per subsystem. We develop a formalism for generic no-signaling black-box measurement devices with continuous outputs in terms of probability measures, instead of probability distributions, which involves a few technical subtleties. We show the existence of a class of supra-quantum Gaussian correlations, which violate the Tsirelson bound of an adequate continuous-variable Bell inequality. We then introduce the continuous-variable version of the celebrated Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes, as a limiting case of the above-mentioned Gaussian ones. Finally, we perform a characterisation of the geometry of the set of continuous-variable no-signaling correlations. Namely, we show that that the convex hull of the continuous-variable PR boxes is dense in the no-signaling set. We also show that these boxes are extreme in the set of no-signaling behaviours and provide evidence suggesting that they are indeed the only extreme points of the no-signaling set. Our results lay the grounds for studying generalized-probability theories in continuous-variable systems.
- We revisit the generation of dark matter isocurvature perturbations in the curvaton model in greater detail, both analytically and numerically. As concrete examples, we investigate the cases of thermally decoupled dark matter and axionic dark matter. We show that the radiation produced by the decay of the curvaton, which has not been taken into account in previous analytical studies, can significantly affect the amplitude of isocurvature perturbations. In particular, we find that they are drastically suppressed even when the dark matter freeze-out (or the onset of the axion oscillations for axionic dark matter) occurs before the curvaton decays, provided the freeze-out takes place deep in the curvaton-dominated Universe. As a consequence, we show that the current observational isocurvature constraints on the curvaton parameters are not as severe as usually thought.
- Jul 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06926v1Motivated by the gate set tomography we study quantum channels from the perspective of information which is invariant with respect to the gauge realized through similarity of matrices representing channel superoperators. We thus use the complex spectrum of the superoperator to provide necessary conditions relevant for complete positivity of qubit channels and to express various metrics such as average gate fidelity.