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    Compact object mergers are promising candidates for the progenitor system of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using gravitational wave (GW) triggers to identify a merger, any electromagnetic (EM) counterparts from the jet can be used to constrain the dynamics and structure of short GRB jets. GW triggered searches could reveal a hidden population of optical transients associated with the short-lived jets from the merger object. If the population of merger-jets is dominated by low-Lorentz-factors, then a GW triggered search will reveal the on-axis orphan afterglows from these failed GRBs. By considering the EM counterparts from a jet, with or without the prompt GRB, the jet structure and dynamics can be constrained. By modelling the afterglow of various jet structures with viewing angle, we provide observable predictions for the on- and off- axis EM jet counterparts. The predictions provide an indication for the various features expected from the proposed jet structure models.
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    In the distributed function computation problem, dichotomy theorems, initiated by Han-Kobayashi, seek to classify functions by whether the rate regions for function computation improve on the Slepian-Wolf regions or not. In this paper, we develop a general approach to derive converse bounds on the distributed function computation problem. By using this approach, we recover the sufficiency part, i.e. the conditions such that the Slepian-Wolf regions become optimal, of the known dichotomy theorems in the two-terminal distributed computing. Furthermore, we derive an improved sufficient condition on the dichotomy theorem in the multiterminal distributed computing for the class of i.i.d. sources with positivity condition. Finally, we derive the matching sufficient and necessary condition on the dichotomy theorem in the multiterminal distributed computing for the class of smooth sources.
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    We describe an experimental search for deviations from the inverse square law of gravity at the nanometer length scale using neutron scattering from noble gases on a pulsed slow neutron beamline. By measuring the neutron momentum transfer ($q$) dependence of the differential cross section for xenon and helium and comparing to their well-known analytical forms, we place an upper bound on the strength of a new interaction as a function of interaction length $\lambda$ which improves upon previous results in the region $\lambda < 0.1\,$nm, and remains competitive in the larger $\lambda$ region. A pseudoexperimental simulation developed for this experiment and its role in the data analysis described. We conclude with plans for improving sensitivity in the larger $\lambda$ region.
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    If, during the preparation, an external magnetic field is applied upon cooling we say it has been field cooled. A novel mechanism for insulator-metal transition and superconductivity in field-cooled spin-$1/2$ antiferromagnets on bcc lattice is discussed. Applying a magnetic field along the sublattice B magnetization, we change the magnetic and transport properties of the material. There is a critical value $H_{cr1}$. When the magnetic field is below the critical one $H<H_{cr1}$ the prepared material is a spin$-1/2$ antiferromagnetic insulator. When $H>H_{cr1}$ the sublattice A electrons are delocalized and the material is metal. There is a second critical value $H_{cr2}>H_{cr1}$. When $H=H_{cr2}$, it is shown that the Zeeman splitting of the sublattice A electrons is zero and they do not contribute to the magnetization of the system. At this quantum partial order point (QPOP) the sublattice B transversal spin fluctuations (magnons) interact with sublattice A electrons inducing spin anti-parallel \emphp-wave superconductivity which coexists with magnetism. At zero temperature the magnetic moment of sublattice B electrons is maximal. Below the Néel temperature $(T_N)$ the gap is approximately constant with a small increase when the system approaches $T_N$. It abruptly falls down to zero at temperatures above $T_N$.
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    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) burden quantified in low-dose chest CT is a predictor of cardiovascular events. We propose an automatic method for CAC quantification, circumventing intermediate segmentation of CAC. The method determines a bounding box around the heart using a ConvNet for localization. Subsequently, a dedicated ConvNet analyzes axial slices within the bounding boxes to determine CAC quantity by regression. A dataset of 1,546 baseline CT scans was used from the National Lung Screening Trial with manually identified CAC. The method achieved an ICC of 0.98 between manual reference and automatically obtained Agatston scores. Stratification of subjects into five cardiovascular risk categories resulted in an accuracy of 85\% and Cohen's linearly weighted $\kappa$ of 0.90. The results demonstrate that real-time quantification of CAC burden in chest CT without the need for segmentation of CAC is possible.
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    Most rational systems can be described in terms of orthonormal basis functions. This paper considers the reconstruction of a sparse coefficient vector for a rational transfer function under a pair of orthonormal rational function bases and from a limited number of linear frequency-domain measurements. We prove the uncertainty principle concerning pairs of compressible representation of orthonormal rational functions in the infinite dimensional function space. The uniqueness of compressible representation using such pairs is provided as a direct consequence of uncertainty principle. The bound of the number of measurements which guarantees the replacement of 1_0 optimization searching for the unique sparse reconstruction by 1_1 optimization using random sampling on the unit circle with high probability is provided as well.
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    Predicting occurrence of landslides is very significant to avoid or reduce losses in lives and properties. Stability of rock slopes is often dominated by one or more locked patches. The locked patches along a potential slip surface resist failure and accumulate strain energy. Coupling one dimensional renormalization group model with the strain-softening constitutive relation of geo-materials considering the Weibull's distribution, a physical prediction model for slopes with locked patches is established. It is found that the ratio of the strain or displacement at the peak strength point to that at the volume dilation point for a locked patch is exclusively dependent on the Weibull's shape parameter m, and approximately equals to a constant, 1.48. A corresponding accelerating displacement increment (tertiary creep) of slope can be observed from the onset of the volume dilation of the locked patch due to its unsteady cracking. For a slope with multiple locked patches, one can predict its critical instability displacement value according to the accelerating displacement onset and the number of locked patches. The back analysis on two typical cases, i.e., the Yanchihe rockslide and the wedge rockslide, Libby Dam, shows that their evolutionary processes dominated respectively by one and two locked patches follow this model and hence they can be predicted on firm scientific grounds.
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    Spectral Clustering (SC) is a widely used data clustering method which first learns a low-dimensional embedding $U$ of data by computing the eigenvectors of the normalized Laplacian matrix, and then performs k-means on $U^\top$ to get the final clustering result. The Sparse Spectral Clustering (SSC) method extends SC with a sparse regularization on $UU^\top$ by using the block diagonal structure prior of $UU^\top$ in the ideal case. However, encouraging $UU^\top$ to be sparse leads to a heavily nonconvex problem which is challenging to solve and the work (Lu, Yan, and Lin 2016) proposes a convex relaxation in the pursuit of this aim indirectly. However, the convex relaxation generally leads to a loose approximation and the quality of the solution is not clear. This work instead considers to solve the nonconvex formulation of SSC which directly encourages $UU^\top$ to be sparse. We propose an efficient Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to solve the nonconvex SSC and provide the convergence guarantee. In particular, we prove that the sequences generated by ADMM always exist a limit point and any limit point is a stationary point. Our analysis does not impose any assumptions on the iterates and thus is practical. Our proposed ADMM for nonconvex problems allows the stepsize to be increasing but upper bounded, and this makes it very efficient in practice. Experimental analysis on several real data sets verifies the effectiveness of our method.
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    We attempt to provide a mesoscopic treatment of the origin of black hole entropy in (3+1)-dimensional spacetimes. We treat the case of horizons having space-like sections $\Sigma$ which are topological spheres, following Hawking's and the Topological Censorship theorems. We use the injectivity radius of the induced metric on $\Sigma$ to encode the linear dimensions of the elementary cells giving rise to such entropy. We use the topological entropy of $\Sigma$ as the fundamental quantity expressing the complexity of $\Sigma$ on which its entropy depends. We point out the significance, in this context, of the Berger and Croke isoembolic inequalities.
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    Searching spatial data is an important operation for scientific simulations which are performed mostly with periodic boundary conditions. An R-Tree is a well known tree data structure used to contain spatial objects and it is capable of answering to spatial searching queries in an efficient way. In this paper, a novel method to construct an R-Tree considering periodic boundary conditions is presented. Unlike existing methods, the proposed method works without any kind of extra objects or queries. Moreover, because this method reduces the volume of bounding box for each node under the periodic boundary conditions, it is expected to increase the overall efficiency. While the extension of an R-Tree is presented in this work, this method is not only applicable to an R-Tree but also to other data structures that use axis-aligned bounding boxes with periodic boundary conditions. The implementation is available on GitHub.
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    Neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples. This phenomenon poses a threat to their applications in security-sensitive systems. It is thus important to develop effective defending methods to strengthen the robustness of neural networks to adversarial attacks. Many techniques have been proposed, but only a few of them are validated on large datasets like the ImageNet dataset. We propose high-level representation guided denoiser (HGD) as a defense for image classification. HGD uses a U-net structure to capture multi-scale information. It serves as a preprocessing step to remove the adversarial noise from the input, and feeds its output to the target model. To train the HGD, we define the loss function as the difference of the target model's outputs activated by the clean image and denoised image. Compared with the traditional denoiser that imposes loss function at the pixel-level, HGD is better at suppressing the influence of adversarial noise. Compared with ensemble adversarial training which is the state-of-the-art defending method, HGD has three advantages. First, with HGD as a defense, the target model is more robust to either white-box or black-box adversarial attacks. Second, HGD can be trained on a small subset of the images and generalizes well to other images, which makes the training much easier on large-scale datasets. Third, HGD can be transferred to defend models other than the one guiding it. We further validated the proposed method in NIPS adversarial examples dataset and achieved state-of-the-art result.
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    Gaseous rotating razor-thin discs are a testing ground for theories of spiral structure that try to explain appearance and diversity of disc galaxy patterns. These patterns are believed to arise spontaneously under the action of gravitational instability, but calculations of its characteristics in the gas are mostly obscured, presumably due to a difficult outer boundary condition. The paper suggests a new effective method for finding the spiral patterns based on an expansion of small amplitude perturbations over finite radial elements. The final matrix equation is extracted from the original hydrodynamical equations without the use of an approximate theory and has a form of the linear algebraic eigenvalue problem. The method is applied to an exactly solvable model with finite outer boundary and to a galactic disc model.
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    We report measurements of the magnetoresistance in the charge density wave (CDW) state of rare-earth tritellurides, namely TbTe$_3$ and HoTe$_3$. The magnetic field dependence of magnetoresistance exhibits a temperature dependent crossover between a conventional quadratic law at high $T$ and low $B$ and an unusual linear dependence at low $T$ and high $B$. We present a quite general model to explain the linear magnetoresistance taking into account the strong scattering of quasiparticles on CDW fluctuations in the vicinity of "hot spots" of the Fermi surface (FS) where the FS reconstruction is the strongest.
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    A map is a panorama in small scale. In this half-survey, half-research paper we give general results on Ramanujan expansions. We don't include the ocean of results from the literature on the two classes (see Schwarz-Spilker Book, also Lucht's survey for these) of additive and multiplicative functions while we include, say, the two new (not simply connected) lands of finite Ramanujan expansions (see my paper, with Murty & Saha) and of shift-Ramanujan expansions (see my subsequent paper, with Murty) .
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    BlockChain (BC) has attracted tremendous attention due to its immutable nature and the associated security and privacy benefits. BC has the potential to overcome security and privacy challenges of Internet of Things (IoT). However, BC is computationally expensive, has limited scalability and incurs significant bandwidth overheads and delays which are not suited to the IoT context. We propose a tiered Lightweight Scalable BC (LSB) that is optimized for IoT requirements. We explore LSB in a smart home setting as a representative example for broader IoT applications. Low resource devices in a smart home benefit from a centralized manager that establishes shared keys for communication and processes all incoming and outgoing requests. LSB achieves decentralization by forming an overlay network where high resource devices jointly manage a public BC that ensures end-to-end privacy and security. The overlay is organized as distinct clusters to reduce overheads and the cluster heads are responsible for managing the public BC. LSB incorporates several optimizations which include algorithms for lightweight consensus, distributed trust and throughput management. Qualitative arguments demonstrate that LSB is resilient to several security attacks. Extensive simulations show that LSB decreases packet overhead and delay and increases BC scalability compared to relevant baselines.
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    We report on the properties of 11 early B stars observed with gratings on board XMM-Newton and Chandra, thereby doubling the number of B stars analysed at high resolution. The spectra typically appear soft, with temperatures of 0.2--0.6 keV, and moderately bright (log[L_X/L_BOL]~ -7) with lower values for later type stars. In line with previous studies, we also find an absence of circumstellar absorption, negligible line broadening, no line shift, and formation radii in the range 2 - 7 R*. From the X-ray brightnesses, we derived the hot mass-loss rate for each of our targets and compared these values to predictions or values derived in the optical domain: in some cases, the hot fraction of the wind can be non-negligible. The derived X-ray abundances were compared to values obtained from the optical data, with a fair agreement found between them. Finally, half of the sample presents temporal variations, either in the long-term, short-term, or both. In particular, HD44743 is found to be the second example of an X-ray pulsator, and we detect a flare-like activity in the binary HD79351, which also displays a high-energy tail and one of the brightest X-ray emissions in the sample.
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    The measurements of the Hubble constant reveal a tension between high-redshift (CMB) and low-redshift (distance ladder) constraints. So far neither observational systematics nor new physics has been successfully implemented to explain this tension away. This paper present a new solution to the Hubble constant problem. It uses a relativistic simulation of the large scale structure of the Universe (the Simsilun simulation) together with the ray-tracing algorithm. The Simsilun simulation allows for relativistic and nonlinear evolution of cosmic structures, which results with a phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature, where the spatial curvature evolves from spatial flatness of the early universe towards slightly curved present-day universe. This phenomenon speeds up the expansion rate compared to the spatially flat $\Lambda$CDM model. The results of the ray-tracing analysis show that the universe which starts with initial conditions consistent with the Planck constraints should have the Hubble constant $H_0 = 72.5 \pm 2.1$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. If the relativistic corrections are not included then the results of the simulation and ray-tracing point towards $H_0 = 68.1 \pm 2.0$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. Thus, the inclusion of relativistic effects that lead to emergence of the spatial curvature can explain why the low-redshift measurements favour higher values compared to high-redshift constraints and alleviate the tension between the CMB and distance ladder measurements of the Hubble constant.
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    Mixed modes have been extensively observed in post-main-sequence stars by the Kepler and CoRoT space missions. The mixture of the p and g modes can be measured by the dimensionless coefficient $q$, the so-called coupling strength factor. In this paper we discuss the utility of the phase shifts $\theta$ from the eigenvalue condition for mixed modes as a tool to characterize dipolar mixed modes from the theoretical as well as the practical point of view. Unlike the coupling strength, whose variation in a given star is very small over the relevant frequency range, the phase shifts vary significantly for different modes. The analysis in terms of $\theta$ can also provide a better understanding of the pressure and gravity radial order for a given mixed mode. Observed frequencies of the Kepler red-giant star KIC 3744043 are used to test the method. The results are very promising.
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    Here we show that deciding whether two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa permit a cherry-picking sequence, a special type of elimination order on the taxa, is NP-complete. This improves on an earlier result which proved hardness for eight or more trees. Via a known equivalence between cherry-picking sequences and temporal phylogenetic networks, our result proves that it is NP-complete to determine the existence of a temporal phylogenetic network that contains topological embeddings of both trees. The hardness result also greatly strengthens previous inapproximability results for the minimum temporal-hybridization number problem. This is the optimization version of the problem where we wish to construct a temporal phylogenetic network that topologically embeds two given rooted binary phylogenetic trees and that has a minimum number of indegree-2 nodes, which represent events such as hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. We end on a positive note, pointing out that fixed parameter tractability results in this area are likely to ensure the continued relevance of the temporal phylogenetic network model.
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    Variable selection in high dimensional cancer genomic studies has become very popular in the past decade, due to the interest in discovering significant genes pertinent to a specific cancer type. Censored survival data is the main data structure in such studies and performing variable selection for such data type requires certain methodology. With recent developments in computational power, Bayesian methods have become more attractive in the context of variable selection. In this article we introduce a new Bayesian variable selection approach that exploits a mixture of a point mass at zero and an inverse moment prior which is a non-local prior density on the Cox proportional hazard model coefficients. Our method utilizes parallel computing structure and takes advantage of a stochastic search based method to explore the model space and to circumvent the computationally expensive MCMC procedure. It then reports highest posterior probability model, median probability model and posterior inclusion probability for each covariate in the design matrix. Bayesian model averaging is also exploited for predictive power measurements. The proposed algorithm provides improved performance in identifying true models by reducing estimation and prediction error in simulation studies as well as real genomic datasets. This algorithm is implemented in an R package named BVSNLP.
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    We consider a class of fourth order uniformly elliptic operators in planar Euclidean domains and study the associated heat kernel. For operators with $L^{\infty}$ coefficients we obtain Gaussian estimates with best constants, while for operators with constant coefficients we obtain short time asymptotic estimates. The novelty of this work is that we do not assume that the associated symbol is strongly convex. The short time asymptotics reveal a behavior which is qualitatively different from that of the strongly convex case.
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    By resorting to the vector space structure of finite games, skew-symmetric games (SSGs) are proposed and investigated as a natural subspace of finite games. First of all, for two player games, it is shown that the skew-symmetric games form an orthogonal complement of the symmetric games. Then for a general SSG its linear representation is given, which can be used to verify whether a finite game is skew-symmetric. Furthermore, some properties of SSGs are also obtained in the light of its vector subspace structure. Finally, a symmetry-based decomposition of finite games is proposed, which consists of three mutually orthogonal subspaces: symmetric subspace, skew-symmetric subspace and asymmetric subspace. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate this decomposition.
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    We propose a minimal extension of the standard model with U(1)_B-L \times Z_2 symmetry. In this model by assuming that the neutrinos are Dirac (\it i.e. $B-L$ is an exact symmetry), we found a simultaneous solution for non zero neutrino masses and dark matter content of the universe. The observed baryon asymmetry of the universe is also explained using Dirac Leptogenesis, which is assisted by a dark sector, gauged under a U(1)_D symmetry. The latter symmetry of the dark sector is broken at a TeV scale and thereby giving mass to a neutral gauge boson Z_D. The standard model Z-boson mixes with the gauge boson Z_D at one loop level and thus paves a way to detect the dark matter through spin independent elastic scattering at terrestrial laboratories.
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    Let $\mathcal{V}_p(\lambda)$ be the collection of all functions $f$ defined in the unit disc $\ID$ having a simple pole at $z=p$ where $0<p<1$ and analytic in $\ID\setminus\{p\}$ with $f(0)=0=f'(0)-1$ and satisfying the differential inequality $|(z/f(z))^2 f'(z)-1|< \lambda $ for $z\in \ID$, $0<\lambda\leq 1$. Each $f\in\mathcal{V}_p(\lambda)$ has the following Taylor expansion: $$ f(z)=z+\sum_n=2^∞a_n(f) z^n, \quad |z|<p. $$ In \citeBF-3, we conjectured that $$ |a_n(f)|≤\frac1-(\lambda p^2)^np^n-1(1-\lambda p^2)\quad \mboxfor\quad n\geq3. $$ In the present article, we first obtain a representation formula for functions in the class $\mathcal{V}_p(\lambda)$. Using this representation, we prove the aforementioned conjecture for $n=3,4,5$ whenever $p$ belongs to certain subintervals of $(0,1)$. Also we determine non sharp bounds for $|a_n(f)|,\,n\geq 3$ and for $|a_{n+1}(f)-a_n(f)/p|,\,n\geq 2$.
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    The nanoinstability of single crystal Si nanowire under focused electron beam irradiation was in-situ investigated at room temperature by transmission electron microscopy technique. It was observed that the Si nanowire amorphized preferentially from the surface towards the center with the increasing of electron dose. In contrast, in the center of the Si nanowire the amorphization seemed non-uniform and much more difficult accompanying with rotation of crystal grains and compression of d-spacing. Such a selectively preferential amorphization as athermally induced by the electron beam irradiation can be well accounted for by our proposed concepts of nanocurvature effect and energetic beam-induced athermal activation effect, while the classical knock-on mechanism and the electron beam heating effect seem inadequate to explain these processes. Furthermore, the findings revealed the difference of amorphization between Si nanowire and Si film under focused electron beam irradiation. Also, the findings have important implications for nanostability and nanoprocessing of future Si nanowire-based devices.
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    We study the $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(2S)$K, $\eta_{c}(2S)$K, $\psi(3770)$K decays with perturbative QCD approach (pQCD) based on $k_T$ factorization. The new orbitally excited charmonium distribution amplitudes $\psi(1^{3}D_{1})$ based on the Schrödinger wave function of the $n=1$, $l=2$ state for the harmonic-oscillator potential are employed. By using the corresponding distribution amplitudes, we calculate the branching ratio of $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(2S)$K, $\eta_{c}(2S)$K, $\psi(3770)$K decays and the form factors $A^{B_{c}\rightarrow\psi(1^{3}D_{1})}_{0,1,2}$ and $V^{B_{c}\rightarrow\psi(1^{3}D_{1})}$ for the $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(1^{3}D_{1})$ transition. We obtain the branching ratio of $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(2S)$K is at the order of $10^{-5}$ and $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\eta_{c}(2S)$K at $10^{-4}$. The effect of two sets of the S-D mixing angle $\theta=-12^{\circ}$ and $\theta=27^{\circ}$ for the decay $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(3770)$K are studied firstly in this paper. Our calculations show that the branching ratio of the decay $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(3770)$K can reach the order of $10^{-6}$, which can be tested by the running LHC-b experiments.
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    To describe quantal collective phenomena, it is useful to requantize the time-dependent mean-field dynamics. We study the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory for the two-level pairing Hamiltonian, and compare results of different quantization methods. The one constructing microscopic wave functions, using the TDHFB trajectories fulfilling the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller quantization condition, turns out to be the most accurate. The method is based on the stationary-phase approximation to the path integral. We also examine the performance of the collective model which assumes that the pairing gap parameter is the collective coordinate. The applicability of the collective model is limited for the nuclear pairing with a small number of single-particle levels, because the pairing gap parameter represents only a half of the pairing collective space.
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    For $1 \le t < \infty ,$ a compact subset $K$ of the complex plane $\mathbb C,$ and a finite positive measure $\mu$ supported on $K,$ $R^t(K, \mu)$ denotes the closure in $L^t (\mu )$ of rational functions with poles off $K.$ The paper examines the boundary values of functions in $R^t(K, \mu)$ for certain compact subset $K$ and extends the work of Aleman, Richter, and Sundberg on nontangential limits for the closure in $L^t (\mu )$ of analytic polynomials (Theorem A and Theorem C in \citears). We show that the Cauchy transform of an annihilating measure has some continuity properties in the sense of capacitary density. This allows us to extend Aleman, Richter, and Sundberg's results for $R^t(K, \mu)$ and provide alternative short proofs of their theorems as special cases.
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    We study topological phases in the hyperbolic plane using noncommutative geometry and T-duality, and show that fractional versions of the quantised indices for integer, spin and anomalous quantum Hall effects can result. Generalising models used in the Euclidean setting, a model for the bulk-boundary correspondence of fractional indices is proposed, guided by the geometry of hyperbolic boundaries.
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    Small wireless cells have the potential to overcome bottlenecks in wireless access through the sharing of spectrum resources. A novel access backhaul network architecture based on a Smart Gateway (Sm-GW) between the small cell base stations, e.g., LTE eNBs, and the conventional backhaul gateways, e.g., LTE Servicing/Packet Gateways (S/P-GWs) has been introduced to address the bottleneck. The Sm-GW flexibly schedules uplink transmissions for the eNBs. Based on software defined networking (SDN) a management mechanism that allows multiple operator to flexibly inter-operate via multiple Sm-GWs with a multitude of small cells has been proposed. This dissertation also comprehensively survey the studies that examine the SDN paradigm in optical networks. Along with the PHY functional split improvements, the performance of Distributed Converged Cable Access Platform (DCCAP) in the cable architectures especially for the Remote-PHY and Remote-MACPHY nodes has been evaluated. In the PHY functional split, in addition to the re-use of infrastructure with a common FFT module for multiple technologies, a novel cross functional split interaction to cache the repetitive QAM symbols across time at the remote node to reduce the transmission rate requirement of the fronthaul link has been proposed.
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    This paper proves that on any tamed closed almost complex four-manifold $(M,J)$ whose dimension of $J$-anti-invariant cohomology is equal to self-dual second Betti number minus one, there exists a new symplectic form compatible with the given almost complex structure $J$. In particular, if the self-dual second Betti number is one, we give an affirmative answer to Donaldson question for tamed closed almost complex four-manifolds that is a conjecture in joint paper of Tosatti, Weinkove and Yau. Our approach is along the lines used by Buchdahl to give a unified proof of the Kodaira conjecture. Thus, our main result gives an affirmative answer to the Kodaira conjecture in symplectic version.
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    An effective field theory approach is presented for evaluation of the dark matter direct detection rate in this lecture note. This is prepared for the Les Houches Summer School Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology, July 2017.
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    Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, EPL (Europhysics Letters) 86, 60007 (2009)]. Our results show that both the velocity- dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and led to a better agreement with the experimental results.
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    Engineering atomic-scale structures allows great manipulation of physical properties and chemical processes for advanced technology. We show that the B atoms deployed at the centers of honeycombs in boron sheets, borophene, behave as nearly perfect electron donors for filling the graphitic $\sigma$ bonding states without forming additional in-plane bonds by first-principles calculations. The dilute electron density distribution owing to the weak bonding surrounding the center atoms provides easier atomic-scale engineering and is highly tunable via in-plane strain, promising for practical applications, such as modulating the extraordinarily high thermal conductance that exceeds the reported value in graphene. The hidden honeycomb bonding structure suggests an unusual energy sequence of core electrons that has been verified by our high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. With the experimental and theoretical evidence, we demonstrate that borophene exhibits a novel bonding structure and is distinctive among two-dimensional materials.
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    In the present work, we study the properties of biological networks by applying analogous notions of fundamental concepts in Riemannian geometry and optimal mass transport to discrete networks described by weighted graphs. Specifically, we employ possible generalizations of the notion of Ricci curvature on Riemannian manifold to discrete spaces in order to infer certain robustness properties of the networks of interest. We compare three possible discrete notions of Ricci curvature (Olivier Ricci curvature, Bakry-Émery Ricci curvature, and Forman Ricci curvature) on some model and biological networks. While the exact relationship of each of the three definitions of curvature to one another is still not known, they do yield similar results on our biological networks of interest. These notions are initially defined on positively weighted graphs; however, Forman-Ricci curvature can also be defined on directed positively weighted networks. We will generalize this notion of directed Forman Ricci curvature on the network to a form that also considers the signs of the directions (e. g., activator and repressor in transcription networks). We call this notion the \emphsigned-control Ricci curvature. Given real biological networks are almost always directed and possess positive and negative controls, the notion of signed-control curvature can elucidate the network-based study of these complex networks. Finally, we compare the results of these notions of Ricci curvature on networks to some known network measures, namely, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficients on graphs.
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    In gated transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), electrons near the K-valleys experience both Ising spin-orbit coupling (SOC) due to the intrinsic noncentrosymmetric lattice symmetry and Rashba SOC due to gating. In this work, we show that the coexistence of Ising and Rashba SOCs leads to a new type of valley Hall effect, which we call spin valley Hall effect. Importantly, near the conduction band edge of TMDs, the valley-dependent Berry curvatures generated by SOCs are highly tunable by external gates and dominate over the intrinsic Berry curvatures originating from orbital degrees of freedom. We show that the spin valley Hall effect can be manifested in the gate dependence of the valley Hall conductivity, which can be detected by Kerr effect experiments.
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    This paper presents a novel method for detecting scene changes from a pair of images with a difference of camera viewpoints using a dense optical flow based change detection network. In the case that camera poses of input images are fixed or known, such as with surveillance and satellite cameras, the pixel correspondence between the images captured at different times can be known. Hence, it is possible to comparatively accurately detect scene changes between the images by modeling the appearance of the scene. On the other hand, in case of cameras mounted on a moving object, such as ground and aerial vehicles, we must consider the spatial correspondence between the images captured at different times. However, it can be difficult to accurately estimate the camera pose or 3D model of a scene, owing to the scene changes or lack of imagery. To solve this problem, we propose a change detection convolutional neural network utilizing dense optical flow between input images to improve the robustness to the difference between camera viewpoints. Our evaluation based on the panoramic change detection dataset shows that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art change detection algorithms.
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    We present the detection of a blackbody component in GRB 160107A emission by using the combined spectral data of the CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) and the MAXI Gas Slit Camera (GSC). The MAXI/GSC detected the emission $\sim$45 s prior to the main burst episode observed by the CGBM. The MAXI/GSC and the CGBM spectrum of this prior emission period is well fit by a blackbody with the temperature of $1.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ keV plus a power-law with the photon index of $-1.6 \pm 0.3$. We discuss the radius to the photospheric emission and the main burst emission based on the observational properties. We stress the importance of the coordinated observations via various instruments collecting the high quality data over a broad energy coverage in order to understand the GRB prompt emission mechanism.
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Recent comments

Danial Dervovic Dec 10 2017 15:25 UTC

Thank you for the insightful observations, Simon.

In response to the first point, there is a very short comment in the Discussion section to this effect. I felt an explicit dependence on $T$ as opposed to the diameter would make the implications of the result more clear. Namely, lifting can mix

...(continued)
Simon Apers Dec 09 2017 07:54 UTC

Thanks for the comment, Simone. A couple of observations:

- We noticed that Danial's result can in fact be proved more directly using the theorem that is used from ([arXiv:1705.08253][1]): by choosing the quantum walk Cesaro average as the goal distribution, it can be attained with a lifted Markov

...(continued)
Simone Severini Dec 07 2017 02:51 UTC

Closely related to

Simon Apers, Alain Sarlette, Francesco Ticozzi, Simulation of Quantum Walks and Fast Mixing with Classical Processes, https://scirate.com/arxiv/1712.01609

In my opinion, lifting is a good opportunity to put on a rigorous footing the relationship between classical and quantu

...(continued)
Mark Everitt Dec 05 2017 07:50 UTC

Thank you for the helpful feedback.

Yes these are 14 pairs of graphs [This is an edit - I previously mistakenly posted that it was 7 pairs] that share the same equal angle slice. We have only just started looking at the properties of these graphs. Thank you for the link - that is a really useful r

...(continued)
Simone Severini Dec 05 2017 01:13 UTC

When looking at matrix spectra as graph invariants, it is easy to see that the spectrum of the adjacency matrix or the Laplacian fails for 4 vertices. Also, the spectrum of the adjacency matrix together with the spectrum of the adjacency matrix of the complement fail for 7 vertices. So, the algorith

...(continued)
Mark Everitt Dec 04 2017 17:52 UTC

Thank you for this - its the sort of feedback we were after.

We have found 14 examples of 8 node graphs (of the possible 12,346) that break our conjecture.

We are looking into this now to get some understanding and see if we can overcome this issue. We will check to see if the failure of our algo

...(continued)
Dave Bacon Dec 02 2017 00:08 UTC

A couple of comments:

1. To be a complete algorithm I think you need to specify how many of the equal angles you need to sample from (i.e. how many Euler angles)? And also maybe what "experimental accuracy means"? If those are exponential in order to work that's bad (but still very interesting

...(continued)
Mark Everitt Nov 29 2017 22:13 UTC

We received some questions from Jalex Stark. To paraphrase, they asked if we could check if our method can discriminate non-isomorphic graphs that are:

1. "quantum isomorphism" as defined in https://arxiv.org/pdf/1611.09837.pdf
2. isospectral
3. fractional isomorphic
4. C3 equivalenlent (

...(continued)
Zoltán Zimborás Nov 17 2017 07:59 UTC

Interesting title for a work on Mourre theory for Floquet Hamiltonians.
I wonder how this slipped through the prereview process in arXiv.

Aram Harrow Nov 07 2017 08:52 UTC

I am not sure, but the title is great.