- In quantum algorithms discovered so far for simulating scattering processes in quantum field theories, state preparation is the slowest step. We present a new algorithm for preparing particle states to use in simulation of Fermionic Quantum Field Theory (QFT) on a quantum computer, which is based on the matrix product state ansatz. We apply this to the massive Gross-Neveu model in one spatial dimension to illustrate the algorithm, but we believe the same algorithm with slight modifications can be used to simulate any one-dimensional massive Fermionic QFT. In the case where the number of particle species is one, our algorithm can prepare particle states using $O\left( \epsilon^{-3.23\ldots}\right)$ gates, which is much faster than previous known results, namely $O\left(\epsilon^{-8-o\left(1\right)}\right)$. Furthermore, unlike previous methods which were based on adiabatic state preparation, the method given here should be able to simulate quantum phases unconnected to the free theory.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05394v1We present a quantum algorithm for simulating the wave equation under Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The algorithm uses Hamiltonian simulation and quantum linear system algorithms as subroutines. It relies on factorizations of discretized Laplacian operators to allow for improved scaling in truncation errors and improved scaling for state preparation relative to general purpose linear differential equation algorithms. We also consider using Hamiltonian simulation for Klein-Gordon equations and Maxwell's equations.
- Nov 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.06658v1What is the energy cost of extracting entanglement from complex quantum systems? In other words, given a state of a quantum system, how much energy does it cost to extract m EPR pairs? This is an important question, particularly for quantum field theories where the vacuum is generally highly entangled. Here we build a theory to understand the energy cost of entanglement extraction. First, we apply it to a toy model, and then we define the entanglement temperature, which relates the energy cost to the amount of extracted entanglement. Next, we give a physical argument to find the energy cost of entanglement extraction in some condensed matter and quantum field systems. The energy cost for those quantum field theories depends on the spatial dimension, and in one dimension, for example, it grows exponentially with the number of EPR pairs extracted. Next, we outline some approaches for bounding the energy cost of extracting entanglement in general quantum systems. Finally, we look at the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg and transverse field Ising models numerically to calculate the entanglement temperature using matrix product states.
- In topology, a torus remains invariant under certain non-trivial transformations known as modular transformations. In the context of topologically ordered quantum states of matter, these transformations encode the braiding statistics and fusion rules of emergent anyonic excitations and thus serve as a diagnostic of topological order. Moreover, modular transformations of higher genus surfaces, e.g. a torus with multiple handles, can enhance the computational power of a topological state, in many cases providing a universal fault-tolerant set of gates for quantum computation. However, due to the intrusive nature of modular transformations, which abstractly involve global operations and manifold surgery, physical implementations of them in local systems have remained elusive. Here, we show that by folding manifolds, modular transformations can be reduced to independent local unitaries, providing a novel class of transversal logic gates in topological states. Specifically, through folding, we demonstrate that multi-layer topological states with appropriate boundary conditions and twist defects allow modular transformations to be effectively implemented by a finite sequence of local SWAP gates between the layers. We further provide methods to directly measure the modular matrices, and thus the fractional statistics of anyonic excitations, providing a novel way to directly measure topological order.
- Matthew Fisher recently postulated a mechanism by which quantum phenomena could influence cognition: Phosphorus nuclear spins may resist decoherence for long times. The spins would serve as biological qubits. The qubits may resist decoherence longer when in Posner molecules. We imagine that Fisher postulates correctly. How adroitly could biological systems process quantum information (QI)? We establish a framework for answering. Additionally, we apply biological qubits in quantum error correction, quantum communication, and quantum computation. First, we posit how the QI encoded by the spins transforms as Posner molecules form. The transformation points to a natural computational basis for qubits in Posner molecules. From the basis, we construct a quantum code that detects arbitrary single-qubit errors. Each molecule encodes one qutrit. Shifting from information storage to computation, we define the model of Posner quantum computation. To illustrate the model's quantum-communication ability, we show how it can teleport information incoherently: A state's weights are teleported; the coherences are not. The dephasing results from the entangling operation's simulation of a coarse-grained Bell measurement. Whether Posner quantum computation is universal remains an open question. However, the model's operations can efficiently prepare a Posner state usable as a resource in universal measurement-based quantum computation. The state results from deforming the Affleck-Lieb-Kennedy-Tasaki (AKLT) state and is a projected entangled-pair state (PEPS). Finally, we show that entanglement can affect molecular-binding rates (by 0.6% in an example). This work opens the door for the QI-theoretic analysis of biological qubits and Posner molecules.
- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04736v1As far as we know, a useful quantum computer will require fault-tolerant gates, and existing schemes demand a prohibitively large space and time overhead. We argue that a first generation quantum computer will be very valuable to design, test, and optimize fault-tolerant protocols tailored to the noise processes of the hardware. Our argument is essentially a critical analysis of the current methods envisioned to optimize fault-tolerant schemes, which rely on hardware characterization, noise modelling, and numerical simulations. We show that, even within a very restricted set of noise models, error correction protocols depend strongly on the details of the noise model. Combined to the intrinsic difficulty of hardware characterization and of numerical simulations of fault-tolerant protocols, we arrive at the conclusion that the currently envisioned optimization cycle is of very limited scope. On the other hand, the direct characterization of a fault-tolerant scheme on a small quantum computer bypasses these difficulties, and could provide a bootstrapping path to full-scale fault-tolerant quantum computation.
- Nov 20 2017 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1711.06559v1We prove that ground states of gapped local Hamiltonians on an infinite spin chain can be efficiently approximated by matrix product states with a bond dimension which scales as D~(L-1)/epsilon, where any local quantity on L consecutive spins is approximated to accuracy epsilon.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05395v1Simulating strongly correlated fermionic systems is notoriously hard on classical computers. An alternative approach, as proposed by Feynman, is to use a quantum computer. Here, we discuss quantum simulation of strongly correlated fermionic systems. We focus specifically on 2D and linear geometry with nearest neighbor qubit-qubit couplings, typical for superconducting transmon qubit arrays. We improve an existing algorithm to prepare an arbitrary Slater determinant by exploiting a unitary symmetry. We also present a quantum algorithm to prepare an arbitrary fermionic Gaussian state with $O(N^2)$ gates and $O(N)$ circuit depth. Both algorithms are optimal in the sense that the numbers of parameters in the quantum circuits are equal to those to describe the quantum states. Furthermore, we propose an algorithm to implement the 2-dimensional (2D) fermionic Fourier transformation on a 2D qubit array with only $O(N^{1.5})$ gates and $O(\sqrt N)$ circuit depth, which is the minimum depth required for quantum information to travel across the qubit array. We also present methods to simulate each time step in the evolution of the 2D Fermi-Hubbard model---again on a 2D qubit array---with $O(N)$ gates and $O(\sqrt N)$ circuit depth. Finally, we discuss how these algorithms can be used to determine the ground state properties and phase diagrams of strongly correlated quantum systems using the Hubbard model as an example.
- Nov 17 2017 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1711.05881v1We revisit the Corner Transfer Matrix Renormalization Group (CTMRG) method of Nishino and Okunishi for contracting 2-dimensional tensor networks, and demonstrate that its performance can be substantially improved by determining the tensors using an eigenvalue solver as opposed to the power method used in CTMRG. We also generalize the variational uniform Matrix Product State (VUMPS) ansatz for diagonalizing 1D quantum Hamiltonians to the case of 2D transfer matrices, and discuss similarities with the corner methods. These two new algorithms will be crucial in improving the performance of variational Projected Entangled Pair State (PEPS) methods.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph physics.chem-ph arXiv:1711.04789v1As physical implementations of quantum architectures emerge, it is increasingly important to consider the cost of algorithms for practical connectivities between qubits. We show that by using an arrangement of gates that we term the fermionic swap network, we can simulate a Trotter step of the electronic structure Hamiltonian in exactly $N$ depth and with $N^2/2$ two-qubit entangling gates, and prepare arbitrary Slater determinants in at most $N/2$ depth, all assuming only a minimal, linearly connected architecture. We conjecture that no explicit Trotter step of the electronic structure Hamiltonian is possible with fewer entangling gates, even with arbitrary connectivities. These results represent significant practical improvements on the cost of all current proposed algorithms for both variational and phase estimation based simulation of quantum chemistry.
- Security for machine learning has begun to become a serious issue for present day applications. An important question remaining is whether emerging quantum technologies will help or hinder the security of machine learning. Here we discuss a number of ways that quantum information can be used to help make quantum classifiers more secure or private. In particular, we demonstrate a form of robust principal component analysis that, under some circumstances, can provide an exponential speedup relative to robust methods used at present. To demonstrate this approach we introduce a linear combinations of unitaries Hamiltonian simulation method that we show functions when given an imprecise Hamiltonian oracle, which may be of independent interest. We also introduce a new quantum approach for bagging and boosting that can use quantum superposition over the classifiers or splits of the training set to aggregate over many more models than would be possible classically. Finally, we provide a private form of $k$--means clustering that can be used to prevent an all powerful adversary from learning more than a small fraction of a bit from any user. These examples show the role that quantum technologies can play in the security of ML and vice versa. This illustrates that quantum computing can provide useful advantages to machine learning apart from speedups.
- Nov 15 2017 cs.CC arXiv:1711.04427v1We show that two important quantities from two disparate areas of complexity theory --- Strassen's exponent of matrix multiplication $\omega$ and Grothendieck's constant $K_G$ --- are intimately related. They are different measures of size for the same underlying object --- the matrix multiplication tensor, i.e., the $3$-tensor or bilinear operator $\mu_{l,m,n} : \mathbb{F}^{l \times m} \times \mathbb{F}^{m \times n} \to \mathbb{F}^{l \times n}$, $(A,B) \mapsto AB$ defined by matrix-matrix product over $\mathbb{F} = \mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$. It is well-known that Strassen's exponent of matrix multiplication is the greatest lower bound on (the log of) a tensor rank of $\mu_{l,m,n}$. We will show that Grothendieck's constant is the least upper bound on a tensor norm of $\mu_{l,m,n}$, taken over all $l, m, n \in \mathbb{N}$. Aside from relating the two celebrated quantities, this insight allows us to rewrite Grothendieck's inequality as a norm inequality \[ \lVert\mu_l,m,n\rVert_1,2,∞ =\max_X,Y,M\neq0\frac|\operatornametr(XMY)|\lVert X\rVert_1,2\lVert Y\rVert_2,∞\lVert M\rVert_∞,1≤K_G, \]and thereby allows a natural generalization to arbitrary $p,q, r$, $1\le p,q,r\le \infty$. We show that the following generalization is locally sharp: \[ \lVert\mu_l,m,n\rVert_p,q,r=\max_X,Y,M\neq0\frac|\operatornametr(XMY)|\|X\|_p,q\|Y\|_q,r\|M\|_r,p≤K_G ⋅l^|1/q-1/2| ⋅m^1-1/p ⋅n^1/r, \]and conjecture that Grothendieck's inequality is unique: $(p,q,r )=(1,2,\infty)$ is the only choice for which $\lVert\mu_{l,m,n}\rVert_{p,q,r}$ is uniformly bounded by a constant. We establish two-thirds of this conjecture: uniform boundedness of $\lVert\mu_{l,m,n}\rVert_{p,q,r}$ over all $l,m,n$ necessarily implies that $\min \{p,q,r\}=1$ and $\max \{p,q,r\}=\infty$.
- We investigate quantum backtracking algorithms of a type previously introduced by Montanaro (arXiv:1509.02374). These algorithms explore trees of unknown structure, and in certain cases exponentially outperform classical procedures (such as DPLL). Some of the previous work focused on obtaining a quantum advantage for trees in which a unique marked vertex is promised to exist. We remove this restriction and re-characterise the problem in terms of the effective resistance of the search space. To this end, we present a generalisation of one of Montanaro's algorithms to trees containing $k \geq 1$ marked vertices, where $k$ is not necessarily known \textita priori. Our approach involves using amplitude estimation to determine a near-optimal weighting of a diffusion operator, which can then be applied to prepare a superposition state that has support only on marked vertices and ancestors thereof. By repeatedly sampling this state and updating the input vertex, a marked vertex is reached in a logarithmic number of steps. The algorithm thereby achieves the conjectured bound of $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(\sqrt{TR_{\mathrm{max}}})$ for finding a single marked vertex and $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}\left(k\sqrt{T R_{\mathrm{max}}}\right)$ for finding all $k$ marked vertices, where $T$ is an upper bound on the tree size and $R_{\mathrm{max}}$ is the maximum effective resistance encountered by the algorithm. This constitutes a speedup over Montanaro's original procedure in both the case of finding one and finding multiple marked vertices in an arbitrary tree. If there are no marked vertices, the effective resistance becomes infinite, and we recover the scaling of Montanaro's existence algorithm.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04921v1Lattice surgery is a method to perform quantum computation fault-tolerantly by using operations on boundary qubits between different patches of the planar code. This technique allows for universal planar-code computation without eliminating the intrinsic two-dimensional nearest-neighbor properties of the surface code that eases physical hardware implementations. Lattice-surgery approaches to algorithmic compilation and optimization have been demonstrated to be more resource efficient for resource-intensive components of a fault-tolerant algorithm, and consequently may be preferable over braid-based logic. Lattice surgery can be extended to the Raussendorf lattice, providing a measurement-based approach to the surface code. In this paper we describe how lattice surgery can be performed on the Raussendorf lattice and therefore give a viable alternative to computation using braiding in measurement based implementations of topological codes.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05238v1We propose to use neural networks to estimate the rates of coherent and incoherent processes in quantum systems from continuous measurement records. In particular, we adapt an image recognition algorithm to recognize the patterns in experimental signals and link them to physical quantities. We demonstrate that the parameter estimation works unabatedly in the presence of detector imperfections which complicate or rule out Bayesian filter analyses.
- In this paper, we provide a set of definitions upon which one can prove in a rigorous way most of the main results achieved in the pattern of zeros classification of fractional quantum Hall states.
- We consider a very general class of theories, process theories, which capture the underlying structure common to most theories of physics as we understand them today (be they established, toy or speculative theories). Amongst these theories, we will be focusing on those which are `causal', in the sense that they are intrinsically compatible with the causal structure of space-time -- as required by relativity. We demonstrate that there is a sharp contrast between these theories and the corresponding time-reversed theories, where time is taken to flow backwards from the future to the past. While the former typically feature a rich gamut of allowed states, the latter only allow for a single state: eternal noise. We illustrate this result by considering of the time-reverse of quantum theory. We also derive a strengthening of the result in PRL 108, 200403 on signalling in time-reversed theories.
- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04235v1Bitcoin is a digital currency and payment system based on classical cryptographic technologies which works without a central administrator such as in traditional currencies. It has long been questioned what the impact of quantum computing would be on Bitcoin, and cryptocurrencies in general. Here, we analyse three primary directions that quantum computers might have an impact in: mining, security, and forks. We find that in the near-term the impact of quantum computers appear to be rather small for all three directions. The impact of quantum computers would require considerably larger number of qubits and breakthroughs in quantum algorithms to reverse existing hash functions.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05920v1We study the dynamics of discrete-time quantum walk using quantum coin operations, $\hat{C}(\theta_1)$ and $\hat{C}(\theta_2)$ in time dependent periodic sequence. For two-period quantum walk with the parameters $\theta_1$ and $\theta_2$ in the coin operations we show that the standard deviation ($\sigma_{\theta_1, \theta_2} (t)$) is same as the minimum of standard deviation obtained from one of the one-period quantum walk with coin operations $\theta_1$ or $\theta_2$, $\sigma_{\theta_1, \theta_2}(t) = \min \{\sigma_{\theta_1}(t), \sigma_{\theta_2}(t) \}$. Our numerical result is analytically corroborated using the dispersion relation obtained from the continuum limit of the dynamics. Using the dispersion relation for one- and two-period quantum walk, we present the bounds on the dynamics of three- and higher period quantum walks. We also show that the bounds for the two-period quantum walk will hold good for the split-step quantum walk which is also defined using two coin operators using $\theta_1$ and $\theta_2$. Unlike the previous known connection of discrete-time quantum walks with the massless Dirac equation where coin parameter $\theta=0$, here we show the recovery of massless Dirac equation with non-zero $\theta$ parameters contributing to the intriguing interference in the dynamics in a totally non-relativistic situation. We also present the effect of periodic sequence on the entanglement between coin and position space.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04804v2We address the problem of characterising the compatible tuples of measurements that admit a unique joint measurement. We derive a uniqueness criterion based on the method of perturbations and apply it to show that extremal points of the set of compatible tuples admit a unique joint measurement, while all tuples that admit a unique joint measurement lie in the boundary of such a set. We also provide counter-examples showing that none of these properties are both necessary and sufficient, thus completely describing the relation between joint measurement uniqueness and the structure of the compatible set. As a by-product of our investigations, we completely characterise the extremal and boundary points of the set of general tuples of measurements and of the subset of compatible tuples.
- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04566v1The uncertainty relation for continuous variables due to Byalinicki-Birula and Mycielski expresses the complementarity between two $n$-uples of canonically conjugate variables $(x_1,x_2,\cdots x_n)$ and $(p_1,p_2,\cdots p_n)$ in terms of Shannon differential entropy. Here, we consider the generalization to variables that are not canonically conjugate and derive an entropic uncertainty relation expressing the balance between any two $n$-variable Gaussian projective measurements. The bound on entropies is expressed in terms of the determinant of a matrix of commutators between the measured variables. This uncertainty relation also captures the complementarity between any two incompatible linear canonical transforms, the bound being written in terms of the corresponding symplectic matrices in phase space. Finally, we extend this uncertainty relation to Rényi entropies and also prove a covariance-based uncertainty relation which generalizes Robertson relation.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05955v1The traditional formalism of non-relativistic quantum theory allows the state of a quantum system to extend across space, but only restricts it to a single instant in time, leading to distinction between theoretical treatments of spatial and temporal quantum correlations. Here we unify the geometrical description of two-point quantum correlations in space-time. Our study presents the geometry of correlations between two sequential Pauli measurements on a single qubit undergoing an arbitrary quantum channel evolution together with two-qubit spatial correlations under a common framework. We establish a symmetric structure between quantum correlations in space and time. This symmetry is broken in the presence of non-unital channels, which further reveals a set of temporal correlations that are indistinguishable from correlations found in bipartite entangled states.
- We present the mapping of a class of simplified air traffic management (ATM) problems (strategic conflict resolution) to quadratic unconstrained boolean optimization (QUBO) problems. The mapping is performed through an original representation of the conflict-resolution problem in terms of a conflict graph, where nodes of the graph represent flights and edges represent a potential conflict between flights. The representation allows a natural decomposition of a real world instance related to wind- optimal trajectories over the Atlantic ocean into smaller subproblems, that can be discretized and are amenable to be programmed in quantum annealers. In the study, we tested the new programming techniques and we benchmark the hardness of the instances using both classical solvers and the D-Wave 2X and D-Wave 2000Q quantum chip. The preliminary results show that for reasonable modeling choices the most challenging subproblems which are programmable in the current devices are solved to optimality with 99% of probability within a second of annealing time.
- Over the last decade, significant progresses have been achieved to create Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of magnetic excitations, i.e., magnons, at the room temperature, which is a novel quantum many-body system with a strong spin-spin correlation, and contains potential applications in magnonic spintronics. For quantum information science, the magnonic condensates can become an attractive source of quantum entanglement, which plays a central role in most of the quantum information processing tasks. Here we theoretically study the entanglement properties of a magnon gas above and below the condensation temperature. We show that the thermodynamic entanglement of the magnons is a manifestation of the off-diagonal long-range order; the entanglement of the condensate does not vanish, even if the spins are separated by an infinitely large distance, which is fundamentally distinct from the normal magnetic ordering below the Curie temperature. In addition, the phase transition point occurs when the derivative of the entanglement changes abruptly. Furthermore, the spin-spin entanglement can be experimentally accessed with the current technology. These results provide a theoretical foundation for a future experimental investigation of the magnon BEC in terms of quantum entanglement.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1711.05897v1Quantum-optical research on semiconductor quantum dots puts special emphasis on the measurement of the second-order correlation function $g^{(2)}(\tau)$, arguing that $g^{(2)}(0)<1/2$ implies the source field represents a good single-photon light source. We analyze this claim theoretically. A quantum state of light having no projection on the single-photon Fock state can not give a value of $g^{(2)}(0)<1/2$. However, with solely the value of $g^{(2)}(0)$, the amplitude of this single-photon projection can be arbitrarily small, owing to vacuum contributions. Yet, one can determine a lower bound on the ratio of single-to-multi-photon emission from $g^{(2)}(0)$. For a fixed ratio of single-to-multi-photon emission, $g^{(2)}(0)$ is artificially enhanced by the vacuum contributions. We derive an effective second-order correlation function, which corrects this enhancement, substantially improving the lower bound. The results are applied to theoretical and realized experimental setups and indicate that the quality of solid-state single-photon sources, at least with respect to this criterion, is often underestimated.
- Nov 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.06592v1We propose to perform quantum key distribution using quantum correlations occurring within thermal states produced by low power sources such as LED's. These correlations are exploited through the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect. We build an optical central broadcast protocol using a superluminescent diode which allows switching between laser and thermal regimes, enabling us to provide experimental key rates in both regimes. We provide a theoretical analysis and show that quantum secrecy is possible, even in high noise situations.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.06146v1A quantum circuit to construct all maximal cliques using Grover search algorithm is presented. This oracle circuit takes as input an n-qubit state |x> and the adjacency matrix data A of an n-node network, and outputs the state (-1)^f(x) |x> where f(x)=1 if |x> is a maximal clique, and f(x)=0, otherwise. The oracle workspace requires 2n^2 qubits. Each oracle call makes about 10n^2 calls to the Toffoli gates. The overall Grover search algorithm takes as input a uniform superposition of all possible n-qubit states and a symmetric binary adjacency matrix data, and outputs a uniform superposition of all maximal clique states.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.06072v1The device-independent approach to quantum key distribution (QKD) aims to establish a secret key between two or more parties with untrusted devices, potentially under full control of a quantum adversary. The performance of a QKD protocol can be quantified by the secret key rate, which can be lower-bounded via the violation of an appropriate Bell-inequality in a setup with untrusted devices. We study secret key rates in the device-independent scenario for different quantum repeater setups and compare them to their device-dependent analogon. The quantum repeater setups under consideration are the original protocol by Briegel et al. and the hybrid quantum repeater protocol by van Loock et al. For a given repeater scheme and a given QKD protocol, the secret key rate depends on a variety of parameters, such as the gate quality or the detector efficiency. We systematically analyze the impact of these parameters and suggest optimized strategies.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05875v1Most attempts to produce a scalable quantum information processing platform based on ion traps have focused on the shuttling of ions in segmented traps. We show that an architecture based on an array of microtraps with fast gates will outperform architectures based on ion shuttling. This system requires higher power lasers, but does not require the manipulation of potentials or shuttling of ions. This improves optical access, reduces the complexity of the trap, and reduces the number of conductive surfaces close to the ions. The use of fast gates also removes limitations on gate time. The performance of the gates is shown to be robust to the limitations in laser repetition rate and the presence of many ions in the trap array.
- A discrete-time quantum walk (QW) is essentially a unitary operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs have familiar physics PDEs as their continuum limit. Some slight generalization of QWs (allowing for prior encoding and larger neighbourhoods) even have the curved spacetime Dirac equation, as their continuum limit. In the $(1+1)-$dimensional massless case, this equation decouples as scalar transport equations with tunable speeds. We characterise and construct all those QWs that lead to scalar transport with tunable speeds. The local coin operator dictates that speed; we investigate whether a finite number of coins is enough to generate all speeds, and whether their arrangement can be controlled by background signals travelling at lightspeed. The interest of such a discretization is twofold : to allow for easier experimental implementations on the one hand, and to evaluate ways of quantizing the metric field, on the other.
- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04557v1In this paper, inspired by the "Minimum Description Length Principle" in classical Statistics, we introduce a new method for predicting the outcomes of a quantum measurement and for estimating the state of a quantum system with minimum quantum complexity, while, at the same time, avoiding overfitting
- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph physics.hist-ph arXiv:1711.04501v1The Transactional Interpretation offers a solution to the measurement problem by identifying specific physical conditions precipitating the non-unitary `measurement transition' of von Neumann. Specifically, the transition occurs as a result of absorber response (a process lacking in the standard approach to the theory). The purpose of this Letter is to make clear that, despite recent claims to the contrary, the concepts of `absorber' and `absorber response,' as well as the process of absorption, are physically and quantitatively well-defined in the transactional picture.
- Nov 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1711.06662v1We analyze a modified Bose-Hubbard model, where two cavities having on-site Kerr interactions are subject to two-photon driving and correlated dissipation. We derive an exact solution for the steady state of this interacting driven-dissipative system, and use it show that the system permits the preparation and stabilization of pure entangled non-Gaussian states, so-called entangled cat states. Unlike previous proposals for dissipative stabilization of such states, our approach requires only a linear coupling to a single engineered reservoir (as opposed to nonlinear couplings to two or more reservoirs). Our scheme is within the reach of state-of-the-art experiments in circuit QED.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.06217v1Quantum walk has played an important role in development of quantum algorithms and quantum simulations. The speedup observed in quantum walk algorithms is attributed to interference of spreading wave-packet in position space. Similarly, localization in quantum walk due to disorder is also attributed to quantum interference effect. Therefore, its intriguing to have a closer look and understand the way quantum interference manifests in different forms of quantum walk dynamics. Here we will use interference measure to quantify the interference in position space and coin space together and separately. We will use this measure to differentiate between localisation seen in quantum walks due to disorder and topological effects. We also shown that the use of interference measure in the coin space alone can serve as an indicator of localized state. Comparing the result of interference with the entanglement dynamics will give us a better understanding of role of quantum interference in quantum dynamics and its effect on entanglement. With the control over quantum walk dynamics and quantum interference, explore the possibility of using interference as resource will be of immediate interest.
- This work introduces a model of distributed learning in the spirit of Yao's communication complexity model. We consider a two-party setting, where each of the players gets a list of labelled examplesand they communicate in order to jointly perform some learning task. To naturally fit into the framework of learning theory, we allow the players to send each other labelled examples, where each example costs one unit of communication. This model can also be thought of as a distributed version of sample compression schemes. We study several fundamental questions in this model. For example, we define the analogues of the complexity classes P, NP and coNP, and show that in this model P equals the intersection of NP and coNP. The proof does not seem to follow from the analogous statement in classical communication complexity; in particular, our proof uses different techniques, including boosting and metric properties of VC classes. This framework allows to prove, in the context of distributed learning, unconditional separations between various learning contexts, like realizable versus agnostic learning, and proper versus improper learning. The proofs here are based on standard ideas from communication complexity as well as learning theory and geometric constructions in Euclidean space. As a corollary, we also obtain lower bounds that match the performance of algorithms from previous works on distributed classification.
- We argue that String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity can be thought of as describing different regimes of a single unified theory of quantum gravity. LQG can be thought of as providing the pre-geometric exoskeleton out of which macroscopic geometry emerges and String Theory then becomes the \empheffective theory which describes the dynamics of that exoskeleton. The core of the argument rests on the claim that the Nambu-Goto action of String Theory can be viewed as the expectation value of the LQG area operator evaluated on the string worldsheet.
- We describe categorical models of a circuit-based (quantum) functional pro- gramming language. We show that enriched categories play a crucial role. Following earlier work on QWire by Paykin et al., we consider both a simple first-order linear language for circuits, and a more powerful host language, such that the circuit language is embedded inside the host language. Our categorical semantics for the host language is standard, and involves cartesian closed categories and monads. We interpret the circuit language not in an ordinary category, but in a category that is enriched in the host category. We show that this structure is also related to linear/non-linear models. As an extended example, we recall an earlier result that the category of W*-algebras is dcpo-enriched, and we use this model to extend the circuit language with some recursive types.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1711.05079v1Using the signal and idler photons produced by parametric downconversion, we report an experimental observation of a violation of the Bell inequality for energy and time based purely on the geometric phases of the signal and idler photons. We thus show that energy-time entanglement between the signal and idler photons can be explored by means of their geometric phases. These results may have important practical implications for quantum information science by providing an additional means by which entanglement can be manipulated.
- Nov 16 2017 quant-ph physics.atom-ph arXiv:1711.04937v1The NOT gate that flips a classical bit is ubiquitous in classical information processing. However its quantum analogue, the universal NOT (UNOT) gate that flips a quantum spin in any alignment into its antipodal counterpart is strictly forbidden. Here we explore the connection between this discrepancy and how UNOT gates affect classical and quantum correlations. We show that while a UNOT gate always preserves classical correlations between two spins, it can non-locally increase or decrease their shared discord in ways that allow violation of the data processing inequality. We experimentally illustrate this using a multi-level trapped \Yb ion that allows simulation of anti-unitary operations.
- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04664v1Classifying states which exhibiting different statistical correlations is among the most important problems in quantum information science and quantum many-body physics. In bipartite case, there is a clear hierarchy of states with different correlations: total correlation (T) $\supsetneq$ discord (D) $\supsetneq$ entanglement (E) $\supsetneq$ steering (S) $\supsetneq$ Bell~nonlocality (NL). However, very little is known about genuine multipartite correlations (GM$\mathcal{C}$) for both conceptual and technical difficulties. In this work, we show that, for any $N$-partite qudit states, there also exist such a hierarchy: genuine multipartite total correlations (GMT) $\supseteq$ genuine multipartite discord (GMD) $\supseteq$ genuine multipartite entanglement (GME) $\supseteq$ genuine multipartite steering (GMS) $\supseteq$ genuine multipartite nonlocality (GMNL). Furthermore, by constructing precise states, we show that GMT, GME and GMS are inequivalent with each other, thus GMT $\supsetneq$ GME $\supsetneq$ GMS.
- We define the de Broglie-Bohm (dBB) weak interpretation as the dBB interpretation restricted to particles in unbound states whose wave function is defined in the three-dimensional physical space, and the dBB strong interpretation as the usual dBB interpretation applied to all wave functions, in particular to particles in bound states whose wave function is defined in a 3N-dimensional configuration space in which N is the number of particules. We show that the current criticisms of the dBB interpretation do not apply to this weak interpretation and that, furthermore, there are theoritical and experimental reasons to justify the weak dBB interpretation. Theoretically, the main reason concern the continuity existing for such particles between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics: we demonstrate in fact that the density and the phase of the wave function of a single-particle (or a set of identical particles without interaction), when the Planck constant tends to 0, converges to the density and the action of a set of unrecognizable prepared classical particles that satisfy the statistical Hamilton-Jacobi equations. As the Hamilton-Jacobi action pilots the particle in classical mechanics, this continuity naturally concurs with the weak dBB interpretation. Experimentally, we show that the measurement results of the main quantum experiments (Young's slits experiment, Stern and Gerlach, EPR-B) are compatible with the de Broglie-Bohm weak interpretation and everything takes place as if these unbounded particles had trajectories. In addition, we propose two potential solutions to complete the dBB weak interpretation.
- Nov 15 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1711.04552v1Active interferometers use amplifying elements for beam splitting and recombination. We experimentally implement such a device by using spin exchange in a Bose-Einstein condensate. The two interferometry modes are initially empty spin states that get spontaneously populated in the process of parametric amplification. This nonlinear mechanism scatters atoms into both modes in a pairwise fashion and generates a nonclassical state. Finally, a matched second period of spin exchange is performed that nonlinearly amplifies the output signal and maps the phase onto readily detectable first moments. Depending on the accumulated phase this nonlinear readout can reverse the initial dynamics and deamplify the entangled state back to empty spin states. This sequence is described in the framework of SU(1,1) mode transformations and compared to the SU(2) angular momentum description of passive interferometers.
- Nov 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.04039v1Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) quantum repeater protocol, which was proposed to realize long distance quantum communication, requires usage of quantum memories. Atomic ensembles interacting with optical beams based on off-resonant Raman scattering serve as convenient on-demand quantum memories. Here, a complete free space, three-dimensional theory of the associated read and write process for this quantum memory is worked out with the aim of understanding intrinsic retrieval efficiency. We develop a formalism to calculate the transverse mode structure for the signal and the idler photons and use the formalism to study the intrinsic retrieval efficiency under various configurations. The effects of atomic density fluctuations and atomic motion are incorporated by numerically simulating this system for a range of realistic experimental parameters. We obtain results that describe the variation in the intrinsic retrieval efficiency as a function of the memory storage time for skewed beam configuration at a finite temperature, which provides valuable information for optimization of the retrieval efficiency in experiments.
- We derive a generalized unitarity relation for an arbitrary linear scattering system that may violate unitarity, time-reversal invariance, ${\cal PT}$-symmetry, and transmission reciprocity.
- We propose a reduction for non-convex optimization that can (1) turn a stationary-point finding algorithm into a local-minimum finding one, and (2) replace the Hessian-vector product computations with only gradient computations. It works both in the stochastic and the deterministic settings, without hurting the algorithm's performance. As applications, our reduction turns Natasha2 into a first-order method without hurting its performance. It also converts SGD, GD, SCSG, and SVRG into local-minimum finding algorithms outperforming some best known results.
- Machine learning systems, which are often used for high-stakes decisions, suffer from two mutually reinforcing problems: unfairness and opaqueness. Many popular models, although generally accurate, cannot express uncertainty about their predictions. Even in regimes where a model is inaccurate, users may trust the model's predictions too fully, and allow its biases to reinforce the user's own. In this work, we explore models that learn to defer. In our scheme, a model learns to classify accurately and fairly, but also to defer if necessary, passing judgment to a downstream decision-maker such as a human user. We further propose a learning algorithm which accounts for potential biases held by decision-makers later in a pipeline. Experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate that learning to defer can make a model not only more accurate but also less biased. Even when operated by highly biased users, we show that deferring models can still greatly improve the fairness of the entire pipeline.
- Nov 20 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1711.06636v1We explore encoding brain symmetry into a neural network for a brain tumor segmentation task. A healthy human brain is symmetric at a high level of abstraction, and the high-level asymmetric parts are more likely to be tumor regions. Paying more attention to asymmetries has the potential to boost the performance in brain tumor segmentation. We propose a method to encode brain symmetry into existing neural networks and apply the method to a state-of-the-art neural network for medical imaging segmentation. We evaluate our symmetry-encoded network on the dataset from a brain tumor segmentation challenge and verify that the new model extracts information in the training images more efficiently than the original model.
- We present an experimental study on the non-equilibrium tunnel dynamics of two coupled one-dimensional Bose-Einstein quasi-condensates deep in the Josephson regime. Josephson oscillations are initiated by splitting a single one-dimensional condensate and imprinting a relative phase between the superfluids. Regardless of the initial state and experimental parameters, the dynamics of the relative phase and atom number imbalance shows a relaxation to a phase-locked steady state. The latter is characterized by a high phase coherence and reduced fluctuations with respect to the initial state. We propose an empirical model based on the analogy with the anharmonic oscillator to describe the effect of various experimental parameters. A microscopic theory compatible with our observations is still missing.
- Machine learning models are vulnerable to adversarial examples: minor, in many cases imperceptible, perturbations to classification inputs. Among other suspected causes, adversarial examples exploit ML models that offer no well-defined indication as to how well a particular prediction is supported by training data, yet are forced to confidently extrapolate predictions in areas of high entropy. In contrast, Bayesian ML models, such as Gaussian Processes (GP), inherently model the uncertainty accompanying a prediction in the well-studied framework of Bayesian Inference. This paper is first to explore adversarial examples and their impact on uncertainty estimates for Gaussian Processes. To this end, we first present three novel attacks on Gaussian Processes: GPJM and GPFGS exploit forward derivatives in GP latent functions, and Latent Space Approximation Networks mimic the latent space representation in unsupervised GP models to facilitate attacks. Further, we show that these new attacks compute adversarial examples that transfer to non-GP classification models, and vice versa. Finally, we show that GP uncertainty estimates not only differ between adversarial examples and benign data, but also between adversarial examples computed by different algorithms.
- Nov 20 2017 stat.ML arXiv:1711.06494v1Compression of Neural Networks (NN) has become a highly studied topic in recent years. The main reason for this is the demand for industrial scale usage of NNs such as deploying them on mobile devices, storing them efficiently, transmitting them via band-limited channels and most importantly doing inference at scale. In this work, we propose to join the Soft-Weight Sharing and Variational Dropout approaches that show strong results to define a new state-of-the-art in terms of model compression.