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- Apr 20 2018 math.CO arXiv:1804.06959v1We consider matroids with the property that every subset of the ground set of size $t$ is contained in both an $\ell$-element circuit and an $\ell$-element cocircuit; we say that such a matroid has the $(t,\ell)$-property. We show that for any positive integer $t$, there is a finite number of matroids with the $(t,\ell)$-property for $\ell<2t$; however, matroids with the $(t,2t)$-property form an infinite family. We say a matroid is a $t$-spike if there is a partition of the ground set into pairs such that the union of any $t$ pairs is a circuit and a cocircuit. Our main result is that if a sufficiently large matroid has the $(t,2t)$-property, then it is a $t$-spike. Finally, we present some properties of $t$-spikes.
- Apr 20 2018 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1804.06957v1We report on the self-induced electron trapping occurring in a ultracold neutral plasma that is set to expand freely. At the early stages of the plasma, the ions are not thermalized follow a Gaussian spatial profile, providing the trapping to the coldest electrons. In the present work, we provide a theoretical model describing the electrostatic potential and perform molecular dynamics simulations to validate our findings. We show that in the strong confinement regime, the plasma potential is of a Thomas-Fermi type, similar to the case of heavy atomic species. The numerically simulated spatial profiles of the particles corroborate this claim. We also extract the electron temperature and coupling parameter from the simulation, so the duration of the transient Thomas-Fermi is obtained.
- Local interstellar spectra (LIS) of primary cosmic ray (CR) nuclei, such as helium, oxygen, and mostly primary carbon are derived for the rigidity range from 10 MV to ~200 TV using the most recent experimental results combined with the state-of-the-art models for CR propagation in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. Two propagation packages, GALPROP and HelMod, are combined into a single framework that is used to reproduce direct measurements of CR species at different modulation levels, and at both polarities of the solar magnetic field. The developed iterative maximum-likelihood method uses GALPROP-predicted LIS as input to HelMod, which provides the modulated spectra for specific time periods of the selected experiments for model-data comparison. The interstellar and heliospheric propagation parameters derived in this study are consistent with our prior analyses using the same methodology for propagation of CR protons, helium, antiprotons, and electrons. The resulting LIS accommodate a variety of measurements made in the local interstellar space (Voyager 1) and deep inside the heliosphere at low (ACE/CRIS, HEAO-3) and high energies (PAMELA, AMS-02).
- Apr 20 2018 cs.CV arXiv:1804.06955v1We introduce a method for disentangling independently controllable and uncontrollable factors of variation by interacting with the world. Disentanglement leads to good representations and it is important when applying deep neural networks (DNNs) in fields where explanations are necessary. This article focuses on reinforcement learning (RL) approach for disentangling factors of variation, however, previous methods lacks a mechanism for representing uncontrollable obstacles. To tackle this problem, we train two DNNs simultaneously: one that represents the controllable object and another that represents the uncontrollable obstacles. During training, we used the parameters from a previous RL-based model as our initial parameters to improve stability. We also conduct simple toy simulations to show that our model can indeed disentangle controllable and uncontrollable factors of variation and that it is effective for a task involving the acquisition of extrinsic rewards.
- We give an expanded treatment of our lecture series at the 2017 Groups St Andrews conference in Birmingham on local-global conjectures and the block theory of finite reductive groups.
- We present a brief introduction to the theory of operator limits of random matrices to non-experts. Several open problems and conjectures are given. Connections to statistics, integrable systems, orthogonal polynomials, and more, are discussed.
- Apr 20 2018 math.RT arXiv:1804.06951v1We classify the blocks, compute the Verma flags of tilting and projective modules in the BGG category $\mathcal O$ for the exceptional Lie superalgebra $G(3)$. The projective injective modules in $\mathcal O$ are classified. We also compute the Jordan-Hölder multiplicities of the Verma modules in $\mathcal O$.
- We develop a complete theory of non-formal deformation quantization on the cotangent bundle of an almost exponential Lie group. An appropriate integral formula for the star-product is introduced together with a suitable space of functions on which the star-product is well defined. This space of functions becomes a Frechet algebra as well as a pre-C*-algebra. Basic properties of the star-product are proved and the extension of the star-product to a Hilbert algebra and an algebra of distributions is given. A C*-algebra of observables and a space of states are constructed. Moreover, an operator representation in position space is presented. Finally, examples of almost exponential Lie groups are given.
- Apr 20 2018 physics.flu-dyn nlin.PS arXiv:1804.06949v1A nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with an effect of viscosity is derived from a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation modified with viscosity using the method of multiple time-scales. It is well known that the plane-wave solution of the NLS equation exhibits modulational instability phenomenon. In this paper, the modulational instability of the plane-wave solution of the NLS equation modified with viscosity is investigated. The corresponding modulational dispersion relation is expressed as a quadratic equation with complex-valued coefficients. By restricting the modulational wavenumber into the case of narrow-banded spectra, it is observed that a type of dissipation, in this case, the effect of viscosity, stabilizes the modulational instability, as confirmed by earlier findings.
- Apr 20 2018 physics.flu-dyn arXiv:1804.06947v1We derive a set of equations in conformal variables that describe a potential flow of an ideal inviscid fluid with free surface in a bounded domain. This formulation is free of numerical instabilities present in the equations for the surface elevation and potential derived by A. I. Dyachenko et al in 1996 with some of the restrictions on analyticity relieved. We illustrate with the results of a comparison of the numerical simulations with the exact solution, the Dirichlet ellipse. In presence of surface tension, we demonstrate the oscillations of the free surface of a unit disc droplet about its equilibrium, the disc shape.
- Apr 20 2018 math.AG arXiv:1804.06946v1We construct a mininal Lefschetz decomposition of the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on the isotropic Grassmannian $\mathsf{IGr}(3,7)$. Moreover, we show that $\mathsf{IGr}(3, 7)$ admits a full exceptional collection consisting of equivariant vector bundles.
- Qiao Zhang, Danyang Zhuo, Vincent Liu, Petr Lapukhov, Simon Peter, Arvind Krishnamurthy, Thomas AndersonApr 20 2018 cs.NI arXiv:1804.06945v1A perennial question in computer networks is where to place functionality among components of a distributed computer system. In data centers, one option is to move all intelligence to the edge, essentially relegating switches and middleboxes, regardless of their programmability, to simple static routing policies. Another is to add more intelligence to the middle of the network in the hopes that it can handle any issue that arises. This paper presents an architecture, called Volur, that provides a third option by facilitating the co-existence of an intelligent network with an intelligent edge. The key architectural principle of Volur is predictability of the network. We describe the key design requirements, and show through case studies how our approach facilitates more democratic innovation of all parts of the network. We also demonstrate the practicality of our architecture by describing how to implement the architecture on top of existing hardware and by deploying a prototype on top of a large production data center.
- Apr 20 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1804.06944v1Current observations suggest that our Universe is not incompatible with a small positive spatial curvature that can be associated with rest frames having a "closed" standard topology. We examine a toy model generalisation of the $\Lambda$CDM model in the form of ever expanding Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models with positive spatial curvature. It is well known that such models with $\Lambda=0$ exhibit a thin layer distribution at the turning values of the area distance that must be studied through the Israel-Lanczos formalism. We find that this distributional source exhibits an unphysical behaviour for large cosmic times and its presence can be detected observationally. However, these unphysical features can always be avoided by assuming $\Lambda >0$. While these LTB models are very simplified, we believe that these results provide a simple argument favouring the assumption of a nonzero positive cosmological constant in cosmological models.
- Apr 20 2018 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1804.06942v1The crust of accreting neutron stars plays a central role in many different observational phenomena. In these stars, heavy elements produced by H-He burning in the rapid proton capture (rp-) process continually freeze to form new crust. In this paper, we explore the expected composition of the solid phase. We first demonstrate using molecular dynamics that two distinct types of chemical separation occur, depending on the composition of the rp-process ashes. We then calculate phase diagrams for three-component mixtures and use them to determine the allowed crust compositions. We show that, for the large range of atomic numbers produced in the rp-process ($Z\sim 10$--$50$), the solid that forms has only a small number of available compositions. We conclude that accreting neutron star crusts should be polycrystalline, with domains of distinct composition. Our results motivate further work on the size of the compositional domains, and have implications for crust physics and accreting neutron star phenomenology.
- Apr 20 2018 cs.SY arXiv:1804.06941v1This work provides a formalized model-invariant safety system for closed-loop anesthesia that uses feedback from measured data for model falsification to reduce conservatism. The safety system maintains predicted propofol plasma concentrations, as well as the patient's blood pressure, within safety bounds despite uncertainty in patient responses to propofol. Model-invariant formal verification is used to formalize the safety system. This technique requires a multi-model description of model-uncertainty. Model-invariant verification considers all possible dynamics of an uncertain system, and the resulting safety system may be conservative for systems that do not exhibit the worst-case dynamical response. In this work, we employ model falsification to reduce conservatism of the model-invariant safety system. Members of a model set that characterizes model- uncertainty are falsified if discrepancy between predictions of those models and measured responses of the uncertain system is established, thereby reducing model uncertainty. We show that including falsification in a model-invariant safety system reduces conservatism of the safety system.
- Magnetoresistive spin valve sensors based on the giant- (GMR) and tunnelling- (TMR) magnetoresisitve effect with a flux-closed vortex state free layer design are compared by means of sensitivity and low frequency noise. The vortex state free layer enables high saturation fields with negligible hysteresis, making it attractive for applications with a high dynamic range. The measured GMR devices comprise lower pink noise and better linearity in resistance but are less sensitive to external magnetic fields than TMR sensors. The results show a comparable detectivity at low frequencies and a better performance of the TMR minimum detectable field at frequencies in the white noise limit.
- Apr 20 2018 physics.gen-ph hep-th arXiv:1804.06939v1Using the quantum theory of linearized gravity, gravitational interaction differential cross sections of one fermion by another fermion, a photon and a scalar particle are calculated in the fermion rest-frame. Then, according to the obtained results, it is shown that in the lab frame, the gravitational interaction depends on the spin of the moving particle and is independent of the spin of the rest particle. After that, on the dependency of the gravitational interaction of fermion-photon upon the various states of photons polarization is discussed.
- Apr 20 2018 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1804.06938v1We report the analysis of time-series of optical photometry of SDSS J0926+3624 collected with the Liverpool Robotic Telescope between 2012 February and March while the object was in quiescence. We combined our median eclipse timing with those in the literature to revise the ephemeris and confirm that the binary period is increasing at a rate $\dot{P}=(3.2 \pm 0.4)\times 10^{-13} \, s/s$. The light curves show no evidence of either the orbital hump produced by a bright spot at disc rim or of superhumps; the average out-of-eclipse brightness level is consistently lower than previously reported. The eclipse map from the average light curve shows a hot white dwarf surrounded by a faint, cool accretion disc plus enhanced emission along the gas stream trajectory beyond the impact point at the outer disc rim, suggesting the occurrence of gas stream overflow/penetration at that epoch. We estimate a disc mass input rate of $\dot{M}=(9 \pm 1)\times 10^{-12}\,M_\odot \,yr^{-1}$, more than an order of magnitude lower than that expected from binary evolution with conservative mass transfer.
- Apr 20 2018 math.OC arXiv:1804.06937v1We prove a sufficient optimality condition for non-linear optimal control problems with delays in both state and control variables. Our result requires the verification of a Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation and is obtained through a transformation that allow us to rewrite a delayed optimal control problem as an equivalent non-delayed one.
- Apr 20 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1804.06936v1In modern GaAs/Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As heterostructures with record high mobilities, a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a quantum well is provided by two remote donor $\delta$-layers placed on both sides of the well. Each $\delta$-layer is located within a narrow GaAs well, flanked by narrow AlAs layers which capture excess electrons from donors. We show that each excess electron is localized in a compact dipole atom with the nearest donor. Nevertheless, excess electrons screen both the remote donors and background impurities located beyond the half of the Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As barriers adjacent to the 2DEG. When the fraction of remote donors filled by excess electrons $f$ is small, the remote donor limited quantum mobility grows as $f^{3}$ and becomes larger than the background impurity limited one at a characteristic value $f_c$. We also calculate both the mobility and the quantum mobility limited by the screened background impurities with concentrations $N_1$ in Al$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As and $N_2$ in GaAs, which allows one to estimate $N_1$ and $N_2$ from the measured mobilities. Taken together, our findings should help to identify avenues for further improvement of modern heterostructures.
- Apr 20 2018 cs.SY arXiv:1804.06935v1Vehicles are becoming connected entities. As a result, a likely scenario is that such entities might be literally bombarded with information from a multitude of devices. In this context, a key challenging requirement for both connected and autonomous vehicles is that they will need to become cognitive bodies, able to parse information and use only the pieces of information that are relevant to the vehicle in the context of a given journey. In order to address this fundamental requirement, a decision engine is presented in this paper. The engine makes it possible for the vehicle to understand which pieces of information are really relevant, and subsequently to process only those pieces of information. In order to illustrate the key features of our system, we show that it is possible to build upon the engine to develop a distributed traffic management system, and then we validate such a system via both conventional (numerical and SUMO-based) simulations and a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) platform. Both the conventional simulations and the HIL validation showed that the engine can be effectively used to design a distributed traffic management system.
- We perform systematical investigation of all possible regimes in spatially flat vacuum cosmological model in cubic Lovelock gravity. We consider the spatial section to be a product of three- and extra-dimensional isotropic subspaces, with the former considered to be our Universe. As the equations of motion are different for D=3, 4, 5 and general $D \geqslant 6$ cases, we considered them separately. For each D we found values for $\alpha$ (Gauss-Bonnet coupling) and $\beta$ (cubic Lovelock coupling) which separate different dynamical cases and study the dynamics in each region to find all possible regimes for all possible initial conditions and any values of $\alpha$ and $\beta$. The results suggest that in all $D \geqslant 3$ there are regimes with compactification originating from so-called "generalized Taub" solution. The endpoint of these regimes is either anisotropic exponential (for $\alpha > 0$, $\mu \equiv \beta/\alpha^2 < \mu_1$ (including entire $\beta < 0$)) or standard Kasner solution (for $\alpha > 0$, $\mu > \mu_1$). For $D \geqslant 8$ there is additional regime which originates from high-energy (cubic Lovelock) Kasner and ends as anisotropic exponential solution. It exists in two domains: $\alpha > 0$, $\beta < 0$, $\mu \leqslant \mu_4$ and entire $\alpha > 0$, $\beta > 0$. So that for $D \geqslant 8$ and $\alpha > 0$, $\beta < 0$, $\mu < \mu_4$ there are two realistic compactification regimes with two different anisotropic exponential solutions as future asymptotes. For $D \geqslant 8$ and $\alpha > 0$, $\beta > 0$, $\mu < \mu_2$ there are two realistic compactification regimes but they lead to the same anisotropic exponential solution. There are two unexpected observations among the results -- all realistic compactification regimes exist only for $\alpha > 0$ and there is no smooth transition between high-energy and low-energy Kasner regimes.
- Apr 20 2018 math.LO arXiv:1804.06933v1In this paper we introduce and study a variety of algebras that properly includes integral distributive commutative residuated lattices and weak Heyting algebras. Our main goal is to give a characterization of the principal congruences in this variety. We apply this description in order to study compatible functions.
- Apr 20 2018 cs.CY arXiv:1804.06931v1Our internal experience of time reflects what is going in the world around us. Our body's natural rhythms get disrupted for a variety of external factors, including exposure to collective events. We collect readings of steps, sleep, and heart rates from 11K users of health tracking devices in London and San Francisco. We introduce measures to quantify changes in not only volume of these three bio-signals (as previous research has done) but also synchronicity and periodicity, and we empirically assess how strong those variations are, compared to random expectation, during four major events: Christmas, New Year's Eve, Brexit, and the US presidential election of 2016 (Donald Trump's election). While Christmas and New Year's eve are associated with short-term effects, Brexit and Trump's election are associated with longer-term disruptions. Our results promise to inform the design of new ways of monitoring population health at scale.
- Apr 20 2018 physics.flu-dyn arXiv:1804.06929v1We investigate velocity variations inside of and surrounding a gravity driven drop impacting on and moving through a confining orifice, wherein the effects of edge geometry (round- vs. sharp-edged) and surface wettability (hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic) of the orifice are considered. Using refractive index matching and time-resolved PIV, we quantify the redistribution of energy in the drop and the surrounding fluid during the drop's impact and motion through a round-edged orifice. The measurements show the importance of a) drop kinetic energy transferred to and dissipated within the surrounding liquid, and b) the drop kinetic energy due to internal deformation and rotation during impact and passage through the orifice. While a rounded orifice edge prevents contact between the drop and orifice surface, a sharp edge promotes contact immediately upon impact, changing the near surface flow field as well as the drop passage dynamics. For a sharp-edged hydrophobic orifice, the contact lines remain localized near the orifice edge, but slipping and pinning strongly affect the drop propagation and outcome. For a sharp-edged hydrophilic orifice, on the other hand, the contact lines propagate away from the orifice edge, and their motion is coupled with the global velocity fields in the drop and the surrounding fluid. By examining the contact line propagation over a hydrophilic orifice surface with minimal drop penetration, we characterize two stages of drop spreading that exhibit power-law dependence with variable exponent. In the first stage, the contact line propagates under the influence of impact inertia and gravity. In the second stage, inertial influence subsides, and the contact line propagates mainly due to wettability.
- Inspired by the split attractor flow conjecture for multi-centered black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, we propose a formula expressing the BPS index $\Omega(\gamma,z)$ in terms of `attractor indices' $\Omega_*(\gamma_i)$. The latter count BPS states in their respective attractor chamber. This formula expresses the index as a sum over stable flow trees weighted by products of attractor indices. We show how to compute the contribution of each tree directly in terms of asymptotic data, without having to integrate the attractor flow explicitly. Furthermore, we derive new representations for the index which make it manifest that discontinuities associated to distinct trees cancel in the sum, leaving only the discontinuities consistent with wall-crossing. We apply these results in the context of quiver quantum mechanics, providing a new way of computing the Betti numbers of quiver moduli spaces, and compare them with the Coulomb branch formula, clarifying the relation between attractor and single-centered indices.
- Apr 20 2018 physics.app-ph physics.comp-ph arXiv:1804.06927v1We investigate a generalized tomographic imaging framework applicable to a class of inhomogeneous media characterized by non-local diffusive energy transport. Under these conditions, the transport mechanism is well described by fractional-order continuum models capable of capturing anomalous diffusion that would otherwise remain undetected when using traditional integer-order models. Although the underlying idea of the proposed framework is applicable to any transport mechanism, the case of fractional heat conduction is presented as a specific example to illustrate the methodology. By using numerical simulations, we show how complex inhomogeneous media involving non-local transport, can be successfully imaged if fractional order models are used. In particular, results will show that by properly recognizing and accounting for the fractional character of the host medium not only allows achieving increased resolution but, in case of strong and spatially distributed non-locality, it represents the only viable approach to achieve a successful reconstruction.
- Apr 20 2018 math.OC arXiv:1804.06925v1We study infeasible-start primal-dual interior-point methods for convex optimization problems given in a typically natural form we denote as Domain-Driven formulation. Our algorithms extend many advantages of primal-dual interior-point techniques available for conic formulations, such as the current best complexity bounds, and more robust certificates of approximate optimality, unboundedness, and infeasibility, to Domain-Driven formulations. The complexity results are new for the infeasible-start setup used, even in the case of linear programming. In addition to complexity results, our algorithms aim for expanding the applications of, and software for interior-point methods to wider classes of problems beyond optimization over symmetric cones.
- Apr 20 2018 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1804.06924v1The single crystal elastic constants, polycrystalline elastic moduli and related properties of orthorhombic MgSiN$_{2}$, MgGeN$_{2}$ and MgSnN$_{2}$ have been calculated using density functional theory and compared to the related wurtzite structured AlN, GaN and InN. Since there are no experimental studies of single crystal elastic properties of neither MgSiN$_{2}$, MgGeN$_{2}$ or MgSnN$_{2}$, we have established the accuracy of the calculations by comparison with experimental data for AlN, GaN and InN. The calculated polycrystalline elastic moduli of MgSiN$_{2}$ are found to be in good agreement with available experimental elastic moduli. It will be shown that MgSiN$_{2}$ and MgGeN$_{2}$ have a small $xy$-plane lattice mismatch with AlN and GaN, respectively, while at the same time being significantly softer than both AlN and GaN. This shows that MgSiN$_{2}$ and MgGeN$_{2}$ should be possible to be grown on AlN and GaN without significant lattice mismatch or strain.
- Apr 20 2018 cs.GT arXiv:1804.06923v1We study the problem of fairly dividing a heterogeneous resource, commonly known as cake cutting and chore division, in the presence of strategic agents. While a number of results in this setting have been established in previous works, they rely crucially on the free disposal assumption, meaning that the mechanism is allowed to throw away part of the resource at no cost. In the present work, we remove this assumption and focus on mechanisms that always allocate the entire resource. We exhibit a truthful envy-free mechanism for cake cutting and chore division for two agents with piecewise uniform valuations, and we complement our result by showing that such a mechanism does not exist when certain additional assumptions are made. Moreover, we give truthful mechanisms for multiple agents with restricted classes of valuations.
- Apr 20 2018 astro-ph.IM astro-ph.GA arXiv:1804.06920v1We simultaneously study the growth of errors and the question of the faithfulness of simulations of $N$-body systems. The errors are quantified through the numerical reversibility of trajectories of small-$N$ spherical systems integrated to high accuracy. Initially, the errors add randomly, before exponential divergence sets in. Though the exponentiation rate is virtually independent of $N$, the instability saturates at scales $1/\sqrt{N}$. This is interpreted by adopting a model due to Goodman, Heggie \& Hut (1993). In the third phase, the (diminished) growth is initially driven by multiplicative enhancement of errors as in the exponential stage. It is then qualitatively different for the errors in the phase space variables and the mean field conserved quantities (energy and momentum); the former grow systematically through phase mixing while the latter grow diffusively. For energy, the $N$-variation of the `relaxation time' of error growth follows expectations of two-body relaxation theory. This is not the case for angular momentum, at least up to the particle numbers and timescales considered, and even less so for the velocities. Due to increasingly smaller saturation scales, the information loss associated with the exponential instability decreases with $N$, especially when viewed in terms of the mean-field conserved quantities. Indeed, the dynamical entropy vanishes at any finite resolution as $N \rightarrow \infty$. In this sense there is convergence to the collisionless limit and confidence that numerical simulations may faithfully represent it, despite the exponential instability and loss of information on phase space trajectories. Nevertheless, the rapid initial growth of errors. and the relatively slow $N$-variation in its saturation, point to the slowness of the convergence.
- Apr 20 2018 math.PR arXiv:1804.06918v1In this paper, we study the transition densities of pure-jump symmetric Markov processes in $ {{\mathbb R}}^d$, whose jumping kernels are comparable to radially symmetric functions with mixed polynomial growths. Under some mild assumptions on their scale functions, we establish sharp two-sided estimates of transition densities (heat kernel estimates) for such processes. This is the first study on global heat kernel estimates of jump processes (including non-Lévy processes) whose weak scaling index is not necessarily strictly less than 2. As an application, we proved that the finite second moment condition on such symmetric Markov process is equivalent to the Khintchine-type law of iterated logarithm at the infinity.
- Adam C. Schneider, Kevin K. Hardegree-Ullman, Michael C. Cushing, J. Davy Kirkpatrick, Evgenya L. ShkolnikApr 20 2018 astro-ph.SR astro-ph.EP arXiv:1804.06917v1We present Spitzer Space Telescope time-series photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m of 2MASS J11193254$-$1137466AB and WISEA J114724.10$-$204021.3, two planetary-mass, late-type ($\sim$L7) brown dwarf members of the $\sim$10 Myr old TW Hya Association. These observations were taken in order to investigate whether or not a tentative trend of increasing variability amplitude with decreasing surface gravity seen for L3-L5.5 dwarfs extends to later-L spectral types and to explore the angular momentum evolution of low-mass objects. We examine each light curve for variability and find a rotation period of 19.39$^{+0.33}_{-0.28}$ hours and semi-amplitudes of 0.798$^{+0.081}_{-0.083}$% at 3.6 $\mu$m and 1.108$^{+0.093}_{-0.094}$% at 4.5 $\mu$m for WISEA J114724.10$-$204021.3. For 2MASS J11193254$-$1137466AB, we find a single period of 3.02$^{+0.04}_{-0.03}$ hours with semi-amplitudes of 0.230$^{+0.036}_{-0.035}$% at 3.6 $\mu$m and 0.453 $\pm$ 0.037% at 4.5 $\mu$m, which we find is possibly due to the rotation of one component of the binary. Combining our results with 12 other late-type L dwarfs observed with Spitzer from the literature, we find no significant differences between the 3.6 $\mu$m amplitudes of low surface gravity and field gravity late-type L brown dwarfs at Spitzer wavelengths, and find tentative evidence (75% confidence) of higher amplitude variability at 4.5 $\mu$m for young, late-type Ls. We also find a median rotation period of young brown dwarfs (10-300 Myr) of $\sim$10 hr, more than twice the value of the median rotation period of field age brown dwarfs ($\sim$4 hr), a clear signature of brown dwarf rotational evolution.
- Apr 20 2018 math.AP arXiv:1804.06916v1Taylor diffusion (or dispersion) refers to a phenomenon discovered experimentally by Taylor in the 1950s where a solute dropped into a pipe with a background shear flow experiences diffusion at a rate proportional to $1/\nu$, which is much faster than what would be produced by the static fluid if its viscosity is $0 < \nu \ll 1$. This phenomenon is analyzed rigorously using the linear PDE governing the evolution of the solute. It is shown that the solution can be split into two pieces, an approximate solution and a remainder term. The approximate solution is governed by an infinite-dimensional system of ODEs that possesses a finite-dimensional center manifold, on which the dynamics correspond to diffusion at a rate proportional to $1/\nu$. The remainder term is shown to decay at a rate that is much faster than the leading order behavior of the approximate solution. This is proven using a spectral decomposition in Fourier space and a hypocoercive estimate to control the intermediate Fourier modes.
- J. Maíz Apellániz, M. Pantaleoni González, R. H. Barbá, S. Simón-Díaz, I. Negueruela, D. J. Lennon, A. Sota, E. Trigueros PáezApr 20 2018 astro-ph.SR astro-ph.GA arXiv:1804.06915v1CONTEXT.The first Gaia Data Release (DR1) significantly improved the previously available proper motions for the majority of the Tycho-2 stars. AIMS. We want to detect runaway stars using Gaia DR1 proper motions and compare our results with previous searches. METHODS. Runaway O stars and BA supergiants are detected using a 2-D proper-motion method. The sample is selected using Simbad, spectra from our GOSSS project, literature spectral types, and photometry processed using CHORIZOS. RESULTS. We detect 76 runaway stars, 17 (possibly 19) of them with no prior identification as such, with an estimated detection rate of approximately one half of the real runaway fraction. An age effect appears to be present, with objects of spectral subtype B1 and later having travelled for longer distances than runaways of earlier subtypes. We also tentatively propose that the fraction of runaways is lower among BA supergiants that among O stars but further studies using future Gaia data releases are needed to confirm this. The frequency of fast rotators is high among runaway O stars, which indicates that a significant fraction of them (and possibly a majority) is produced in supernova explosions.
- Apr 20 2018 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1804.06914v1Constructed to satisfy all known exact constraints and appropriate norms for a semilocal density functional, the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalized gradient approximation functional has shown early promise for accurately describing the electronic structure of molecules and solids. One open question is how well SCAN predicts the formation energy, a key quantity for describing the thermodynamic stability of solid-state compounds. To answer this question, we perform an extensive benchmark of SCAN by computing the formation energies for a diverse group of nearly one thousand crystalline compounds for which experimental values are known. Due to an enhanced exchange interaction in the covalent bonding regime, SCAN substantially decreases the formation energy errors for strongly-bound compounds, by approximately 50% to 110 meV/atom, as compared to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE). However, for intermetallic compounds, SCAN performs moderately worse than PBE with an increase in formation energy error of approximately 20%, stemming from SCAN's distinct behavior in the weak bonding regime. The formation energy errors can be further reduced via elemental chemical potential fitting. We find that SCAN leads to significantly more accurate predicted crystal volumes, moderately enhanced magnetism, and mildly improved band gaps as compared to PBE. Overall, SCAN represents a significant improvement in accurately describing the thermodynamics of strongly-bound compounds.
- Recently, it has become feasible to generate large-scale, multi-tissue gene expression data, where expression profiles are obtained from multiple tissues or organs sampled from dozens to hundreds of individuals. When traditional clustering methods are applied to this type of data, important information is lost, because they either require all tissues to be analyzed independently, ignoring dependencies and similarities between tissues, or to merge tissues in a single, monolithic dataset, ignoring individual characteristics of tissues. We developed a Bayesian model-based multi-tissue clustering algorithm, revamp, which can incorporate prior information on physiological tissue similarity, and which results in a set of clusters, each consisting of a core set of genes conserved across tissues as well as differential sets of genes specific to one or more subsets of tissues. Using data from seven vascular and metabolic tissues from over 100 individuals in the STockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study, we demonstrate that multi-tissue clusters inferred by revamp are more enriched for tissue-dependent protein-protein interactions compared to alternative approaches. We further demonstrate that revamp results in easily interpretable multi-tissue gene expression associations to key coronary artery disease processes and clinical phenotypes in the STAGE individuals. Revamp is implemented in the Lemon-Tree software, available at https://github.com/eb00/lemon-tree
- Johnathan S. Rice, S. R. Federman, Nicolas Flagey, Paul F. Goldsmith, William D. Langer, Jorge L. Pineda, D. L. LambertApr 20 2018 astro-ph.GA astro-ph.SR arXiv:1804.06908v1Using visible, radio, microwave, and sub-mm data, we study several lines of sight toward stars generally closer than 1 kpc on a component-by-component basis. We derive the component structure seen in absorption at visible wavelengths from Ca II, Ca I, K I, CH, CH$^{+}\!,$ and CN and compare it to emission from H I, CO and its isotopologues, and C$^{+}$ from the GOT C+ survey. The correspondence between components in emission and absorption help create a more unified picture of diffuse atomic and molecular gas in the interstellar medium. We also discuss how these tracers are related to the CO-dark H$_{2}$ gas probed by C$^{+}$ emission and discuss the kinematic connections among the species observed.
- Apr 20 2018 cs.AI arXiv:1804.06907v1A prominent approach to implementing ontology-mediated queries (OMQs) is to rewrite into a first-order query, which is then executed using a conventional SQL database system. We consider the case where the ontology is formulated in the description logic EL and the actual query is a conjunctive query and show that rewritings of such OMQs can be efficiently computed in practice, in a sound and complete way. Our approach combines a reduction with a decomposed backwards chaining algorithm for OMQs that are based on the simpler atomic queries, also illuminating the relationship between first-order rewritings of OMQs based on conjunctive and on atomic queries. Experiments with real-world ontologies show promising results.
- The multinomial model is one of the simplest statistical models. When constraints are placed on the possible values for the probabilities, however, it becomes much more difficult to deal with. Model checking and checking for prior-data conflict is considered here for such models. A theorem is proved that establishes the consistency of the check on the prior. Applications are presented to models that arise in quantum state estimation as well as the Bayesian analysis of models for ordered probabilities.
- Apr 20 2018 cs.IR arXiv:1804.06905v1Many classification algorithms existing today suffer in handling many so-called "few data" or "limited data" instances. In this paper we show how to score query relevance with handle on few data by adopting a Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle. The main outcome is a strongly relevant routing recommendation system model (average(F)=0.72, M>=0.71; all scales of 1) supported by MDL based classification which is very good in handling few data by a large percentage margin of data degeneration (up to 50 percent loss).
- On spaces of constant curvature, the geodesic equations automatically have higher order integrals, which are just built out of first order integrals, corresponding to the abundance of Killing vectors. This is no longer true for general conformally flat spaces, but in this case there is a large algebra of conformal symmetries. In this paper we use these conformal symmetries to build higher order integrals for the geodesic equations. We use this approach to give a new derivation of the Darboux-Koenigs metrics, which have only one Killing vector, but two quadratic integrals. We also consider the case of possessing one Killing vector and two cubic integrals. The approach allows the quantum analogue to be constructed in a simpler manner.
- Apr 20 2018 math.OC arXiv:1804.06903v1High penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generators can lead to voltage issues in distribution networks. Various approaches including the real power control through PV inverters have been proposed to address voltage issues. However, among different control strategies, communication delays are inevitably involved and they need to be carefully considered in the control loop. Those delays can significantly deteriorate the system performance with undesired voltage quality, and may also cause system instability. In this paper, according to the inverter based active power control strategy, a linearized state space model with communication delay is presented. A delay dependent stability criterion using linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is used to rigorously obtain the delay margins based on different system parameters. The method can handle multiple PVs in the distribution network as well.
- Apr 20 2018 math.CA arXiv:1804.06902v1We construct a trigonometric series converging to zero everywhere on a subsequence, with coefficients tending to zero. We show that any such series must satisfy that the subsequence is very sparse, and that the support of the related distribution is quite large.
- Apr 20 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1804.06901v1One of the salient signatures of Majorana zero modes and topological superconductivity is a $4\pi$-periodic Josephson effect due to the combination of fermion parity conservation and the presence of a topologically protected odd number of zero energy crossings in the Andreev spectrum. In this paper, we study this effect in Josephson junctions composed of two semiconducting nanowires with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and induced superconductivity from the proximity effect. For certain orientations of the external magnetic field, such junctions possess a chiral symmetry and we show how this symmetry allows the Andreev spectrum and the protected crossings to be shifted by introducing a relative angle between the two wires. The junction then displays a geometrically induced anomalous Josephson effect, the flow of a supercurrent in the absence of external phase bias. Furthermore, we derive a proportionality relation between the local current density and the local curvature for a single curved wire. This result can be viewed as a one-dimensional analogue of the recently proposed geo-Josephson effect [Kvorning et al., arXiv:1709.00482]. Our two proposed effects can in principle be used as signatures of topological superconductivity in one dimension.
- Apr 20 2018 math.NA arXiv:1804.06900v1This paper focuses on the question of how unconditional stability can be achieved via multistep ImEx schemes, in practice problems where both the implicit and explicit terms are allowed to be stiff. For a class of new ImEx multistep schemes that involve a free parameter, strategies are presented on how to choose the ImEx splitting and the time stepping parameter, so that unconditional stability is achieved under the smallest approximation errors. These strategies are based on recently developed stability concepts, which also provide novel insights into the limitations of existing semi-implicit backward differentiation formulas (SBDF). For instance, the new strategies enable higher order time stepping that is not otherwise possible with SBDF. With specific applications in nonlinear diffusion problems and incompressible channel flows, it is demonstrated how the unconditional stability property can be leveraged to efficiently solve stiff nonlinear or nonlocal problems without the need to solve nonlinear or nonlocal problems implicitly.
- Apr 20 2018 eess.SP arXiv:1804.06899v1In this paper, a phase improvement algorithm has been developed to design the nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) signal for the four windows of Raised-Cosine, Taylor, Chebyshev, and Kaiser. We have already designed NLFM signal by stationary phase method. The simulation results for the peak sidelobe level of the autocorrelation function in the phase improvement algorithm reveal a significant average decrement of about 5 dB with respect to stationary phase method. Moreover, to evaluate the efficiency of the phase improvement algorithm, minimum error value for each iteration is calculated.
- We study the complexity of ontology-mediated querying when ontologies are formulated in the guarded fragment of first-order logic (GF). Our general aim is to classify the data complexity on the level of ontologies where query evaluation w.r.t. an ontology O is considered to be in PTime if all (unions of conjunctive) queries can be evaluated in PTime w.r.t. O and coNP-hard if at least one query is coNP-hard w.r.t. O. We identify several large and relevant fragments of GF that enjoy a dichotomy between PTime and coNP, some of them additionally admitting a form of counting. In fact, almost all ontologies in the BioPortal repository fall into these fragments or can easily be rewritten to do so. We then establish a variation of Ladner's Theorem on the existence of NP-intermediate problems and use this result to show that for other fragments, there is provably no such dichotomy. Again for other fragments (such as full GF), establishing a dichotomy implies the Feder-Vardi conjecture on the complexity of constraint satisfaction problems. We also link these results to Datalog-rewritability and study the decidability of whether a given ontology enjoys PTime query evaluation, presenting both positive and negative results.
- Apr 20 2018 physics.geo-ph arXiv:1804.06891v1As shown by Backus (1962), the average of a stack of isotropic layers results in a transversely isotropic medium. Herein, we consider a stack of layers consisting of a randomly oriented anisotropic elasticity tensor, which-one might expect-would result in an isotropic medium. However, we show-by means of a fundamental symmetry of the Backus average-that the corresponding Backus average is only transversely isotropic and not, in general, isotropic. In the process, we formulate, and use, a relationship between the Backus and Gazis et al. (1963) averages.
- Apr 20 2018 q-fin.PR arXiv:1804.06890v1Contingent Convertible bonds (CoCos) are debt instruments that convert into equity or are written down in times of distress. Existing pricing models assume conversion triggers based on market prices and on the assumption that markets can always observe all relevant firm information. But all Cocos issued so far have triggers based on accounting ratios and/or regulatory intervention. We incorporate that markets receive information through noisy accounting reports issued at discrete time instants, which allows us to distinguish between market and accounting values, and between automatic triggers and regulator-mandated conversions. Our second contribution is to incorporate that coupon payments are contingent too: their payment is conditional on the Maximum Distributable Amount not being exceeded. We examine the impact of CoCo design parameters, asset volatility and accounting noise on the price of a CoCo; and investigate the interaction between CoCo design features, the capital structure of the issuing bank and their implications for risk taking and investment incentives. Finally, we use our model to explain the crash in CoCo prices after Deutsche Bank's profit warning in February 2016.

Randomized Benchmarking as Convolution: Fourier Analysis of Gate Dependen...

Joel Wallman Apr 18 2018 13:34 UTCserfati philippe Mar 29 2018 14:07 UTC

see my 2 papers on direction of vorticity (nov1996 + feb1999) = https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Philippe_Serfati (published author, see also mendeley, academia.edu, orcid etc)

serfati philippe Mar 29 2018 13:34 UTC

see my 4 papers, 1998-1999, on contact and superposed vortex patches, cusps (and eg splashs), corners, generalized ones on lR^n and (ir/)regular ones =. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Philippe_Serfati/ (published author).

Luis Cruz Mar 16 2018 15:34 UTC

Related Work:

- [Performance-Based Guidelines for Energy Efficient Mobile Applications](http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7972717/)

- [Leafactor: Improving Energy Efficiency of Android Apps via Automatic Refactoring](http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7972807/)

Dan Elton Mar 16 2018 04:36 UTC

Comments are appreciated. Message me here or on twitter @moreisdifferent

Code is open source and available at :

[https://github.com/delton137/PIMD-F90][1][1]: https://github.com/delton137/PIMD-F90

Danial Dervovic Mar 01 2018 12:08 UTC

...(continued)Hello again Māris, many thanks for your patience. Your comments and questions have given me much food for thought, and scope for an amended version of the paper -- please see my responses below.

Please if any of the authors of [AST17 [arXiv:1712.01609](https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.01609)] have any fu

igorot Feb 28 2018 05:19 UTC

The Igorots built an [online community][1] that helps in the exchange, revitalization, practice, and learning of indigenous culture. It is the first and only Igorot community on the web.

[1]: https://www.igorotage.com/

Beni Yoshida Feb 13 2018 19:53 UTC

...(continued)This is not a direct answer to your question, but may give some intuition to formulate the problem in a more precise language. (And I simplify the discussion drastically). Consider a static slice of an empty AdS space (just a hyperbolic space) and imagine an operator which creates a particle at some

Abhinav Deshpande Feb 10 2018 15:42 UTC

...(continued)I see. Yes, the epsilon ball issue seems to be a thorny one in the prevalent definition, since the gate complexity to reach a target state from any of a fixed set of initial states depends on epsilon, and not in a very nice way (I imagine that it's all riddled with discontinuities). It would be inte

Elizabeth Crosson Feb 10 2018 05:49 UTC

...(continued)Thanks for the correction Abhinav, indeed I meant that the complexity of |psi(t)> grows linearly with t.

Producing an arbitrary state |phi> exactly is also too demanding for the circuit model, by the well-known argument that given any finite set of gates, the set of states that can be reached i

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