Top arXiv papers

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    Although developing proficiency with modeling is a nationally endorsed learning outcome for upper-division undergraduate physics lab courses, no corresponding research-based assessments exist. Our longterm goal is to develop assessments of students' modeling ability that are relevant across multiple upper-division lab contexts. To this end, we interviewed 19 instructors from 16 institutions about optics lab activities that incorporate photodiodes. Interviews focused on how those activities were designed to engage students in some aspects of modeling. We find that, according to many interviewees, iteration is an important aspect of modeling. In addition, interviewees described four distinct types of iteration: revising apparatuses, revising models, revising data-taking procedures, and repeating data collection using existing apparatuses and procedures. We provide examples of each type of iteration, and discuss implications for the development of future modeling assessments.
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    For a semi-finite von Neumann algebra $\mathcal A$, we study the case of equality in Young's inequality of s-numbers for a pair of $\tau$-measurable operators $a,b$, and we prove that equality is only possible if $|a|^p=|b|^q$. We also extend the result to unbounded operators affiliated with $\mathcal A$, and relate this problem with other symmetric norm Young inequalities.
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    Huygens triviality-a concept invented by Jaques Hadamard-is an equivalence class connecting those 2nd order partial differential equations which are transformable into the wave equation. In this work it is demonstrated, that the Schrödinger equation with the time-independent Hamiltonian belongs to such an equivalence class. The wave equation is the equation for which Huygens' principle (HP) holds. The HP was a subject of confusion in both physics and mathematics literature in the past for a long time. Not surprisingly, the role of this principle was obscured from the beginnings of quantum mechanics causing some theoretical and experimental misunderstandings. The purpose of this work is to bring the full clarity into this topic. By doing so, we obtained a large amount of new results related to uses of twistors, of Lie sphere geometry, of Dupin cyclides, of null electromagnetic fields, of AdS-CFT correspondence, etc. in the physical problems ranging from the atomic to high energy physics and cosmology. By doing so, we were guided in part by the two-times high energy physics formalism of Itzhak Bars which we reinterpreted in terms of the Lie sphere geometry/topology.
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    We demonstrate that dissociation of one-dimensional cold-atom breathers, created by a quench from a fundamental soliton, is a quantum many-body effect, as all mean-field (MF) contributions to the dissociation vanish due to the integrability of the underlying nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The analysis predicts a possibility to observe quantum many-body effects without leaving the MF range of experimental parameters. In particular, the dissociation time on the order of a few seconds is expected for a typical atomic-soliton setting.
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    In this work we propose an effective low-energy theory for a large class of 2+1 dimensional non-Abelian topological spin liquids whose edge states are conformal degrees of freedom with central charges corresponding to the coset structure $su(2)_k\oplus su(2)_{k'}/su(2)_{k+k'}$. For particular values of $k'$ it furnishes the series for unitary minimal and superconformal models. These gapped phases were recently suggested to be obtained from an array of one-dimensional coupled quantum wires. In doing so we provide an explicit relationship between two distinct approaches: quantum wires and Chern-Simons bulk theory. We firstly make a direct connection between the interacting quantum wires and the corresponding conformal field theory at the edges, which turns out to be given in terms of chiral gauged WZW models. Relying on the bulk-edge correspondence we are able to construct the underlying non-Abelian Chern-Simons effective field theory.
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    Given a Borel measure $\mu$ on ${\mathbb R}^{n}$, we define a convex set by \[M(\mu)=\bigcup_\substack0\le f\le1,\\ \int_\mathbb R^nf\,\rm d\mu=1 \left{ \int_\mathbb R^nyf\left(y\right)\,\rm d\mu\left(y\right)\right} , \]where the union is taken over all $\mu$-measurable functions $f:{\mathbb R}^{n}\to\left[0,1\right]$ with $\int_{{\mathbb R}^{n}}f\,{\rm d}{\mu}=1$. We study the properties of these measure-generated sets, and use them to investigate natural variations of problems of approximation of general convex bodies by polytopes with as few vertices as possible. In particular, we study an extension of the vertex index which was introduced by Bezdek and Litvak. As an application, we provide a lower bound for certain average norms of centroid bodies of non-degenerate probability measures.
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    First we prove a Littlewood-Paley diagonalization result for bi-Lipschitz perturbations of the identity map on the real line. This result entails a number of corollaries for the Hilbert transform along lines and monomial curves in the plane. Second, we prove a square function bound for a single scale directional operator. As a corollary we give a new proof of part of a theorem of Katz on direction fields with finitely many directions.
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    We study the entanglement entropy, the Rényi entropy, and the mutual (Rényi) information of Dirac fermions on a 2 dimensional torus in the presence of constant gauge fields. We derive their general formulas using the equivalence between twisted boundary conditions and the background gauge fields. Novel and interesting physical consequences have been presented in arXiv:1705.01859. Here we provide detailed computations of the entropies and mutual information in a low temperature limit, a large radius limit, and a high temperature limit. The high temperature limit reveals rather different physical properties compared to those of the low temperature one: there exist two non-trivial limits that depend on a modulus parameter and are not smoothly connected.
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    We investigate the relation between the optical extinction ($A_V$) and the hydrogen column density ($N_H$) determined from X-ray observations of a large sample of Galactic sightlines toward 35 supernova remnants, 6 planetary nebulae, and 70 X-ray binaries for which $N_H$ was determined in the literature with solar abundances. We derive an average ratio of ${N_H}/{A_V}=(2.08\pm0.02)\times10^{21}{\rm H\, cm^{-2}\, mag^{-1}}$ for the whole Galaxy. We find no correlation between ${N_H}/{A_V}$ and the number density of hydrogen, the distance away from the Galactic centre, and the distance above or below the Galactic plane. The ${N_H}/{A_V}$ ratio is generally invariant across the Galaxy, with ${N_H}/{A_V}=(2.04\pm0.05)\times10^{21}{\rm H\, cm^{-2}\, mag^{-1}}$ for the 1st and 4th Galactic quadrants and ${N_H}/{A_V}=(2.09\pm0.03)\times10^{21}{\rm H\, cm^{-2}\, mag^{-1}}$ for the 2nd and 3rd Galactic quadrants. We also explore the distribution of hydrogen in the Galaxy by enlarging our sample with additional 74 supernova remnants for which both $N_H$ and distances are known. We find that, between the Galactic radius of 2 kpc to 10 kpc, the vertical distribution of hydrogen can be roughly described by a Gaussian function with a scale height of $h=75.5\pm12.4\,{\rm pc}$ and a mid-plane density of $n_{H}(0)=1.11\pm0.15\,{\rm cm^{-3}}$, corresponding to a total gas surface density of ${\sum}_{gas}{\sim}7.0\,{M_{\bigodot}}\,{\rm pc^{-2}}$. We also compile $N_H$ from 19 supernova remnants and 29 X-ray binaries for which $N_H$ was determined with subsolar abundances. We obtain ${N_H}/{A_V}=(2.47\pm0.04)\times10^{21}{\rm H\, cm^{-2}\, mag^{-1}}$ which exceeds that derived with solar abundances by $\sim$20%. We suggest that in future studies one may simply scale $N_H$ derived from subsolar abundances by a factor of $\sim$1.2 when converting to $N_H$ of solar abundances.
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    Two Heegaard Floer knot complexes are called stably equivalent if an acyclic complex can be added to each complex to make them filtered chain homotopy equivalent. Hom showed that if two knots are concordant, then their knot complexes are stably equivalent. Invariants of stable equivalence include the concordance invariants $\tau$, $\varepsilon$, and $\Upsilon$. Feller and Krcatovich gave a relationship between the Upsilon invariants of torus knots. We use secondary Upsilon invariants defined by Kim and Livingston to show that these relations do not extend to stable equivalence.
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    The adsorption dynamics of a series of hydrophobically modified polymers, PAA\alphaCn, at the air-water interface is studied by measuring the dynamic surface tension. The PAA\alphaCn are composed of a poly(acrylic acid) backbone grafted with a percentage \alpha of C8 or C12 alkyl moieties, at pH conditions where the PAA backbone is not charged. The observed adsorption dynamics is very slow and follows a logarithmic behavior at long times indicating the building of an energy barrier which grows over time. After comparison of our experimental results to models from the literature, a new model which accounts for both the deformation of the incoming polymer coils as well as the deformation of the adsorbed pseudo-brush is described. This model enables to fit very well the experimental data. The two fitting parameters give expected values for the monomer size and for the area per adsorbed polymer chain.
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    GalICS 2.0 is a new semianalytic code to model the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cosmological context. N-body simulations based on a Planck cosmology are used to construct halo merger trees, track subhaloes, compute spins and measure concentrations. The accretion of gas onto galaxies and the morphological evolution of galaxies are modelled with prescriptions derived from hydrodynamic simulations. Star formation and stellar feedback are described with phenomenological models (as in other semianalytic codes). GalICS 2.0 computes rotation speeds from the gravitational potential of the dark matter, the disc and the central bulge. As the rotation speed depends not only on the virial velocity but also on the ratio of baryons to dark matter within a galaxy, our calculation predicts a different Tully-Fisher relation from models in which the rotation speed is proportional to the virial velocity. This is why GalICS 2.0 is able to reproduce the galaxy stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously. Our results are also in agreement with halo masses from weak lensing and satellite kinematics, gas fractions, the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass, the evolution of the cosmic SFR density, bulge-to-disc ratios, disc sizes and the Faber-Jackson relation.
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    Most quark actions in lattice QCD encounter difficulties with chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breakdown. Minimally doubled fermions (MDF) are a category of strictly local chiral lattice fermions, whose continuum limit reproduces two degenerate quark flavours. The two poles of their Dirac operator are aligned such that symmetries under charge conjugation or reflection of one particular direction are explictly broken at finite lattice spacing. Properties of MDF are scrutinised with regard to broken symmetry and meson spectrum to discern their suitability for numerical studies of QCD. Interactions induce anisotropic operator mixing for MDF. Hence, restoration of broken symmetries in the continuum limit requires three counterterms, one of which is power-law divergent. Counterterms and operator mixing are studied perturbatively for two variants of MDF. Two independent non-perturbative procedures for removal of the power-law divergence are developed by means of a numerical study of hadronic observables for one variant of MDF in quenched approximation. Though three out of four pseudoscalar mesons are affected by lattice artefacts, the spectrum's continuum limit is consistent with two-flavour QCD. Thus, suitability of MDF for numerical studies of QCD in the quenched approximation is demonstrated.
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    We introduce a hybrid approach to solar flare prediction, whereby a supervised regularization method is used to realize feature importance and an unsupervised clustering method is used to realize the binary flare/no-flare decision. The approach is validated against NOAA SWPC data.
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    The magnetic activity levels of planet host stars may differ from that of stars not known to host planets in several ways. Hot Jupiters may induce activity in their hosts through magnetic interactions, or through tidal interactions by affecting their host's rotation or convection. Measurements of photospheric, chromospheric, or coronal activity might then be abnormally high or low compared to control stars that do not host hot Jupiters, or might be modulated at the planet's orbital period. Such detections are complicated by the small amplitude of the expected signal, by the fact that the signals may be transient, and by the difficulty of constructing control samples due to exoplanet detection biases and the uncertainty of field star ages. We review these issues, and discuss avenues for future progress in the field.
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    A numerical method for free boundary problems for the equation \[ u_xx-q(x)u=u_t \]is proposed. The method is based on recent results from transmutation operators theory allowing one to construct efficiently a complete system of solutions for this equation generalizing the system of heat polynomials. The corresponding implementation algorithm is presented.
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    We study how the void environment affects the chemical evolution of galaxies in the universe by comparing the oxygen and nitrogen abundances of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in denser regions. Using spectroscopic observations from SDSS DR7, we estimate the oxygen and nitrogen abundances of 993 void dwarf galaxies and 759 dwarf galaxies in denser regions. We use the Direct Te method for calculating the gas-phase chemical abundances in the dwarf galaxies because it is best suited for low metallicity, low mass (dwarf) galaxies. A substitute for the [OII] 3727 doublet is developed, permitting oxygen abundance estimates of SDSS dwarf galaxies at all redshifts with the Direct Te method. We find that void dwarf galaxies have slightly higher oxygen abundances than dwarf galaxies in denser environments. The opposite trend is seen in both the nitrogen abundance and N/O ratio: void dwarf galaxies have slightly lower nitrogen abundances and lower N/O ratios than dwarf galaxies in denser regions. Our mass-N/O relationship shows that the secondary production of nitrogen commences at a lower stellar mass in void dwarf galaxies than in dwarf galaxies in denser environments. The lower N/O ratios and smaller stellar mass for secondary nitrogen production seen in void dwarf galaxies may indicate both delayed star formation and a dependence of cosmic downsizing on the large-scale environment. The shift toward higher oxygen abundances in void dwarf galaxies might be evidence of larger ratios of dark matter halo mass to stellar mass in voids than in denser regions.
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    We study two-stage robust optimization problems with mixed discrete-continuous decisions in both stages. Despite their broad range of applications, these problems pose two fundamental challenges: (i) they constitute infinite-dimensional problems that require a finite-dimensional approximation, and (ii) the presence of discrete recourse decisions typically prohibits duality-based solution schemes. We address the first challenge by studying a $K$-adaptability formulation that selects $K$ candidate recourse policies before observing the realization of the uncertain parameters and that implements the best of these policies after the realization is known. We establish conditions under which the $K$-adaptability problem remains continuous, convex and tractable, and we contrast them to the corresponding conditions for the two-stage robust optimization problem. We address the second challenge through a branch-and-bound scheme that enjoys asymptotic convergence in general and finite convergence under specific conditions. We illustrate the performance of our algorithm in numerical experiments involving benchmark data from several application domains.
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    We consider a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with attractive two-body interactions in a cigar-shaped trap, initially prepared in its ground state for a given negative scattering length, which is quenched to a larger absolute value of the scattering length. Using the mean-field approximation, we compute numerically, for an experimentally relevant range of aspect ratios and initial strengths of the coupling, two critical values of quench: one corresponds to the weakest attraction strength the quench to which causes the system to collapse before completing even a single return from the narrow configuration ("perihelion") in its breathing cycle. The other is a similar critical point for the occurrence of collapse before completing *two* returns. In the latter case, we also compute the limiting value, as we keep increasing the strength of the post-quench attraction towards its critical value, of the time interval between the first two perihelia. We also use a Gaussian variational model to estimate the critical quenched attraction strength below which the system is stable against the collapse for long times. These time intervals and critical attraction strengths---apart from being fundamental properties of nonlinear dynamics of self-attractive BECs---may provide clues to the design of upcoming experiments that are trying to create robust BEC breathers.
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    We image 104 newly identified low-mass (mostly M-dwarf) pre-main sequence members of nearby young moving groups with Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) and identify 27 binaries with instantaneous projected separation as small as 40 mas. 15 were previously unknown. The total number of multiple systems in this sample including spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature is 36, giving a raw multiplicity rate of at least $35^{+5}_{-4}\%$ for this population. In the separation range of roughly 1 - 300 AU in which infrared AO imaging is most sensitive, the raw multiplicity rate is at least $24^{+5}_{-4}\%$ for binaries resolved by the MagAO infrared camera (Clio). The M-star sub-sample of 87 stars yields a raw multiplicity of at least $30^{+5}_{-4}\%$ over all separations, $21^{+5}_{-4}\%$ for secondary companions resolved by Clio from 1 to 300 AU ($23^{+5}_{-4}\%$ for all known binaries in this separation range). A combined analysis with binaries discovered by the Search for Associations Containing Young stars shows that multiplicity fraction as a function of mass and age over the range of 0.2 to 1.2 $M_\odot$ and 10 - 200 Myr appears to be linearly flat in both parameters and across YMGs. This suggests that multiplicity rates are largely set by 100 Myr without appreciable evolution thereafter. After bias corrections are applied, the multiplicity fraction of low-mass YMG members ($< 0.6 M_\odot$) is in excess of the field.
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    Randomized experiments are the gold standard for evaluating the effects of changes to real-world systems, including Internet services. Data in these tests may be difficult to collect and outcomes may have high variance, resulting in potentially large measurement error. Bayesian optimization is a promising technique for optimizing multiple continuous parameters for field experiments, but existing approaches degrade in performance when the noise level is high. We derive an exact expression for expected improvement under greedy batch optimization with noisy observations and noisy constraints, and develop a quasi-Monte Carlo approximation that allows it to be efficiently optimized. Experiments with synthetic functions show that optimization performance on noisy, constrained problems outperforms existing methods. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of the method with two real experiments conducted at Facebook: optimizing a production ranking system, and optimizing web server compiler flags.
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    Local multiscale methods often construct multiscale basis functions in the offline stage without taking into account input parameters, such as source terms, boundary conditions, and so on. These basis functions are then used in the online stage with a specific input parameter to solve the global problem at a reduced computational cost. Recently, online approaches have been introduced, where multiscale basis functions are adaptively constructed in some regions to reduce the error significantly. In multiscale methods, it is desired to have only 1-2 iterations to reduce the error to a desired threshold. Using Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Framework, it was shown that by choosing sufficient number of offline basis functions, the error reduction can be made independent of physical parameters, such as scales and contrast. In this paper, our goal is to improve this. Using our recently proposed approach and special online basis construction in oversampled regions, we show that the error reduction can be made sufficiently large by appropriately selecting oversampling regions. Our numerical results show that one can achieve a three order of magnitude error reduction, which is better than our previous methods. We also develop an adaptive algorithm and enrich in selected regions with large residuals. In our adaptive method, we show that the convergence rate can be determined by a user-defined parameter and we confirm this by numerical simulations. The analysis of the method is presented.
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    We investigate large-scale effects induced by external fields, phenomenologically interpreted as mass media, in multi-agent models evolving with the microscopic dynamics of the binary Naming Game. In particular we show that a single external field, broadcasting information at regular time intervals, can reverse the majority opinion of the population, provided the frequency and the effectiveness of the sent messages lie above well-defined thresholds. We study the phase structure of the model in the mean field approximation and in numerical simulations with several network topologies. We also investigate the influence on the agent dynamics of two competing external fields, periodically broadcasting different messages. In finite regions of the parameter space we observe periodic equilibrium states in which the average opinion densities are reversed with respect to naive expectations. Such equilibria occur in two cases: i) when the frequencies of the competing messages are different but close to each other; ii) when the frequencies are equal and the relative time shift of the messages does not exceed half a period. We interpret the observed phenomena as a result of the interplay between the external fields and the internal dynamics of the agents and conclude that, depending on the model parameters, the Naming Game is consistent with scenarios of first- or second-mover advantage (to borrow an expression from the jargon of business strategy).
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    We formulate a kinematical extension of Double Field Theory on a $2d$-dimensional para-Hermitian manifold $(\mathcal{P},\eta,\omega)$ where the $O(d,d)$ metric $\eta$ is supplemented by an almost symplectic two-form $\omega$. Together $\eta$ and $\omega$ define an almost bi-Lagrangian structure $K$ which provides a splitting of the tangent bundle $T\mathcal{P}=L\oplus\tilde{L}$ into two Lagrangian subspaces. In this paper a canonical connection and a corresponding generalised Lie derivative for the Leibniz algebroid on $T\mathcal{P}$ are constructed. We find integrability conditions under which the symmetry algebra closes for general $\eta$ and $\omega$, even if they are not flat and constant. This formalism thus provides a generalisation of the kinematical structure of Double Field Theory. We also show that this formalism allows one to reconcile and unify Double Field Theory with Generalised Geometry which is thoroughly discussed.
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    We shall develop two notions of pointwise amenability, namely pointwise Connes amenability and pointwise $w^*$-approximate Connes amenability, for dual Banach algebras which take the $w^*$-topology into account. We shall study these concepts for the Banach sequence algebras $\ell^1(\omega)$ and the weighted semigroup algebras $ \ell^{1}(\mathbb{N}_{\wedge},\omega)$. For a weight $\omega$ on a discrete semigroup $S$, we shall investigate pointwise amenability/Connes amenability of $\ell^1(S,\omega)$ in terms of diagonals.
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    Electron correlations produce a rich phase diagram in the iron pnictides. Earlier theoretical studies on the correlation effect demonstrated how quantum fluctuations weaken and concurrently suppress a $C_2$-symmetric single-Q antiferromagnetic order and a nematic order. Here we examine the emergent phases near the quantum phase transition. For a $C_4$-symmetric collinear double-Q antiferromagnetic order, we show that it is accompanied by both a charge order and an enhanced nematic susceptibility. Our results provide understanding for several intriguing recent experiments in hole-doped iron arsenides, and bring out common physics that underlies the different magnetic phases of various iron-based superconductors.
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    The aim of this thesis is to study under which conditions $K3$ surfaces allowing a triple-point-free model satisfy the monodromy property. This property is a quantitative relation between the geometry of the degeneration of a Calabi-Yau variety $X$ and the monodromy action on the cohomology of $X$: a Calabi-Yau variety $X$ satisfies the monodromy property if poles of the motivic zeta function $Z_{X,\omega}(T)$ induce monodromy eigenvalues on the cohomology of $X$. In this thesis, we focus on $K3$ surfaces allowing a triple-point-free model, i.e., $K3$ surfaces allowing a strict normal crossings model such that three irreducible components of the special fiber never meet simultaneously. Crauder and Morrison classified these models into two main classes: so-called flowerpot degenerations and chain degenerations. This classification is very precise, which allows to use a combination of geometrical and combinatorial techniques to check the monodromy property in practice. The first main result is an explicit computation of the poles of $Z_{X,\omega}(T)$ for a $K3$ surface $X$ allowing a triple-point-free model and a volume form $\omega$ on $X$. We show that the motivic zeta function can have more than one pole. This is in contrast with previous results: so far, all Calabi-Yau varieties known to satisfy the monodromy property have a unique pole. We prove that $K3$ surfaces allowing a flowerpot degeneration satisfy the monodromy property. We also show that the monodromy property holds for $K3$ surfaces with a certain chain degeneration. We don't know whether all $K3$ surfaces with a chain degeneration satisfy the monodromy property, and we investigate what characteristics a $K3$ surface $X$ not satisfying the monodromy property should have.
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    This paper initiates the study of the "Laplacian simplex" $T_G$ obtained from a finite graph $G$ by taking the convex hull of the columns of the Laplacian matrix for $G$. Basic properties of these simplices are established, and then a systematic investigation of $T_G$ for trees, cycles, and complete graphs is provided. Motivated by a conjecture of Hibi and Ohsugi, our investigation focuses on reflexivity, the integer decomposition property, and unimodality of Ehrhart $h^*$-vectors. We prove that if $G$ is a tree, odd cycle, complete graph, or a whiskering of an even cycle, then $T_G$ is reflexive. We show that while $T_{K_n}$ has the integer decomposition property, $T_{C_n}$ for odd cycles does not. The Ehrhart $h^*$-vectors of $T_G$ for trees, odd cycles, and complete graphs are shown to be unimodal. As a special case it is shown that when $n$ is an odd prime, the Ehrhart $h^*$-vector of $T_{C_n}$ is given by $(h_0^*,\ldots,h_{n-1}^*)=(1,\ldots,1,n^2-n+1,1,\ldots, 1)$. We also provide a combinatorial interpretation of the Ehrhart $h^*$-vector for $T_{K_n}$.
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    We introduce the class of split Lie-Rinehart algebras as the natural extension of the one of split Lie algebras. We show that if $L$ is a tight split Lie-Rinehart algebra over an associative and commutative algebra $A,$ then $L$ and $A$ decompose as the orthogonal direct sums $L = \bigoplus_{i \in I}L_i$, $A = \bigoplus_{j \in J}A_j$, where any $L_i$ is a nonzero ideal of $L$, any $A_j$ is a nonzero ideal of $A$, and both decompositions satisfy that for any $i \in I$ there exists a unique $\tilde{i} \in J$ such that $A_{\tilde{i}}L_i \neq 0$. Furthermore any $L_i$ is a split Lie-Rinehart algebra over $A_{\tilde{i}}$. Also, under mild conditions, it is shown that the above decompositions of $L$ and $A$ are by means of the family of their, respective, simple ideals.
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    Cat-state qubits (qubits encoded with cat states) have recently drawn intensive attention due to their long lifetimes. We here propose a method to implement a universal controlled-phase gate of two cat-state qubits, via two microwave resonators coupled to a superconducting transmon qutrit. During the gate operation, the qutrit remains in the ground state; thus decoherence from the qutrit is greatly suppressed. This proposal requires only two basic operations and neither classical pulse nor measurement is needed; therefore the gate realization is simple. Numerical simulations show that high-fidelity implementation of this gate is feasible with current circuit QED technology. The proposal is quite general and can be applied to implement the proposed gate with two microwave resonators or two optical cavities coupled to a single three-level natural or artificial atom.
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    Amenability and pseudo-amenability of $ \ell^{1}(S,\omega) $ is characterized, where $S$ is a left (right) zero semigroup or it is a rectangular band semigroup. The equivalence conditions to amenability of $\ell^{1}(S,\omega)$ are provided, where $ S $ is a band semigroup. For a locally compact group $G$, pseudo-amenability of $ \ell^{1}(G,\omega) $ is also discussed.
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    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.
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    We revisit the definition and some of the characteristics of quadratic theories of gravity with torsion. We start from the most general Lagrangian density quadratic in the curvature and torsion tensors. By assuming that General Relativity should be recovered when torsion vanishes and investigating the behaviour of the vector and pseudovector torsion fields in the weak-gravity regime, we present a set of necessary conditions for the stability of these theories. Moreover, we explicitly obtain the gravitational field equations using the Palatini variational principle with the metricity condition implemented via a Lagrange multiplier.
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    PBW degenerations are a particularly nice family of flat degenerations of type A flag varieties. We show that the cohomology of any PBW degeneration of the flag variety surjects onto the cohomology of the original flag variety, and that this holds in an equivariant setting too. We also prove that the same is true in the symplectic setting when considering Feigin's linear degeneration of the symplectic flag variety.
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    This paper formulates two 3D stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of two microbial populations in a chemostat competing over a single substrate. The two models have two distinct noise sources. One is general noise whereas the other is dilution rate induced noise. Nonlinear Monod growth rates are assumed and the paper is mainly focused on the parameter values where coexistence is present deterministically. Nondimensionalising the equations around the point of intersection of the two growth rates leads to a large parameter which is the nondimensional substrate feed. This in turn is used to perform an asymptotic analysis leading to a reduced 2D system of equations describing the dynamics of the populations on and close to a line of steady states retrieved from the deterministic stability analysis. That reduced system allows the formulation of a spatially 2D Fokker-Planck equation which when solved numerically admits results similar to those from simulation of the SDEs. Contrary to previous suggestions, one particular population becomes dominant at large times. Finally, we brie y explore the case where death rates are added.
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    This study shows that a relativistic Hall effect significantly changes the properties of wave propagation by deriving a linear dispersion relation for relativistic Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD). Whereas, in non- relativistic HMHD, the phase and group velocities of fast magnetosonic wave become anisotropic with an increasing Hall effect, the relativistic Hall effect brings upper bounds to the anisotropies. The Alfveén wave group velocity with strong Hall effect also becomes less anisotropic than non-relativistic case. Moreover, the group velocity surfaces of Alfvén and fast waves coalesce into a single surface in the direction other than near perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. It is also remarkable that a characteristic scale length of the relativistic HMHD depends on ion temperature, magnetic field strength, and density while the non-relativistic HMHD scale length, i.e., ion skin depth, depends only on density. The modified characteristic scale length increases as the ion temperature increases and decreases as the magnetic field strength increases.
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    We review the concepts and the present state of theoretical studies of spin-imbalanced superfluidity, in particular the elusive Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, in the context of ultracold quantum gases. The comprehensive presentation of the theoretical basis for the FFLO state that we provide is useful also for research on the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in other physical systems. We focus on settings that have been predicted to be favourable for the FFLO state, such as optical lattices in various dimensions and spin-orbit coupled systems. These are also the most likely systems for near-future experimental observation of the FFLO state. Theoretical bounds, such as Bloch's and Luttinger's theorems, and experimentally important limitations, such as finite-size effects and trapping potentials, are considered. In addition, we provide a comprehensive review of the various ideas presented for the observation of the FFLO state. We conclude our review with an analysis of the open questions related to the FFLO state, such as its stability, superfluid density, collective modes and extending the FFLO superfluid concept to new types of lattice systems.
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    Single-bed whole-body positron emission tomography based on resistive plate chamber detectors (RPC-PET) has been proposed for human studies, as a complementary resource to scintillator-based PET scanners. The purpose of this work is mainly about providing a reconstruction solution to such whole-body single-bed data collection on an event-by-event basis. We demonstrate a fully three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF)-based reconstruction algorithm that is capable of processing the highly inclined lines of response acquired from a system with a very large axial field of view, such as those used in RPC-PET. Such algorithm must be sufficiently fast that it will not compromise the clinical workflow of an RPC-PET system. We present simulation results from a voxelized version of the anthropomorphic NCAT phantom, with oncological lesions introduced into critical regions within the human body. The list-mode data was reconstructed with a TOF-weighted maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM). To accelerate the reconstruction time of the algorithm, a multi-threaded approach supported by graphical processing units (GPUs) was developed. Additionally, a TOF-assisted data division method is suggested that allows the data from nine body regions to be reconstructed independently and much more rapidly. The application of a TOF-based scatter rejection method reduces the overall body scatter from 57.1% to 32.9%. The results also show that a 300-ps FWHM RPC-PET scanner allows for the production of a reconstructed image in 3.5 minutes following a 7-minute acquisition upon the injection of 2 mCi of activity (146 M coincidence events). We present for the first time a full realistic reconstruction of a whole body, long axial coverage, RPC-PET scanner. We demonstrate clinically relevant reconstruction times comparable (or lower) to the patient acquisition times on both multi-threaded CPU and GPU.
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    Suppose that particle detectors are placed along a Cauchy surface $\Sigma$ in Minkowski space-time, and consider a quantum theory with fixed or variable number of particles (i.e., using Fock space or a subspace thereof). It is straightforward to guess what Born's rule should look like for this setting: The probability distribution of the detected configuration on $\Sigma$ has density $|\psi_\Sigma|^2$, where $\psi_\Sigma$ is a suitable wave function on $\Sigma$, and the operation $|\cdot|^2$ is suitably interpreted. We call this statement the "curved Born rule." Since in any one Lorentz frame, the appropriate measurement postulates referring to constant-$t$ hyperplanes should determine the probabilities of the outcomes of any conceivable experiment, they should also imply the curved Born rule. This is what we are concerned with here: deriving Born's rule for $\Sigma$ from Born's rule in one Lorentz frame (along with a collapse rule). We describe two ways of defining an idealized detection process, and prove for one of them that the probability distribution coincides with $|\psi_\Sigma|^2$. For this result, we need two hypotheses on the time evolution: that there is no interaction faster than light, and that there is no creation of particles from the Fock vacuum. The wave function $\psi_\Sigma$ can be obtained from the Tomonaga--Schwinger equation, or from a multi-time wave function by inserting configurations on $\Sigma$. Thus, our result establishes in particular how multi-time wave functions are related to detection probabilities.
  • PDF
    TWA 3A is the most recent addition to a small group of young binary systems that both actively accrete from a circumbinary disk and have spectroscopic orbital solutions. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to test binary accretion theory in a well-constrained setting. To examine TWA 3A's time-variable accretion behavior, we have conducted a two-year, optical photometric monitoring campaign, obtaining dense orbital phase coverage (~20 observations per orbit) for ~15 orbital periods. From U-band measurements we derive the time-dependent binary mass accretion rate, finding bursts of accretion near each periastron passage. On average, these enhanced accretion events evolve over orbital phases 0.85 to 1.05, reaching their peak at periastron. The specific accretion rate increases above the quiescent value by a factor of ~4 on average but the peak can be as high as an order of magnitude in a given orbit. The phase dependence and amplitude of TWA 3A accretion is in good agreement with numerical simulations of binary accretion with similar orbital parameters. In these simulations, periastron accretion bursts are fueled by periodic streams of material from the circumbinary disk that are driven by the binary orbit. We find that TWA 3A's average accretion behavior is remarkably similar to DQ Tau, another T Tauri binary with similar orbital parameters, but with significantly less variability from orbit to orbit. This is only the second clear case of orbital-phase-dependent accretion in a T Tauri binary.
  • PDF
    Highly energetic, cosmic-ray muons can easily penetrate a dry storage cask and yield information about the material inside it by making use of the physics of multiple Coulomb scattering. Work by others has shown this information may be used for verification of dry storage cask contents after continuity of knowledge has been lost. In our modeling and simulation approach, we use ideal planar radiation detectors to record the trajectories and momentum of both incident and exiting cosmic ray muons; this choice allows us to demonstrate the fundamental limit of the technology for a particular measurement and reconstruction method. In a method analogous to computed tomography with attenuation coefficient replaced by scattering density is we apply a filtered back projection algorithm in order to reconstruct both the geometry and material information in modeled scenarios for concrete-walled cask VSC-24. A scenario where one of the middle four spent nuclear fuel assemblies is missing undetectable with a simple PoCA-based approach is expected to be readily detectable with CT-based approach. Moreover, a trickier scenario where the one or more assemblies is replaced by dummy assembly is put forward. In this case, we expect that this dry storage cask should be found to be not as declared based on our simulation and reconstruction results. Furthermore, we show that the material composition can be estimated if the momentum of individual muons can be precisely measured.
  • PDF
    Within a slightly simplified version of the electroweak standard model we investigate the stabilization of cosmic strings by fermion quantum fluctuations. Previous studies of quantum energies considered variants of the Nielsen-Olesen profile embedded in the electroweak gauge group and showed that configurations are favored for which the Higgs vacuum expectation value drops near the string core and the gauge field is suppressed. This work found that the strongest binding was obtained from strings that differ significantly from Nielsen-Olesen configurations, deforming essentially only the Higgs field in order to generate a strong attraction without inducing large gradients. Extending this analysis, we consider the leading quantum correction to the energy per unit length of a hedgehog type string, which, in contrast to the Nielsen-Olesen configuration, contains a pseudoscalar field. To employ the spectral method we develop the scattering and bound state problems for fermions in the background of a hedgehog string. Explicit occupation of bound state levels leads to strings that carry the quantum numbers of the bound fermions. We discuss the parameter space for which stable, hedgehog type cosmic strings emerge and reflect on phenomenological consequences of these findings.
  • PDF
    We investigate the suppression of spontaneous emission from a driven three-level system embedded in an optical cavity via a manifestation of the quantum Zeno effect. Strong resonant coupling of the lower two levels to an external optical field results in a decrease of the exponential decay rate of the third upper level. We show that this effect has observable consequences in the form of emission spectra with subnatural linewidths, which should be measurable using, for example, quantum dot--cavity systems in currently obtainable parameter regimes. These results constitute a novel method to control an inherently irreversible and dissipative process, and may be useful in applications requiring the control of single photon arrival times and wavepacket extent.
  • PDF
    We study preconditioned proximal point methods for a class of saddle point problems, where the preconditioner decouples the overall proximal point method into an alternating primal--dual method. This is akin to the Chambolle--Pock method or the ADMM. In our work, we replace the squared distance in the dual step by a barrier function on a symmetric cone, while using a standard (Euclidean) proximal step for the primal variable. We show that under non-degeneracy and simple linear constraints, such a hybrid primal--dual algorithm can achieve linear convergence on originally strongly convex problems involving the second-order cone in their saddle point form. On general symmetric cones, we are only able to show an $O(1/N)$ rate. These results are based on estimates of strong convexity of the barrier function, extended with a penalty to the boundary of the symmetric cone.
  • PDF
    We derive the finite temperature Keldysh response theory for interacting fermions in the presence of quenched disorder, as applicable to any of the 10 Altland-Zirnbauer classes in an Anderson delocalized phase with at least a U(1) continuous symmetry. In this formulation of the interacting Finkel'stein nonlinear sigma model, the statistics of one-body wave functions are encoded by the constrained matrix field, while physical correlations follow from the hydrodynamic density or spin response field, which decouples the interactions. Integrating out the matrix field first, we obtain weak (anti)localization and Altshuler-Aronov quantum conductance corrections from the hydrodynamic response function. This procedure automatically incorporates the correct infrared physics, and in particular gives the Altshuler-Aronov-Khmelnitsky (AAK) equations for dephasing of weak (anti)localization due to electron-electron collisions. We explicate the method by deriving known quantum corrections in two dimensions for the symplectic metal class AII, as well as the spin-SU(2) invariant superconductor classes C and CI. We show that conductance corrections due to the special modes at zero energy in nonstandard classes are automatically cut off by temperature, as previously expected, while the Wigner-Dyson class Cooperon modes that persist to all energies are cut by dephasing. We also show that for short-ranged interactions, the standard self-consistent solution for the dephasing rate is equivalent to a diagrammatic summation via the self-consistent Born approximation. This should be compared to the AAK solution for long-ranged Coulomb interactions, which exploits the Markovian noise correlations induced by thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. We discuss prospects for exploring the many-body localization transition from the ergodic side as a dephasing catastrophe in short-range interacting models.
  • PDF
    This paper is concerned with the analysis of a new stable space-time finite element method (FEM) for the numerical solution of parabolic evolution problems in moving spatial computational domains. The discrete bilinear form is elliptic on the FEM space with respect to a discrete energy norm. This property together with a corresponding boundedness property, consistency and approximation results for the FEM spaces yields an a priori discretization error estimate with respect to the discrete norm. Finally, we confirm the theoretical results with numerical experiments in spatial moving domains to confirm the theory presented.
  • PDF
    We prove an existing conjecture that the sequence defined recursively by $a_1=1, a_2=2, a_n=4a_{n-1}-2a_{n-2}$ counts the number of length-$n$ permutations avoiding the four generalized permutation patterns 1-32-4, 1-42-3, 2-31-4, and 2-41-3.
  • PDF
    We take advantage of the exquisite quality of the Hubble Space Telescope 26-filter astro-photometric catalog of the core of Omega Cen presented in the first paper of this series and the empirical differential-reddening correction presented in the second paper in order to distill the main sequence into its constituent populations. To this end, we restrict ourselves to the five most useful filters: the magic "trio" of F275W, F336W, and F438W, along with F606W and F814W. We develop a strategy for identifying color systems where different populations stand out most distinctly, then we isolate those populations and examine them in other filters where their sub-populations also come to light. In this way, we have identified at least 15 sub-populations, each of which has a distinctive fiducial curve through our 5-dimensional photometric space. We confirm the MSa to be split into two subcomponents, and find that both the bMS and the rMS are split into three subcomponents. Moreover, we have discovered two additional MS groups: the MSd (which has three subcomponents) shares similar properties with the bMS, and the MSe (which has four subcomponents), has properties more similar to those of the rMS. We examine the fiducial curves together and use synthetic spectra to infer relative heavy-element, light-element, and Helium abundances for the populations. Our findings show that the stellar populations and star formation history of Omega Cen are even more complex than inferred previously. Finally, we provide as a supplement to the original catalog a list that identifies for each star which population it most likely is associated with.
  • PDF
    Fast and accurate integration of geodesics in Kerr spacetimes is an important tool in modeling the orbits of stars and the transport of radiation in the vicinities of black holes. Most existing integration algorithms employ Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, which have coordinate singularities at the event horizon and along the poles. Handling the singularities requires special numerical treatment in these regions, often slows down the calculations, and may lead to inaccurate geodesics. We present here a new general-purpose geodesic integrator, GRay2, that overcomes these issues by employing the Cartesian form of Kerr-Schild coordinates. By performing particular mathematical manipulations of the geodesic equations and several optimizations, we develop an implementation of the Cartesian Kerr-Schild coordinates that outperforms calculations that use the seemingly simpler equations in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. We also employ the OpenCL framework, which allows GRay2 to run on multi-core CPUs as well as on a wide range of GPU hardware accelerators, making the algorithm more versatile. We report numerous convergence tests and benchmark results for GRay2 for both time-like (particle) and null (photon) geodesics.
  • PDF
    We used a combination of deep optical and Halpha images of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6440, acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope, to identify the optical counterpart to the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021during quiescence. A strong Halpha emission has been detected from a main sequence star (hereafter COM-SAX J1748.9-2021) located at only 0.15" from the nominal position of the X-ray source. The position of the star also agrees with the optical counterpart found by Verbunt et al. (2000) during an outburst. We propose this star as the most likely optical counterpart to the binary system. By direct comparison with isochrones, we estimated that COM-SAX J1748.9-2021 has a mass of 0.70 Msun - 0.83 Msun, a radius of 0.88 pm 0.02 Rsun and a superficial temperature of 5250pm80 K. These parameters combined with the orbital characteristics of the binary suggest that the system is observed at a very low inclination angle (~8 deg -14 deg) and that the star is filling or even overflowing its Roche Lobe. This, together with the equivalent width of the Halpha emission (~20 Ang), suggest possible on-going mass transfer. The possibile presence of such a on-going mass transfer during a quiescence state also suggests that the radio pulsar is not active yet and thus this system, despite its similarity with the class of redback millisecond pulsars, is not a transitional millisecond pulsar.

Recent comments

Kenneth Goodenough Jun 21 2017 12:48 UTC

Ah yes I see, thank you for the clarification!

Stefano Pirandola Jun 20 2017 13:26 UTC

Hi Kenneth, more precisely that plot is for a particular "Pauli-damping" channel, i.e., a qubit channel that is decomposable into a Pauli channel (1) and an amplitude damping channel (2). This "Pauli-damping" channel can be simulated by performing noisy teleportation over a resource state that corre

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Kenneth Goodenough Jun 20 2017 12:47 UTC

Interesting work! I was wondering, how do the new upper bounds for the amplitude-damping channel in Fig. 2 compare to previous bounds?

Barbara Terhal Jun 20 2017 07:25 UTC

It would be good if this conflict on assigning priority and credit is peacefully resolved by the parties involved (i have no opinions on the matter).

Stefano Pirandola Jun 15 2017 05:32 UTC

The secret-key capacity of the pure-loss channel -log(1-t) was proven in [9], not in the follow-up work [13] (which appeared 4 months later). Ref. [13] found that this capacity is also a strong converse bound, which is Eq. (1) here. Same story for Eq. (4) that was proven in [9], not in [13]. Again t

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Chris Ferrie Jun 09 2017 10:06 UTC

I have posted an open review of this paper here: https://github.com/csferrie/openreviews/blob/master/arxiv.1703.09835/arxiv.1703.09835.md

Eddie Smolansky May 26 2017 05:23 UTC

Updated summary [here](https://github.com/eddiesmo/papers).

# How they made the dataset
- collect youtube videos
- automated filtering with yolo and landmark detection projects
- crowd source final filtering (AMT - give 50 face images to turks and ask which don't belong)
- quality control through s

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Felix Leditzky May 24 2017 20:43 UTC

Yes, that's right, thanks!

For (5), you use the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality $\left| \operatorname{tr}(X^\dagger Y) \right| \leq \sqrt{\operatorname{tr}(X^\dagger X)} \sqrt{\operatorname{tr}(Y^\dagger Y)}$ for the Hilbert-Schmidt inner product $\langle X,Y\rangle := \operatorname{tr}(X^\dagger Y)$ wi

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Michael Tolan May 24 2017 20:27 UTC

Just reading over Eq (5) on P5 concerning the diamond norm.

Should the last $\sigma_1$ on the 4th line be replaced with a $\sigma_2$? I think I can see how the proof is working but not entirely certain.

Noon van der Silk May 23 2017 11:15 UTC

I think this thread has reached it's end.

I've locked further comments, and I hope that the quantum computing community can thoughtfully find an approach to language that is inclusive to all and recognises the diverse background of all researchers, current and future.

I direct your attention t

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