Top arXiv papers

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    This article reviews a few basic features of systems of one-dimensional diffusions with rank-based characteristics. Such systems arise in particular in the modelling of financial markets , where they go by the name of Atlas models. We mostly describe their long time and large scale behaviour, and lay a particular emphasis on the case of mean-field interactions. We finally present an application of the reviewed results to the modelling of capital distribution in systems with a large number of agents.
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    In this paper we compare numerically two different coarse space definitions for two-level domain decomposition preconditioners for the Helmholtz equation, both in two and three dimensions. While we solve the pure Helmholtz problem without absorption, the preconditioners are built from problems with absorption. In the first method, the coarse space is based on the discretization of the problem with absorption on a coarse mesh, with diameter constrained by the wavenumber. In the second method, the coarse space is built by solving local eigenproblems involving the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) operator.
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    The construction of fast iterative solvers for the indefinite time-harmonic Maxwell's system at high-frequency is a problem of great current interest. Some of the difficulties that arise are similar to those encountered in the case of the high-frequency Helmholtz equation. Here we investigate how two-level domain-decomposition preconditioners recently proposed for the Helmholtz equation work in the Maxwell case, both from the theoretical and numerical points of view.
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    We prove that, any problem of minimization of proper lower semicontinuous function defined on a normal Hausdorff space, is canonically equivalent to a problem of minimization of a proper weak * lower semicontinuous convex function defined on a weak * convex compact subset of some dual Banach space. We estalish the existence of an bijective operator between the two classes of functions which preserves the problems of minimization.
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    We study nonlinear systems of the form $-\Delta\_pu=v^{q\_1}+\mu,\;-\Delta\_pv=u^{q\_2}+\eta$ and $F\_k[-u]=v^{s\_1}+\mu,\;F\_k[-v]=u^{s\_2}+\eta$ in a bounded domain $\Omega$ or in $\mathbb{R}^N$ where $\mu$ and $\eta$ are nonnegative Radon measures, $\Delta\_p$ and $F\_k$ are respectively the $p$-Laplacian and the $k$-Hessian operators and $q\_1$, $q\_2$, $s\_1$ and $s\_2$ positive numbers. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for existence expressed in terms of Riesz or Bessel capacities.
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    Given an open book decomposition of a contact three man-ifold (M, $\xi$) with pseudo-Anosov monodromy and fractional Dehn twist coefficient c = k n , we construct a Legendrian knot $\Lambda$ close to the stable foliation of a page, together with a small Legendrian pushoff $\Lambda$. When k $\ge$ 5, we apply the techniques of [CH2] to show that the strip Legen-drian contact homology of $\Lambda$ $\rightarrow$ $\Lambda$ is well-defined and has an exponential growth property. The work [Al2] then implies that all Reeb vector fields for $\xi$ have positive topological entropy.
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    Radiofrequency multipole traps have been used for some decades in cold collision experiments, and are gaining interest for precision spectroscopy due to their low mi-cromotion contribution, and the predicted unusual cold-ion structures. However, the experimental realisation is not yet fully controlled, and open questions in the operation of these devices remain. We present experimental observations of symmetry breaking of the trapping potential in a macroscopic octupole trap with laser-cooled ions. Numerical simulations have been performed in order to explain the appearance of additional local potential minima, and be able to control them in a next step. We characterize these additional potential minima, in particular with respect to their position, their potential depth and their probability of population as a function of the radial and angular displacement of the trapping rods.
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    We describe the both post-and pre-Lie algebra g SISO associated to the affine SISO feedback transformation group. We show that it is a member of a family of post-Lie algebras associated to representations of a particular solvable Lie algebra. We first construct the extension of the magmatic product of a post-Lie algebra to its enveloping algebra, which allows to describe free post-Lie algebras and is widely used to obtain the enveloping of g SISO and its dual.
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    Dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates are an exceptionally versatile testbed for the investigation of novel solitonic structures. While matter-wave solitons in one- and two-component systems have been the focus of intense research efforts, an extension to three components has never been attempted in experiments, to the best of our knowledge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the existence of robust dark-bright-bright (DBB) and dark-dark-bright (DDB) solitons in a spinor $F=1$ condensate. We observe lifetimes on the order of hundreds of milliseconds for these structures. Our theoretical analysis, based on a multiscale expansion method, shows that small-amplitude solitons of these types obey universal long-short wave resonant interaction models, namely Yajima-Oikawa systems. Our experimental and analytical findings are corroborated by direct numerical simulations highlighting the persistence of, e.g., the DBB states, as well as their robust oscillations in the trap.
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    This paper deals with the numerical resolution of kinetic models for systems of self-propelled particles subject to alignment interaction and attraction-repulsion. We focus on the kinetic model considered in [18, 17] where alignment is taken into account in addition of an attraction-repulsion interaction potential. We apply a discontinuous Galerkin method for the free transport and non-local drift velocity together with a spectral method for the velocity variable. Then, we analyse consistency and stability of the semi-discrete scheme. We propose several numerical experiments which provide a solid validation of the method and its underlying concepts.
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    Cromwell's rule (also known as the zero priors paradox) refers to the constraint of classical probability theory that if one assigns a prior probability of 0 or 1 to a hypothesis, then the posterior has to be 0 or 1 as well (this is a straightforward implication of how Bayes's rule works). Relatedly, hypotheses with a very low prior cannot be updated to have a very high posterior without a tremendous amount of new evidence to support them (or to make other possibilities highly improbable). Cromwell's rule appears at odds with our intuition of how humans update probabilities. In this work, we report two simple decision making experiments, which seem to be inconsistent with Cromwell's rule. Quantum probability theory, the rules for how to assign probabilities from the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, provides an alternative framework for probabilistic inference. An advantage of quantum probability theory is that it is not subject to Cromwell's rule and it can accommodate changes from zero or very small priors to significant posteriors. We outline a model of decision making, based on quantum theory, which can accommodate the changes from priors to posteriors, observed in our experiments.
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    The complex phase present in CP-violating systems such as neutral kaons is shown to be of geometrical origin. It is also concluded that the complex phase of the Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa (CKM) matrix is a Berry-like phase.
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    Inspired by Katok's examples of Finsler metrics with a small number of closed geodesics, we present two results on Reeb flows with finitely many periodic orbits. The first result is concerned with a contact-geometric description of magnetic flows on the 2-sphere found recently by Benedetti. We give a simple interpretation of that work in terms of a quaternionic symmetry. In the second part, we use Hamiltonian circle actions on symplectic manifolds and a surgery construction due to Laudenbach to produce compact, connected contact manifolds in dimension at least five with any prescribed number of Reeb orbits above a bound depending on the dimension. This contrasts sharply with recent work by Cristofaro-Gardiner, Hutchings and Pomerleano on Reeb flows in dimension three.
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    In this paper, a sixth order energy-conserved method is proposed for solving the three-dimensional time-domain Maxwell's equations. Based on the method of lines, the spatial derivatives of the Maxwell's equations are approximated with the aid of Fourier pseudo-spectral methods. The resulting ordinary differential equations can be cast as a canonical Hamiltonian system. Then, a fully-discretized scheme is generated via utilizing a sixth order average vector field method to discretize the Hamiltonian system. The proposed scheme is unconditionally stable, non-dissipative and preserves the five discrete energy conservation laws, the momentum conservation law and the symplecticity. The rigorous error estimate is established based on the energy method, which show that the proposed method is of sixth order accuracy in time and spectral accuracy in space in the discrete $L^{2}$-norm. The error estimate is optimal, and especially the constant in the error estimate is proved to be only $O(T)$. Furthermore, the proposed scheme can preserve the discrete divergence exactly and its numerical dispersion relation is also investigated in detail. Finally, a fast solver is applied to solve the discrete linear system. Numerical results further verify our theoretical analysis.
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    After more than a decade of extensive research on the magnetic order triggered by lattice defects in a wide range of nominally non-magnetic materials, we report its application in a spintronic device. This device is based on a spin-filter phenomenon we discovered at the interfaces between defect-induced magnetic and non-magnetic regions, produced at the surface of a Li doped ZnO microwire by low-energy proton implantation. Positive magnetoresistance is observed at 300~K and scales with the number of interfaces introduced along the wire.
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    In this paper we affirm Brück conjecture provided $f$ is of hyper-order less than one by studying the infinite hyper-order of solutions of a complex differential equation.
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    Skyrmions are localized, topologically non-trivial spin structures which have raised high hopes for future spintronic applications. A key issue is skyrmion stability with respect to annihilation into the ferromagnetic state. Energy barriers for this collapse have been calculated taking only nearest neighbor exchange interactions into account. Here, we demonstrate that exchange interactions beyond nearest neighbors can be essential to describe stability of skyrmionic spin structures. We focus on the prototypical film system Pd/Fe/Ir(111) and demonstrate that an effective nearest-neighbor exchange or micromagnetic model can only account for equilibrium properties such as the skyrmion profile or the zero temperature phase diagram. However, energy barriers and critical fields of skyrmion collapse as well as skyrmion lifetimes are drastically underestimated since the energy of the transition state cannot be accurately described. Antiskyrmions are not even metastable. Our work shows that frustration of exchange interactions is a route towards enhanced skyrmion stability even in systems with a ferromagnetic ground state.
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    In this note we discuss two aspects of screw dislocations dynamics: their behavior near the boundary and a way to confine them inside the material. In the former case, we obtain analytical results on the estimates of collision times (one dislocation with the boundary and two dislocations with opposite Burgers vectors with each other); numerical evidence is also provided. In the latter, we obtain analytical results stating that, under imposing a certain type of boundary conditions, it is energetically favorable for dislocations to remain confined inside the domain.
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    We propose an alternative analytical expression for the density of states of a clean graphene in the nearest-neighbor approximation. In contrast to the previously known expression it can be written as a single formula valid for the whole energy range. The correspondence with the previously known expression is shown and the limiting cases are analyzed.
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    We prove distance bounds for graphs possessing positive Bakry-Émery curvature apart from an exceptional set, where the curvature is allowed to be non-positive. If the set of non-positively curved vertices is finite, then the graph admits an explicit upper bound for the diameter. Otherwise, the graph is a subset of the tubular neighborhood with an explicit radius around the non-positively curved vertices. Those results seem to be the first assuming non-constant Bakry-Émery curvature assumptions on graphs.
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    In this paper we mainly investigate the radial distribution of Julia set of derivatives of entire solutions of some complex linear differential equations. Under certain conditions, we find the lower bound of it which improve some recent results.
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    A compact bilateral single conductor surface wave transmission line (TL) is proposed, converting the quasi-transverse electromagnetic (QTEM) mode of low characteristic impedance slotline into the transverse magnetic (TM) mode of single-conductor TL. The propagation constant of the proposed TL is decided by geometric parameters of the periodic corrugated structure. Compared to conventional transitions between coplanar waveguide (CPW) and single-conductor TLs, such as Goubau line (G-Line) and surface plasmons TL, the proposed structure halves the size and this feature gives important potentials to develop integrated surface wave devices and circuits. The designed structure, sample fabrication and experimental verification are discussed.
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    We propose a convenient orthogonal basis of the Hilbert space for the quantum spin chain associated with the $A^{(2)}_{2}$ algebra (or the Izergin-Korepin model). It is shown that the monodromy-matrix elements acting on this basis take simple forms, which is quite similar as that for the quantum spin chain associated with $A_n$ algebra in the so-called F-basis. As an application of our general results, we present the explicit expressions of the Bethe states in this basis for the Izergin-Korepin model.
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    We define a new family of noncommutative Bell polynomials in the algebra of free quasi-symmetric functions and relate it to the dual immaculate basis of quasi-symmetric functions. We obtain noncommutative versions of Grinberg's results [Canad. J. Math. 69 (2017), 21--53], and interpret them in terms of the tridendriform structure of WQSym. We then present a variant of Rey's self-dual Hopf algebra of set partitions [FPSAC'07, Tianjin] adapted to our noncommutative Bell polynomials and give a complete description of the Bell equivalence classes as linear extensions of explicit posets.
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    We consider the synthesis of distributed implementations for specifications in parameterized temporal logics such as PROMPT-LTL, which extends LTL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. For single process synthesis it is well-established that such parametric extensions do not increase worst-case complexities. For synchronous distributed systems we show that, despite being more powerful, the realizability problem for PROMPT-LTL is not harder than its LTL counterpart. For asynchronous systems we have to express scheduling assumptions and therefore consider an assume-guarantee synthesis problem. As asynchronous distributed synthesis is already undecidable for LTL, we give a semi-decision procedure for the PROMPT-LTL assume-guarantee synthesis problem based on bounded synthesis. Finally, we show that our results extend to the stronger logics PLTL and PLDL.
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    Radio interferometry most commonly involves antennas or antenna arrays of identical design. The identical antenna assumption leads to a convenient and useful mathematical simplification resulting in a scalar problem. An interesting variant to this is a "hybrid" interferometer involving two designs. We encounter this in the characterization of low-frequency antenna/array prototypes using a homogenous low-frequency array telescope such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). In this work, we present an interferometry equation that applies to hybrid antennas. The resulting equation involves vector inner products rather than scalar multiplications. We discuss physical interpretation and useful applications of this concept in the areas of sensitivity measurement and calibration of an antenna/array under test using a compact calibrator source.
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    We study the action of the orthogonal group on the little $n$-disks operads. As an application we provide small models (over the reals) for the framed little $n$-disks operads. It follows in particular that the framed little $n$-disks operads are formal (over the reals) for $n$ even and coformal for all $n$.
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    Cells rely on focal adhesions (FAs) to carry out a variety of important tasks, including motion, environmental sensing, and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Although attaining a fundamental characterization of FAs is a compelling goal, their extensive complexity and small size, which can be below the diffraction limit, have hindered a full understanding. In this study we have used single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) to investigate integrin $\beta$3 and paxillin in rat embryonic fibroblasts growing on two different extracellular matrix-representing substrates (i.e. fibronectin-coated substrates and specifically bio-functionalized nano-patterned substrates). To quantify the substructure of FAs, we developed a method based on expectation maximization of a Gaussian mixture that accounts for localization uncertainty and background. Analysis of our SMLM data indicates that the structures within FAs, characterized as a Gaussian mixture, typically have areas between 0.01 and 1 $\mu$m$^2$, contain 10 to 100 localizations, and can exhibit substantial eccentricity. Our approach based on SMLM opens new avenues for studying structural and functional biology of molecular assemblies that display substantial varieties in size, shape, and density.
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    FRK is an R software package for spatial/spatio-temporal modelling and prediction with large datasets. It facilitates optimal spatial prediction (kriging) on the most commonly used manifolds (in Euclidean space and on the surface of the sphere), for both spatial and spatio-temporal fields. It differs from existing packages for spatial modelling and prediction by avoiding stationary and isotropic covariance and variogram models, instead constructing a spatial random effects (SRE) model on a discretised spatial domain. The discrete element is known as a basic areal unit (BAU), whose introduction in the software leads to several practical advantages. The software can be used to (i) integrate multiple observations with different supports with relative ease; (ii) obtain exact predictions at millions of prediction locations (without conditional simulation); and (iii) distinguish between measurement error and fine-scale variation at the resolution of the BAU, thereby allowing for improved uncertainty quantification when compared to related packages. The temporal component is included by adding another dimension. A key component of the SRE model is the specification of spatial or spatio-temporal basis functions; in the package, they can be generated automatically or by the user. The package also offers automatic BAU construction, an expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm for parameter estimation, and functionality for prediction over any user-specified polygons or BAUs. Use of the package is illustrated on several spatial and spatio-temporal datasets, and it is compared to two extensively used methods in spatial prediction and modelling, namely the package LatticeKrig and the stochastic partial differential equation tools in INLA.
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    We develop a systematic study of Jahn-Teller (JT) models with continuous symmetries by exploring their algebraic properties. The compact symmetric spaces corresponding to JT models carrying a Lie group symmetry are identified, and their invariance properties applied to reduce their multi-branched adiabatic potential energy surface into an orbit space. Each orbit consists of a set of JT distorted molecular structures with equal adiabatic electronic spectrum. Molecular motion may be decomposed into pseudorotational motion and radial. The former preserves the orbit, while the latter maps an orbit into another. The internal space of each orbit may have different dimensionality, depending on the number of degenerate states in their adiabatic electronic spectra. Qualitatively different pseudorotational modes occur in orbits of different types. The general theory is illustrated with a diverse set of examples. Aspects of the abelian and non-abelian Berry phases of JT models with continuous symmetries are also investigated. The relevance of our study for the more common case of JT systems with only discrete point group symmetry, and for generic asymmetric molecular systems with conical intersections involving more than two states is likewise discussed.
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    We present a search for a neutrino signal from dark matter self-annihilations in the Milky Way using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory (IceCube). In 1005 days of data we found no significant excess of neutrinos over the background of neutrinos produced in atmospheric air showers from cosmic ray interactions. We derive upper limits on the velocity averaged product of the dark matter self-annihilation cross section and the relative velocity of the dark matter particles $\langle\sigma_{\text{A}}v\rangle$. Upper limits are set for dark matter particle candidate masses ranging from 10 GeV up to 1 TeV while considering annihilation through multiple channels. This work sets the most stringent limit on a neutrino signal from dark matter with mass between 10 GeV and 100 GeV, with a limit of $1.18\cdot10^{-23}\text{cm}^3\text{s}^{-1}$ for 100 GeV dark matter particles self-annihilating via $\tau^+\tau^-$ to neutrinos (assuming the Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo profile).
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    Let $0<a\leq1, s\in\mathbb{C}$, and $\zeta(s,a)$ be the Hurwitz zeta-function. Recently, T.~Nakamura showed that $\zeta(\sigma,a)$ does not vanish for any $0<\sigma<1$ if and only if $1/2\leq a \leq1$. In this paper, we show that $\zeta(\sigma,a)$ has precisely one zero in the interval $(0,1)$ if $0<a<1/2$. Moreover, we reveal the asymptotic behavior of this unique zero with respect to $a$.
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    We build a single vertical straight magnetic fluxtube spanning the solar photosphere and the transition region which does not expand with height. We assume that the fluxtube containing twisted magnetic fields is in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. Incorporating specific forms of current density and gas pressure in the Grad--Shafranov equation, we solve the magnetic flux function, and find it to be separable with a Coulomb wave function in radial direction while the vertical part of the solution decreases exponentially. We employ improved fluxtube boundary conditions and take a realistic ambient external pressure for the photosphere to transition region, to derive a family of solutions for reasonable values of the fluxtube radius and magnetic field strength at the base of the axis that are the free parameters in our model. We find that our model estimates are consistent with the magnetic field strength and the radii of Magnetic bright points (MBPs) as estimated from observations. We also derive thermodynamic quantities inside the fluxtube.
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    We examine the effects of a global magnetic field and outflow on radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) in the presence of magnetic resistivity. We find a self-similar solutions for the height integrated equations that govern the behavior of the flow. We use the mixing length mechanism for studying the convection parameter. We adopt a radius dependent mass accretion rate as $\dot{M}=\dot{M}_{out}{(\frac{r}{r_{out}})^{s}}$ with $s> 0$ to investigate the influence of outflow on the structure of inflow where $s$ is a constant and indication the effect of wind. Also, we have studied the radiation spectrum and temperature of CDAFs. The thermal bermsstrahlung emission as a radiation mechanism is taken into account for calculating the spectra emitted by the CDAFs. The energy that powers bremsstrahlung emission at large radii is provided by convective transport from small radii and viscous and resistivity dissipation. Our results indicate that the disc rotates slower and accretes faster, it becomes hotter and thicker for stronger wind. By increasing all component of magnetic field, the disc rotates faster and accretes slower while it becomes hotter and thicker. We show that the outflow parameter and all component of magnetic field have the same effects on the luminosity of the disc. We compare the dynamical structure of the disc in two different solutions (with and without resistivity parameter). We show that only the radial infall velocity and the surface density could changed by resistivity parameter obviously. Increasing the effect of wind increases the disc's temperature and luminosity of the disc. The effect of magnetic field is similar to the effect of wind in the disc's temperature and luminosity of the disc, but the influence of resistivity on the observational properties is not evident.
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    Experiment and theory indicate that UPt3 is a topological superconductor in an odd-parity state, based in part from temperature independence of the NMR Knight shift. However, quasiparticle spin-flip scattering near a surface, where the Knight shift is measured, might be responsible. We use polarized neutron scattering to measure the bulk susceptibility with H||c, finding consistency with the Knight shift but inconsistent with theory for this field orientation. We infer that neither spin susceptibility nor Knight shift are a reliable indication of odd-parity.
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    We consider the (barotropic) Euler system describing the motion of a compressible inviscid fluid driven by a stochastic forcing. Adapting the method of convex integration we show that the initial value problem is ill-posed in the class of weak (distributional) solutions. Specifically, we find a sequence $\tau_M \to \infty$ of positive stopping times for which the Euler system admits infinitely many solutions originating from the same initial data. The solutions are weak in the PDE sense but strong in the probabilistic sense, meaning, they are defined on an \it a priori given stochastic basis and adapted to the driving stochastic process.
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    We describe and demonstrate the use of the R package acebayes to find Bayesian optimal experimental designs. A decision-theoretic approach is adopted, with the optimal design maximising an expected utility. Finding Bayesian optimal designs for realistic problems is challenging, as the expected utility is typically intractable and the design space may be high-dimensional. The package implements the approximate coordinate exchange (ACE) algorithm to optimise (an approximation to) the expected utility via a sequence of conditional one-dimensional optimisation steps. At each step, a Gaussian process regression model is used to approximate, and subsequently optimise, the expected utility as the function of a single design coordinate (the value taken by one controllable variable for one run of the experiment). Functions are provided for both bespoke design problems with user-defined utility functions and for common generalised linear and nonlinear models. The package provides a step-change in the complexity of problems that can be addressed, enabling designs to be found for much larger numbers of variables and runs than previously possible. We illustrate the methodology on four examples of varying complexity where designs are found for the goals of parameter estimation, model selection and prediction.
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    The anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic metals is classified into two based on the mechanism. The first one is the intrinsic Hall effect due to the Berry curvature in momentum space; this is a Hall effect that solely arises from the band structure of solids. On the other hand, another contribution to the Hall effect, so-called extrinsic mechanism, comes from impurity scatterings such as skew scattering and side jump; for the extrinsic mechanism, the spin-orbit interaction of the impurity ions is often required. These two mechanisms are often discussed separately; the intrinsic Hall effect is dominant in the intermediate resistivity region while the latter, i.e., skew scattering, becomes important in the clean limit. In this work, it is shown theoretically that the non-commutative nature of the real-space coordinates in the presence of the Berry curvature causes the skew scattering by the nonmagnetic impurity without relativistic spin-orbit interactions, in sharp contrast to the conventional cases.
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    Social media platforms contain a great wealth of information which provides opportunities for us to explore hidden patterns or unknown correlations, and understand people's satisfaction with what they are discussing. As one showcase, in this paper, we present a system, TwiInsight which explores the insight of Twitter data. Different from other Twitter analysis systems, TwiInsight automatically extracts the popular topics under different categories (e.g., healthcare, food, technology, sports and transport) discussed in Twitter via topic modeling and also identifies the correlated topics across different categories. Additionally, it also discovers the people's opinions on the tweets and topics via the sentiment analysis. The system also employs an intuitive and informative visualization to show the uncovered insight. Furthermore, we also develop and compare six most popular algorithms - three for sentiment analysis and three for topic modeling.
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    We present a formulation for a parton shower at an arbitrary order of perturbation theory, with the aim of indicating how a parton shower can be understood as a systematically improvable approximation, similarly to ordinary perturbative calculations of cross sections. The formalism requires input functions that represent the soft and collinear singularities of QCD at the requisite perturbative order. The structure of the shower is unified with the structure of subtraction terms that remove soft and collinear singularities from a perturbative hard scattering cross section. The formalism is exact in the quantum color and spin variables for the partons. As is the case for lowest order parton showers, approximations would be needed to create a corresponding practical parton shower event generator as computer code.
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    Coded caching schemes on broadcast networks with user caches help to offload traffic from peak times to off-peak times by prefetching information from the server to the receivers during off-peak times and thus serving the users more efficiently during peak times using coded transmissions. We consider the problem of secretive coded caching which was proposed recently, in which a user should not be able to decode any information about any file that the user has not demanded. We propose a new secretive coded caching scheme which has a lower average rate compared to the existing state-of-the-art scheme, for the same memory available at the receivers. The proposed scheme is based on exploiting the presence of common demands between multiple receivers.
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    Recently, sequence-to-sequence model by using encoder-decoder neural network has gained popularity for automatic speech recognition (ASR). The architecture commonly uses an attentional mechanism which allows the model to learn alignments between source speech sequence and target text sequence. Most attentional mechanisms used today is based on a global attention property which requires a computation of a weighted summarization of the whole input sequence generated by encoder states. However, it is computationally expensive and often produces misalignment on the longer input sequence. Furthermore, it does not fit with monotonous or left-to-right nature in speech recognition task. In this paper, we propose a novel attention mechanism that has local and monotonic properties. Various ways to control those properties are also explored. Experimental results demonstrate that encoder-decoder based ASR with local monotonic attention could achieve significant performance improvements and reduce the computational complexity in comparison with the one that used the standard global attention architecture.
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    Warped cones are metric spaces introduced by John Roe from discrete group actions on compact metric spaces to produce interesting examples in coarse geometry. We show that a certain class of warped cones $\mathcal{O}_\Gamma (M)$ admit a fibred coarse embedding into a $L_p$-space ($1\leq p<\infty$) if and only if the discrete group $\Gamma$ admits a proper affine isometric action on a $L_p$-space. This actually holds for any class of Banach spaces stable under taking Lebesgue-Bochner $L_p$-spaces and ultraproducts, e.g., uniformly convex Banach spaces or Banach spaces with nontrivial type. It follows that the maximal coarse Baum-Connes conjecture and the coarse Novikov conjecture hold for a certain class of warped cones which do not coarsely embed into any $L_p$-space for any $1\leq p<\infty$.
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    To sum up, we show in the present paper that magnetic response in Nb$_2$O$_2$F$_3$ at the high-temperatures ($T>$90 K) is related to the orbital selective regime, when part of the electrons form molecular orbitals while other electrons have local magnetic moments. The charge disproportionation, which occurs at $T\sim$90 K is seen in the GGA calculations, but its degree ($\delta n \sim 0.1$ electron) is far from what one would expect from naive expectations based on the formal ionic valences. The mechanism of the charge ordering is argued to be related with a sizable kinetic energy gain due to formation of two molecular orbitals in short Nb$^{3+}$-Nb$^{3+}$ dimers caused by a strong nonlinearity of the distance dependence on electron hopping. We think that this mechanism of charge ordering, stabilized not by decrease of interaction energy, but rather by the gain in kinetic energy, may be operative in many other systems, especially consisting of structural dimers.
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    In this paper we study the infinitesimal symmetries, Newtonoid vector fields, infinitesimal Noether symmetries and conservation laws of Hamiltonian systems. Using the dynamical covariant derivative and Jacobi endomorphism on the cotangent bundle we find the invariant equations of infinitesimal symmetries and Newtonoid vector fields and prove that the canonical nonlinear connection induced by a regular Hamiltonian can be determined by these symmetries. Finally, an example from optimal control theory is given.
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    The generalized $k$-connectivity $\kappa_{k}(G)$ of a graph $G$, which was introduced by Chartrand et al.(1984) is a generalization of the concept of vertex connectivity. Let $G$ and $H$ be nontrivial connected graphs. Recently, Li et al. gave a lower bound for the generalized $3$-connectivity of the Cartesian product graph $G \square H$ and proposed a conjecture for the case that $H$ is $3$-connected. In this paper, we give two different forms of lower bounds for the generalized $3$-connectivity of Cartesian product graphs. The first lower bound is stronger than theirs, and the second confirms their conjecture.
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    Recent discovery [Nature 534, 241 (2016)] of FeO$_2$, which can be an important ingredient of the Earth's lower mantle and which in particular may serve as an extra source of oxygen and water at the Earth's surface and atmosphere, opens new perspectives for geophysics and geochemistry, but this is also an extremely interesting material from physical point of view. We found that in contrast to naive expectations Fe is nearly 3+ in this material, which strongly affects its magnetic properties and makes it qualitatively different from well known sulfide analogue - FeS$_2$. Doping, which is most likely to occur in the Earth's mantle, makes FeO$_2$ much more magnetic. In addition we show that unique electronic structure places FeO$_2$ "in between" the usual dioxides and peroxides making this system interesting both for physics and solid state chemistry.
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    We establish a stochastic maximum principle for mean-field stochastic differential equations with jumps and corresponding cost functionals, both of whose coefficients involve not only the solution, but also the law of the solution. The control domain does not need to be convex. Our work heavily depends on the derivatives of a stochastic process with respect to a measure as well as the duality method. It is natural that in our case the stochastic maximum principle contains the law of the optimal state process of forward mean-field stochastic system. Compared with the traditional case, both the second-order variational equation and the second-order adjoint equation possess more complex structures, which embody in the presence of the extra mixed second-order derivatives of the coefficients with respect to the measure and the new variable.
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    We introduce a physically motivated theoretical approach to investigate the stochastic dynamics of a particle confined in a periodic potential. The particle motion is described through the Il'in Khasminskii model, which is close to the usual Brownian motion and reduces to it in the overdamped limit. Our approach gives access to the transient and the asymptotic dynamics in all damping regimes, which are difficult to investigate in the usual Brownian model. We show that the crossover from the overdamped to the underdamped regime is associated with the loss of a typical time scale and of a typical length scale, as signaled by the divergence of the probability distribution of a certain dynamical event. In the underdamped regime, normal diffusion coexists with a non Gaussian displacement probability distribution for a long transient, as recently observed in a variety of different systems. We rationalize the microscopic physical processes leading to the non-Gaussian behavior, as well as the timescale to recover the Gaussian statistics. The theoretical results are supported by numerical calculations and are compared to those obtained for the Brownian model.
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    Underprivileged students, especially in primary school, have shown to have less access to educational materials often resulting in general dissatisfaction in the school system and lower academic performance (Saatcioglu and Rury, 2012, p.23). The relationship between family socioeconomic status and student interest in academic endeavors, level of classroom engagement, and participation in extracurricular programs were analyzed. Socioeconomic status was categorized as below poverty level, at or above poverty level, 100 to 199 percent of poverty, and 200 percent of poverty or higher (United States Census Bureau). Student interest, engagement, and persistence were measured as a scalar quantity of three variables: never, sometimes, and often. The participation of students in extracurricular activities was also compared based on the same categories of socioeconomic status. After running the multivariate analysis of variance, it was found that there was a statistically significant variance of student academic prosperity and poverty level.

Recent comments

Noon van der Silk May 23 2017 11:15 UTC

I think this thread has reached it's end.

I've locked further comments, and I hope that the quantum computing community can thoughtfully find an approach to language that is inclusive to all and recognises the diverse background of all researchers, current and future.

I direct your attention t

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Varun Narasimhachar May 23 2017 02:14 UTC

While I would never want to antagonize my peers or to allow myself to assume they were acting irrationally, I do share your concerns to an extent. I worry about the association of social justice and inclusivity with linguistic engineering, virtual lynching, censorship, etc. (the latter phenomena sta

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Aram Harrow May 23 2017 01:30 UTC

I think you are just complaining about issues that arise from living with other people in the same society. If you disagree with their values, well, then some of them might have a negative opinion about you. If you express yourself in an aggressive way, and use words like "lynch" to mean having pe

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Steve Flammia May 23 2017 01:04 UTC

I agree with Noon that the discussion is becoming largely off topic for SciRate, but that it might still be of interest to the community to discuss this. I invite people to post thoughtful and respectful comments over at [my earlier Quantum Pontiff post][1]. Further comments here on SciRate will be

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Noon van der Silk May 23 2017 00:59 UTC

I've moderated a few comments on this post because I believe it has gone past useful discussion, and I'll continue to remove comments that I believe don't add anything of substantial value.

Thanks.

Aram Harrow May 22 2017 23:13 UTC

The problem with your argument is that no one is forcing anyone to say anything, or banning anything.

If the terms really were offensive or exclusionary or had other bad side effects, then it's reasonable to discuss as a community whether to keep them, and possibly decide to stop using them. Ther

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stan May 22 2017 22:53 UTC

Fair enough. At the end of the day I think most of us are concerned with the strength of the result not the particular language used to describe it.

VeteranVandal May 22 2017 22:41 UTC

But how obvious is ancilla? To me it is not even remotely obvious (nor clear as a term, but as the literature used it so much, I see such word in much the same way as I see auxiliary, in fact - now if you want to take offense with auxiliary, what can I say? I won't invent words just to please you).

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VeteranVandal May 22 2017 22:21 UTC

I don't think science can or should avoid the perpetuation of existing "historical unequal social order" by changing the language, as to me it seems that, if you try hard enough you can find problem with anything you want to be offended at - rationalizations are tricky things you can often get carri

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Fernando Brandao May 22 2017 21:37 UTC

I am not sure if the ArXiv is the best venue for this kind of paper/rant. Also, I’m concerned that so much energy is being put into the discussion. As a non-native speaker, I might not get all nuances of the language, but I have a hard time understanding why we should drop a scientific jargon like “

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