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- Dec 11 2017 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1712.02986v1Compact object mergers are promising candidates for the progenitor system of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using gravitational wave (GW) triggers to identify a merger, any electromagnetic (EM) counterparts from the jet can be used to constrain the dynamics and structure of short GRB jets. GW triggered searches could reveal a hidden population of optical transients associated with the short-lived jets from the merger object. If the population of merger-jets is dominated by low-Lorentz-factors, then a GW triggered search will reveal the on-axis orphan afterglows from these failed GRBs. By considering the EM counterparts from a jet, with or without the prompt GRB, the jet structure and dynamics can be constrained. By modelling the afterglow of various jet structures with viewing angle, we provide observable predictions for the on- and off- axis EM jet counterparts. The predictions provide an indication for the various features expected from the proposed jet structure models.
- In the distributed function computation problem, dichotomy theorems, initiated by Han-Kobayashi, seek to classify functions by whether the rate regions for function computation improve on the Slepian-Wolf regions or not. In this paper, we develop a general approach to derive converse bounds on the distributed function computation problem. By using this approach, we recover the sufficiency part, i.e. the conditions such that the Slepian-Wolf regions become optimal, of the known dichotomy theorems in the two-terminal distributed computing. Furthermore, we derive an improved sufficient condition on the dichotomy theorem in the multiterminal distributed computing for the class of i.i.d. sources with positivity condition. Finally, we derive the matching sufficient and necessary condition on the dichotomy theorem in the multiterminal distributed computing for the class of smooth sources.
- We describe an experimental search for deviations from the inverse square law of gravity at the nanometer length scale using neutron scattering from noble gases on a pulsed slow neutron beamline. By measuring the neutron momentum transfer ($q$) dependence of the differential cross section for xenon and helium and comparing to their well-known analytical forms, we place an upper bound on the strength of a new interaction as a function of interaction length $\lambda$ which improves upon previous results in the region $\lambda < 0.1\,$nm, and remains competitive in the larger $\lambda$ region. A pseudoexperimental simulation developed for this experiment and its role in the data analysis described. We conclude with plans for improving sensitivity in the larger $\lambda$ region.
- Dec 11 2017 cond-mat.supr-con cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1712.02983v1If, during the preparation, an external magnetic field is applied upon cooling we say it has been field cooled. A novel mechanism for insulator-metal transition and superconductivity in field-cooled spin-$1/2$ antiferromagnets on bcc lattice is discussed. Applying a magnetic field along the sublattice B magnetization, we change the magnetic and transport properties of the material. There is a critical value $H_{cr1}$. When the magnetic field is below the critical one $H<H_{cr1}$ the prepared material is a spin$-1/2$ antiferromagnetic insulator. When $H>H_{cr1}$ the sublattice A electrons are delocalized and the material is metal. There is a second critical value $H_{cr2}>H_{cr1}$. When $H=H_{cr2}$, it is shown that the Zeeman splitting of the sublattice A electrons is zero and they do not contribute to the magnetization of the system. At this quantum partial order point (QPOP) the sublattice B transversal spin fluctuations (magnons) interact with sublattice A electrons inducing spin anti-parallel \emphp-wave superconductivity which coexists with magnetism. At zero temperature the magnetic moment of sublattice B electrons is maximal. Below the Néel temperature $(T_N)$ the gap is approximately constant with a small increase when the system approaches $T_N$. It abruptly falls down to zero at temperatures above $T_N$.
- Dec 11 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1712.02982v1Coronary artery calcium (CAC) burden quantified in low-dose chest CT is a predictor of cardiovascular events. We propose an automatic method for CAC quantification, circumventing intermediate segmentation of CAC. The method determines a bounding box around the heart using a ConvNet for localization. Subsequently, a dedicated ConvNet analyzes axial slices within the bounding boxes to determine CAC quantity by regression. A dataset of 1,546 baseline CT scans was used from the National Lung Screening Trial with manually identified CAC. The method achieved an ICC of 0.98 between manual reference and automatically obtained Agatston scores. Stratification of subjects into five cardiovascular risk categories resulted in an accuracy of 85\% and Cohen's linearly weighted $\kappa$ of 0.90. The results demonstrate that real-time quantification of CAC burden in chest CT without the need for segmentation of CAC is possible.
- Dec 11 2017 eess.SP arXiv:1712.02981v1Most rational systems can be described in terms of orthonormal basis functions. This paper considers the reconstruction of a sparse coefficient vector for a rational transfer function under a pair of orthonormal rational function bases and from a limited number of linear frequency-domain measurements. We prove the uncertainty principle concerning pairs of compressible representation of orthonormal rational functions in the infinite dimensional function space. The uniqueness of compressible representation using such pairs is provided as a direct consequence of uncertainty principle. The bound of the number of measurements which guarantees the replacement of 1_0 optimization searching for the unique sparse reconstruction by 1_1 optimization using random sampling on the unit circle with high probability is provided as well.
- Dec 11 2017 physics.geo-ph arXiv:1712.02980v1Predicting occurrence of landslides is very significant to avoid or reduce losses in lives and properties. Stability of rock slopes is often dominated by one or more locked patches. The locked patches along a potential slip surface resist failure and accumulate strain energy. Coupling one dimensional renormalization group model with the strain-softening constitutive relation of geo-materials considering the Weibull's distribution, a physical prediction model for slopes with locked patches is established. It is found that the ratio of the strain or displacement at the peak strength point to that at the volume dilation point for a locked patch is exclusively dependent on the Weibull's shape parameter m, and approximately equals to a constant, 1.48. A corresponding accelerating displacement increment (tertiary creep) of slope can be observed from the onset of the volume dilation of the locked patch due to its unsteady cracking. For a slope with multiple locked patches, one can predict its critical instability displacement value according to the accelerating displacement onset and the number of locked patches. The back analysis on two typical cases, i.e., the Yanchihe rockslide and the wedge rockslide, Libby Dam, shows that their evolutionary processes dominated respectively by one and two locked patches follow this model and hence they can be predicted on firm scientific grounds.
- Dec 11 2017 cs.LG arXiv:1712.02979v1Spectral Clustering (SC) is a widely used data clustering method which first learns a low-dimensional embedding $U$ of data by computing the eigenvectors of the normalized Laplacian matrix, and then performs k-means on $U^\top$ to get the final clustering result. The Sparse Spectral Clustering (SSC) method extends SC with a sparse regularization on $UU^\top$ by using the block diagonal structure prior of $UU^\top$ in the ideal case. However, encouraging $UU^\top$ to be sparse leads to a heavily nonconvex problem which is challenging to solve and the work (Lu, Yan, and Lin 2016) proposes a convex relaxation in the pursuit of this aim indirectly. However, the convex relaxation generally leads to a loose approximation and the quality of the solution is not clear. This work instead considers to solve the nonconvex formulation of SSC which directly encourages $UU^\top$ to be sparse. We propose an efficient Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to solve the nonconvex SSC and provide the convergence guarantee. In particular, we prove that the sequences generated by ADMM always exist a limit point and any limit point is a stationary point. Our analysis does not impose any assumptions on the iterates and thus is practical. Our proposed ADMM for nonconvex problems allows the stepsize to be increasing but upper bounded, and this makes it very efficient in practice. Experimental analysis on several real data sets verifies the effectiveness of our method.
- We attempt to provide a mesoscopic treatment of the origin of black hole entropy in (3+1)-dimensional spacetimes. We treat the case of horizons having space-like sections $\Sigma$ which are topological spheres, following Hawking's and the Topological Censorship theorems. We use the injectivity radius of the induced metric on $\Sigma$ to encode the linear dimensions of the elementary cells giving rise to such entropy. We use the topological entropy of $\Sigma$ as the fundamental quantity expressing the complexity of $\Sigma$ on which its entropy depends. We point out the significance, in this context, of the Berger and Croke isoembolic inequalities.
- Dec 11 2017 cs.DS arXiv:1712.02977v1Searching spatial data is an important operation for scientific simulations which are performed mostly with periodic boundary conditions. An R-Tree is a well known tree data structure used to contain spatial objects and it is capable of answering to spatial searching queries in an efficient way. In this paper, a novel method to construct an R-Tree considering periodic boundary conditions is presented. Unlike existing methods, the proposed method works without any kind of extra objects or queries. Moreover, because this method reduces the volume of bounding box for each node under the periodic boundary conditions, it is expected to increase the overall efficiency. While the extension of an R-Tree is presented in this work, this method is not only applicable to an R-Tree but also to other data structures that use axis-aligned bounding boxes with periodic boundary conditions. The implementation is available on GitHub.
- Dec 11 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1712.02976v1Neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples. This phenomenon poses a threat to their applications in security-sensitive systems. It is thus important to develop effective defending methods to strengthen the robustness of neural networks to adversarial attacks. Many techniques have been proposed, but only a few of them are validated on large datasets like the ImageNet dataset. We propose high-level representation guided denoiser (HGD) as a defense for image classification. HGD uses a U-net structure to capture multi-scale information. It serves as a preprocessing step to remove the adversarial noise from the input, and feeds its output to the target model. To train the HGD, we define the loss function as the difference of the target model's outputs activated by the clean image and denoised image. Compared with the traditional denoiser that imposes loss function at the pixel-level, HGD is better at suppressing the influence of adversarial noise. Compared with ensemble adversarial training which is the state-of-the-art defending method, HGD has three advantages. First, with HGD as a defense, the target model is more robust to either white-box or black-box adversarial attacks. Second, HGD can be trained on a small subset of the images and generalizes well to other images, which makes the training much easier on large-scale datasets. Third, HGD can be transferred to defend models other than the one guiding it. We further validated the proposed method in NIPS adversarial examples dataset and achieved state-of-the-art result.
- Dec 11 2017 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1712.02972v1Gaseous rotating razor-thin discs are a testing ground for theories of spiral structure that try to explain appearance and diversity of disc galaxy patterns. These patterns are believed to arise spontaneously under the action of gravitational instability, but calculations of its characteristics in the gas are mostly obscured, presumably due to a difficult outer boundary condition. The paper suggests a new effective method for finding the spiral patterns based on an expansion of small amplitude perturbations over finite radial elements. The final matrix equation is extracted from the original hydrodynamical equations without the use of an approximate theory and has a form of the linear algebraic eigenvalue problem. The method is applied to an exactly solvable model with finite outer boundary and to a galactic disc model.
- Dec 11 2017 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1712.02971v1We report measurements of the magnetoresistance in the charge density wave (CDW) state of rare-earth tritellurides, namely TbTe$_3$ and HoTe$_3$. The magnetic field dependence of magnetoresistance exhibits a temperature dependent crossover between a conventional quadratic law at high $T$ and low $B$ and an unusual linear dependence at low $T$ and high $B$. We present a quite general model to explain the linear magnetoresistance taking into account the strong scattering of quasiparticles on CDW fluctuations in the vicinity of "hot spots" of the Fermi surface (FS) where the FS reconstruction is the strongest.
- A map is a panorama in small scale. In this half-survey, half-research paper we give general results on Ramanujan expansions. We don't include the ocean of results from the literature on the two classes (see Schwarz-Spilker Book, also Lucht's survey for these) of additive and multiplicative functions while we include, say, the two new (not simply connected) lands of finite Ramanujan expansions (see my paper, with Murty & Saha) and of shift-Ramanujan expansions (see my subsequent paper, with Murty) .
- Dec 11 2017 cs.CR arXiv:1712.02969v1BlockChain (BC) has attracted tremendous attention due to its immutable nature and the associated security and privacy benefits. BC has the potential to overcome security and privacy challenges of Internet of Things (IoT). However, BC is computationally expensive, has limited scalability and incurs significant bandwidth overheads and delays which are not suited to the IoT context. We propose a tiered Lightweight Scalable BC (LSB) that is optimized for IoT requirements. We explore LSB in a smart home setting as a representative example for broader IoT applications. Low resource devices in a smart home benefit from a centralized manager that establishes shared keys for communication and processes all incoming and outgoing requests. LSB achieves decentralization by forming an overlay network where high resource devices jointly manage a public BC that ensures end-to-end privacy and security. The overlay is organized as distinct clusters to reduce overheads and the cluster heads are responsible for managing the public BC. LSB incorporates several optimizations which include algorithms for lightweight consensus, distributed trust and throughput management. Qualitative arguments demonstrate that LSB is resilient to several security attacks. Extensive simulations show that LSB decreases packet overhead and delay and increases BC scalability compared to relevant baselines.
- Dec 11 2017 astro-ph.SR astro-ph.HE arXiv:1712.02968v1We report on the properties of 11 early B stars observed with gratings on board XMM-Newton and Chandra, thereby doubling the number of B stars analysed at high resolution. The spectra typically appear soft, with temperatures of 0.2--0.6 keV, and moderately bright (log[L_X/L_BOL]~ -7) with lower values for later type stars. In line with previous studies, we also find an absence of circumstellar absorption, negligible line broadening, no line shift, and formation radii in the range 2 - 7 R*. From the X-ray brightnesses, we derived the hot mass-loss rate for each of our targets and compared these values to predictions or values derived in the optical domain: in some cases, the hot fraction of the wind can be non-negligible. The derived X-ray abundances were compared to values obtained from the optical data, with a fair agreement found between them. Finally, half of the sample presents temporal variations, either in the long-term, short-term, or both. In particular, HD44743 is found to be the second example of an X-ray pulsator, and we detect a flare-like activity in the binary HD79351, which also displays a high-energy tail and one of the brightest X-ray emissions in the sample.
- Dec 11 2017 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1712.02967v1The measurements of the Hubble constant reveal a tension between high-redshift (CMB) and low-redshift (distance ladder) constraints. So far neither observational systematics nor new physics has been successfully implemented to explain this tension away. This paper present a new solution to the Hubble constant problem. It uses a relativistic simulation of the large scale structure of the Universe (the Simsilun simulation) together with the ray-tracing algorithm. The Simsilun simulation allows for relativistic and nonlinear evolution of cosmic structures, which results with a phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature, where the spatial curvature evolves from spatial flatness of the early universe towards slightly curved present-day universe. This phenomenon speeds up the expansion rate compared to the spatially flat $\Lambda$CDM model. The results of the ray-tracing analysis show that the universe which starts with initial conditions consistent with the Planck constraints should have the Hubble constant $H_0 = 72.5 \pm 2.1$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. If the relativistic corrections are not included then the results of the simulation and ray-tracing point towards $H_0 = 68.1 \pm 2.0$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. Thus, the inclusion of relativistic effects that lead to emergence of the spatial curvature can explain why the low-redshift measurements favour higher values compared to high-redshift constraints and alleviate the tension between the CMB and distance ladder measurements of the Hubble constant.
- Dec 11 2017 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1712.02966v1Mixed modes have been extensively observed in post-main-sequence stars by the Kepler and CoRoT space missions. The mixture of the p and g modes can be measured by the dimensionless coefficient $q$, the so-called coupling strength factor. In this paper we discuss the utility of the phase shifts $\theta$ from the eigenvalue condition for mixed modes as a tool to characterize dipolar mixed modes from the theoretical as well as the practical point of view. Unlike the coupling strength, whose variation in a given star is very small over the relevant frequency range, the phase shifts vary significantly for different modes. The analysis in terms of $\theta$ can also provide a better understanding of the pressure and gravity radial order for a given mixed mode. Observed frequencies of the Kepler red-giant star KIC 3744043 are used to test the method. The results are very promising.
- Here we show that deciding whether two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa permit a cherry-picking sequence, a special type of elimination order on the taxa, is NP-complete. This improves on an earlier result which proved hardness for eight or more trees. Via a known equivalence between cherry-picking sequences and temporal phylogenetic networks, our result proves that it is NP-complete to determine the existence of a temporal phylogenetic network that contains topological embeddings of both trees. The hardness result also greatly strengthens previous inapproximability results for the minimum temporal-hybridization number problem. This is the optimization version of the problem where we wish to construct a temporal phylogenetic network that topologically embeds two given rooted binary phylogenetic trees and that has a minimum number of indegree-2 nodes, which represent events such as hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. We end on a positive note, pointing out that fixed parameter tractability results in this area are likely to ensure the continued relevance of the temporal phylogenetic network model.
- Variable selection in high dimensional cancer genomic studies has become very popular in the past decade, due to the interest in discovering significant genes pertinent to a specific cancer type. Censored survival data is the main data structure in such studies and performing variable selection for such data type requires certain methodology. With recent developments in computational power, Bayesian methods have become more attractive in the context of variable selection. In this article we introduce a new Bayesian variable selection approach that exploits a mixture of a point mass at zero and an inverse moment prior which is a non-local prior density on the Cox proportional hazard model coefficients. Our method utilizes parallel computing structure and takes advantage of a stochastic search based method to explore the model space and to circumvent the computationally expensive MCMC procedure. It then reports highest posterior probability model, median probability model and posterior inclusion probability for each covariate in the design matrix. Bayesian model averaging is also exploited for predictive power measurements. The proposed algorithm provides improved performance in identifying true models by reducing estimation and prediction error in simulation studies as well as real genomic datasets. This algorithm is implemented in an R package named BVSNLP.
- Dec 11 2017 math.AP arXiv:1712.02963v1We consider a class of fourth order uniformly elliptic operators in planar Euclidean domains and study the associated heat kernel. For operators with $L^{\infty}$ coefficients we obtain Gaussian estimates with best constants, while for operators with constant coefficients we obtain short time asymptotic estimates. The novelty of this work is that we do not assume that the associated symbol is strongly convex. The short time asymptotics reveal a behavior which is qualitatively different from that of the strongly convex case.
- By resorting to the vector space structure of finite games, skew-symmetric games (SSGs) are proposed and investigated as a natural subspace of finite games. First of all, for two player games, it is shown that the skew-symmetric games form an orthogonal complement of the symmetric games. Then for a general SSG its linear representation is given, which can be used to verify whether a finite game is skew-symmetric. Furthermore, some properties of SSGs are also obtained in the light of its vector subspace structure. Finally, a symmetry-based decomposition of finite games is proposed, which consists of three mutually orthogonal subspaces: symmetric subspace, skew-symmetric subspace and asymmetric subspace. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate this decomposition.
- Dec 11 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1712.02960v1We propose a minimal extension of the standard model with U(1)_B-L \times Z_2 symmetry. In this model by assuming that the neutrinos are Dirac (\it i.e. $B-L$ is an exact symmetry), we found a simultaneous solution for non zero neutrino masses and dark matter content of the universe. The observed baryon asymmetry of the universe is also explained using Dirac Leptogenesis, which is assisted by a dark sector, gauged under a U(1)_D symmetry. The latter symmetry of the dark sector is broken at a TeV scale and thereby giving mass to a neutral gauge boson Z_D. The standard model Z-boson mixes with the gauge boson Z_D at one loop level and thus paves a way to detect the dark matter through spin independent elastic scattering at terrestrial laboratories.
- Dec 11 2017 math.CV arXiv:1712.02958v1Let $\mathcal{V}_p(\lambda)$ be the collection of all functions $f$ defined in the unit disc $\ID$ having a simple pole at $z=p$ where $0<p<1$ and analytic in $\ID\setminus\{p\}$ with $f(0)=0=f'(0)-1$ and satisfying the differential inequality $|(z/f(z))^2 f'(z)-1|< \lambda $ for $z\in \ID$, $0<\lambda\leq 1$. Each $f\in\mathcal{V}_p(\lambda)$ has the following Taylor expansion: $$ f(z)=z+\sum_n=2^∞a_n(f) z^n, \quad |z|<p. $$ In \citeBF-3, we conjectured that $$ |a_n(f)|≤\frac1-(\lambda p^2)^np^n-1(1-\lambda p^2)\quad \mboxfor\quad n\geq3. $$ In the present article, we first obtain a representation formula for functions in the class $\mathcal{V}_p(\lambda)$. Using this representation, we prove the aforementioned conjecture for $n=3,4,5$ whenever $p$ belongs to certain subintervals of $(0,1)$. Also we determine non sharp bounds for $|a_n(f)|,\,n\geq 3$ and for $|a_{n+1}(f)-a_n(f)/p|,\,n\geq 2$.
- Dec 11 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1712.02957v1The nanoinstability of single crystal Si nanowire under focused electron beam irradiation was in-situ investigated at room temperature by transmission electron microscopy technique. It was observed that the Si nanowire amorphized preferentially from the surface towards the center with the increasing of electron dose. In contrast, in the center of the Si nanowire the amorphization seemed non-uniform and much more difficult accompanying with rotation of crystal grains and compression of d-spacing. Such a selectively preferential amorphization as athermally induced by the electron beam irradiation can be well accounted for by our proposed concepts of nanocurvature effect and energetic beam-induced athermal activation effect, while the classical knock-on mechanism and the electron beam heating effect seem inadequate to explain these processes. Furthermore, the findings revealed the difference of amorphization between Si nanowire and Si film under focused electron beam irradiation. Also, the findings have important implications for nanostability and nanoprocessing of future Si nanowire-based devices.
- Dec 11 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1712.02955v1We study the $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(2S)$K, $\eta_{c}(2S)$K, $\psi(3770)$K decays with perturbative QCD approach (pQCD) based on $k_T$ factorization. The new orbitally excited charmonium distribution amplitudes $\psi(1^{3}D_{1})$ based on the Schrödinger wave function of the $n=1$, $l=2$ state for the harmonic-oscillator potential are employed. By using the corresponding distribution amplitudes, we calculate the branching ratio of $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(2S)$K, $\eta_{c}(2S)$K, $\psi(3770)$K decays and the form factors $A^{B_{c}\rightarrow\psi(1^{3}D_{1})}_{0,1,2}$ and $V^{B_{c}\rightarrow\psi(1^{3}D_{1})}$ for the $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(1^{3}D_{1})$ transition. We obtain the branching ratio of $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(2S)$K is at the order of $10^{-5}$ and $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\eta_{c}(2S)$K at $10^{-4}$. The effect of two sets of the S-D mixing angle $\theta=-12^{\circ}$ and $\theta=27^{\circ}$ for the decay $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(3770)$K are studied firstly in this paper. Our calculations show that the branching ratio of the decay $B_{c}$$\rightarrow$$\psi(3770)$K can reach the order of $10^{-6}$, which can be tested by the running LHC-b experiments.
- Dec 11 2017 nucl-th arXiv:1712.02954v1To describe quantal collective phenomena, it is useful to requantize the time-dependent mean-field dynamics. We study the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory for the two-level pairing Hamiltonian, and compare results of different quantization methods. The one constructing microscopic wave functions, using the TDHFB trajectories fulfilling the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller quantization condition, turns out to be the most accurate. The method is based on the stationary-phase approximation to the path integral. We also examine the performance of the collective model which assumes that the pairing gap parameter is the collective coordinate. The applicability of the collective model is limited for the nuclear pairing with a small number of single-particle levels, because the pairing gap parameter represents only a half of the pairing collective space.
- Dec 11 2017 math.FA arXiv:1712.02953v1For $1 \le t < \infty ,$ a compact subset $K$ of the complex plane $\mathbb C,$ and a finite positive measure $\mu$ supported on $K,$ $R^t(K, \mu)$ denotes the closure in $L^t (\mu )$ of rational functions with poles off $K.$ The paper examines the boundary values of functions in $R^t(K, \mu)$ for certain compact subset $K$ and extends the work of Aleman, Richter, and Sundberg on nontangential limits for the closure in $L^t (\mu )$ of analytic polynomials (Theorem A and Theorem C in \citears). We show that the Cauchy transform of an annihilating measure has some continuity properties in the sense of capacitary density. This allows us to extend Aleman, Richter, and Sundberg's results for $R^t(K, \mu)$ and provide alternative short proofs of their theorems as special cases.
- We study topological phases in the hyperbolic plane using noncommutative geometry and T-duality, and show that fractional versions of the quantised indices for integer, spin and anomalous quantum Hall effects can result. Generalising models used in the Euclidean setting, a model for the bulk-boundary correspondence of fractional indices is proposed, guided by the geometry of hyperbolic boundaries.
- Dec 11 2017 cs.NI arXiv:1712.02951v1Small wireless cells have the potential to overcome bottlenecks in wireless access through the sharing of spectrum resources. A novel access backhaul network architecture based on a Smart Gateway (Sm-GW) between the small cell base stations, e.g., LTE eNBs, and the conventional backhaul gateways, e.g., LTE Servicing/Packet Gateways (S/P-GWs) has been introduced to address the bottleneck. The Sm-GW flexibly schedules uplink transmissions for the eNBs. Based on software defined networking (SDN) a management mechanism that allows multiple operator to flexibly inter-operate via multiple Sm-GWs with a multitude of small cells has been proposed. This dissertation also comprehensively survey the studies that examine the SDN paradigm in optical networks. Along with the PHY functional split improvements, the performance of Distributed Converged Cable Access Platform (DCCAP) in the cable architectures especially for the Remote-PHY and Remote-MACPHY nodes has been evaluated. In the PHY functional split, in addition to the re-use of infrastructure with a common FFT module for multiple technologies, a novel cross functional split interaction to cache the repetitive QAM symbols across time at the remote node to reduce the transmission rate requirement of the fronthaul link has been proposed.
- Dec 11 2017 math.DG arXiv:1712.02948v1This paper proves that on any tamed closed almost complex four-manifold $(M,J)$ whose dimension of $J$-anti-invariant cohomology is equal to self-dual second Betti number minus one, there exists a new symplectic form compatible with the given almost complex structure $J$. In particular, if the self-dual second Betti number is one, we give an affirmative answer to Donaldson question for tamed closed almost complex four-manifolds that is a conjecture in joint paper of Tosatti, Weinkove and Yau. Our approach is along the lines used by Buchdahl to give a unified proof of the Kodaira conjecture. Thus, our main result gives an affirmative answer to the Kodaira conjecture in symplectic version.
- Dec 11 2017 hep-ph arXiv:1712.02947v1An effective field theory approach is presented for evaluation of the dark matter direct detection rate in this lecture note. This is prepared for the Les Houches Summer School Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology, July 2017.
- Dec 11 2017 physics.flu-dyn arXiv:1712.02946v1Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, EPL (Europhysics Letters) 86, 60007 (2009)]. Our results show that both the velocity- dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and led to a better agreement with the experimental results.
- Chi-Cheng Lee, Baojie Feng, Marie D'angelo, Ryu Yukawa, Ro-Ya Liu, Takahiro Kondo, Hiroshi Kumigashira, Iwao Matsuda, Taisuke OzakiDec 11 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1712.02945v1Engineering atomic-scale structures allows great manipulation of physical properties and chemical processes for advanced technology. We show that the B atoms deployed at the centers of honeycombs in boron sheets, borophene, behave as nearly perfect electron donors for filling the graphitic $\sigma$ bonding states without forming additional in-plane bonds by first-principles calculations. The dilute electron density distribution owing to the weak bonding surrounding the center atoms provides easier atomic-scale engineering and is highly tunable via in-plane strain, promising for practical applications, such as modulating the extraordinarily high thermal conductance that exceeds the reported value in graphene. The hidden honeycomb bonding structure suggests an unusual energy sequence of core electrons that has been verified by our high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. With the experimental and theoretical evidence, we demonstrate that borophene exhibits a novel bonding structure and is distinctive among two-dimensional materials.
- Dec 11 2017 q-bio.MN arXiv:1712.02943v1In the present work, we study the properties of biological networks by applying analogous notions of fundamental concepts in Riemannian geometry and optimal mass transport to discrete networks described by weighted graphs. Specifically, we employ possible generalizations of the notion of Ricci curvature on Riemannian manifold to discrete spaces in order to infer certain robustness properties of the networks of interest. We compare three possible discrete notions of Ricci curvature (Olivier Ricci curvature, Bakry-Émery Ricci curvature, and Forman Ricci curvature) on some model and biological networks. While the exact relationship of each of the three definitions of curvature to one another is still not known, they do yield similar results on our biological networks of interest. These notions are initially defined on positively weighted graphs; however, Forman-Ricci curvature can also be defined on directed positively weighted networks. We will generalize this notion of directed Forman Ricci curvature on the network to a form that also considers the signs of the directions (e. g., activator and repressor in transcription networks). We call this notion the \emphsigned-control Ricci curvature. Given real biological networks are almost always directed and possess positive and negative controls, the notion of signed-control curvature can elucidate the network-based study of these complex networks. Finally, we compare the results of these notions of Ricci curvature on networks to some known network measures, namely, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficients on graphs.
- Dec 11 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1712.02942v1In gated transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), electrons near the K-valleys experience both Ising spin-orbit coupling (SOC) due to the intrinsic noncentrosymmetric lattice symmetry and Rashba SOC due to gating. In this work, we show that the coexistence of Ising and Rashba SOCs leads to a new type of valley Hall effect, which we call spin valley Hall effect. Importantly, near the conduction band edge of TMDs, the valley-dependent Berry curvatures generated by SOCs are highly tunable by external gates and dominate over the intrinsic Berry curvatures originating from orbital degrees of freedom. We show that the spin valley Hall effect can be manifested in the gate dependence of the valley Hall conductivity, which can be detected by Kerr effect experiments.
- Dec 11 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1712.02941v1This paper presents a novel method for detecting scene changes from a pair of images with a difference of camera viewpoints using a dense optical flow based change detection network. In the case that camera poses of input images are fixed or known, such as with surveillance and satellite cameras, the pixel correspondence between the images captured at different times can be known. Hence, it is possible to comparatively accurately detect scene changes between the images by modeling the appearance of the scene. On the other hand, in case of cameras mounted on a moving object, such as ground and aerial vehicles, we must consider the spatial correspondence between the images captured at different times. However, it can be difficult to accurately estimate the camera pose or 3D model of a scene, owing to the scene changes or lack of imagery. To solve this problem, we propose a change detection convolutional neural network utilizing dense optical flow between input images to improve the robustness to the difference between camera viewpoints. Our evaluation based on the panoramic change detection dataset shows that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art change detection algorithms.
- Yuta Kawakubo, Takanori Sakamoto, Satoshi Nakahira, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Motoko Serino, Yoichi Asaoka, M. L. Cherry, Shohei Matsukawa, Masaki Mori, Yujin Nakagawa, Shunsuke Ozawa, A. V. Penacchioni, S. B. Ricciarini, Akira Tezuka, Shoji Torii, Yusuke Yamada, Atsumasa YoshidaDec 11 2017 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1712.02940v1We present the detection of a blackbody component in GRB 160107A emission by using the combined spectral data of the CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) and the MAXI Gas Slit Camera (GSC). The MAXI/GSC detected the emission $\sim$45 s prior to the main burst episode observed by the CGBM. The MAXI/GSC and the CGBM spectrum of this prior emission period is well fit by a blackbody with the temperature of $1.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ keV plus a power-law with the photon index of $-1.6 \pm 0.3$. We discuss the radius to the photospheric emission and the main burst emission based on the observational properties. We stress the importance of the coordinated observations via various instruments collecting the high quality data over a broad energy coverage in order to understand the GRB prompt emission mechanism.
- The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), also known as Wukong in China, launched on December 17, 2015, is a new high energy cosmic ray and \gamma-ray satellite-borne observatory in space. One of the main scientific goals of DAMPE is to observe GeV-TeV high energy \gamma-rays with accurate energy, angular, and time resolution, to indirectly search for dark matter particles and for the study of high energy astrophysics. Due to the comparatively higher fluxes of charged cosmic rays with respect to \gamma-rays, it is challenging to identify \gamma-rays with sufficiently high efficiency minimizing the amount of charged cosmic ray contamination. In this work we present a method to identify \gamma-rays in DAMPE data based on Monte Carlo simulations, using the powerful electromagnetic/hadronic shower discrimination provided by the calorimeter and the veto detection of charged particles provided by the plastic scintillation detector. Monte Carlo simulations show that after this selection the number of electrons and protons that contaminate the selected \gamma-ray events at $\sim10$ GeV amounts to less than 1% of the selected sample. Finally, we use flight data to verify the effectiveness of the method by highlighting known \gamma-ray sources in the sky and by reconstructing preliminary light curves of the Geminga pulsar.
- Dec 11 2017 astro-ph.HE cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1712.02938v1The equilibrium configurations of neutron superfluid vortices interacting with proton superconductor flux tubes in a rotating, harmonic trap are non-trivial in general, when the magnetorotational symmetry is broken. A non-zero angle $\theta$ between the magnetic and rotation axes leads to tangled vorticity due to competition between vortex-vortex repulsion and vortex-flux-tube pinning. Here we investigate the far-from-equilibrium behaviour of the vortices, as the trap decelerates, by solving the time-dependent, stochastic, Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically in three dimensions. The numerical simulations reveal new vortex behaviours. Key geometrical attributes of the evolving vortex tangle are characterised, as is the degree to which pinning impedes the deceleration of the neutron condensate as a function of $\eta$, the pinning strength, and $\theta$. The simulated system is a partial analogue of the outer core of a decelerating neutron star, albeit in a very different parameter regime.
- Dec 11 2017 hep-th arXiv:1712.02936v1We discuss the effective twisted superpotentials of 2d $\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ theories arising upon the reduction of 4d $\mathcal{N}=2$ gauge theories on the $\Omega$-deformed cigar-like geometry. We explain field-theoretic origins of the gaps in the spectrum in the corresponding quantum mechanical (QM) systems. We find local 2d descriptions of the physics near these gaps by resumming the non-perturbative part of the twisted superpotential and discuss arising wall-crossing phenomena. The interpretation of the associated phenomena in the classical Liouville theory and in the scattering of two heavy states in $AdS_3$ gravity is suggested. Some comments concerning a possible interpretation of the band structure in QM in terms of the Schwinger monopole-pair production in 4d are presented.
- Dec 11 2017 astro-ph.GA arXiv:1712.02935v1Galaxies with stellar masses <10^7 Msun and specific star formation rates sSFR>10^-7 yr^-1 were examined on images of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels for Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-02403. They appear as unresolved "Little Blue Dots" (LBDs). They are less massive and have higher sSFR than "blueberries" studied by yang et al. (2017) and higher sSFR than "Blue Nuggets" studied by Tacchella et al.(2016). We divided the LBDs into 3 redshift bins and, for each, stacked the B435, V606, and I814 images convolved to the same stellar point spread function (PSF). Their radii were determined from PSF deconvolution to be ~80 to ~180 pc. The high sSFR suggest that their entire stellar mass has formed in only 1% of the local age of the universe. The sSFRs at similar epochs in local dwarf galaxies are lower by a factor of ~100. Assuming that the star formation rate is epsilon_ff M_gas/t_ff for efficiency epsilon_ff, gas mass M_gas, and free fall time, t_ff, the gas mass and gas-to-star mass ratio are determined. This ratio exceeds 1 for reasonable efficiencies, and is likely to be ~5 even with a high epsilon_ff of 0.1. We consider whether these regions are forming today's globular clusters. With their observed stellar masses, the maximum likely cluster mass is ~10^5 M_sun, but if star formation continues at the current rate for ~10t_ff~50 Myr before feedback and gas exhaustion stop it, then the maximum cluster mass could become ~10^6 M_sun.
- In this paper, we study a layered random access scheme based on non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) to improve the throughput of multichannel ALOHA. At a receiver, successive interference cancellation (SIC) is carried out across layers to remove the signals that are already decoded. A closed- form expression for the total throughput is derived under certain assumptions. It is shown that the transmission rates of layers can be optimized to maximize the total throughput and the proposed scheme can improve the throughput with multiple layers. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal rates can be recursively found using multiple individual one-dimensional optimizations. We also modify the proposed layered random access scheme with contention resolution repetition diversity for reliable transmissions with a delay constraint. It is shown to be possible to have a low outage probability if the number of copies can be optimized, which is desirable for high reliability low latency communications.
- Dec 11 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1712.02933v1We propose to learn a fully-convolutional network model that consists of a Chain of Identity Mapping Modules (CIMM) for image denoising. The CIMM structure possesses two distinctive features that are important for the noise removal task. Firstly, each residual unit employs identity mappings as the skip connections and receives pre-activated input in order to preserve the gradient magnitude propagated in both the forward and backward directions. Secondly, by utilizing dilated kernels for the convolution layers in the residual branch, in other words within an identity mapping module, each neuron in the last convolution layer can observe the full receptive field of the first layer. After being trained on the BSD400 dataset, the proposed network produces remarkably higher numerical accuracy and better visual image quality than the state-of-the-art when being evaluated on conventional benchmark images and the BSD68 dataset.
- Dec 11 2017 physics.comp-ph arXiv:1712.02932v1A flux-splitting method is proposed for the hyperbolic-equation system (HES) of magnetized electron fluids in quasi-neutral plasmas. The numerical fluxes are split into four categories, which are computed by using an upwind method which incorporates a flux-vector splitting (FVS) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM). The method is applied to a test calculation condition of uniformly distributed and angled magnetic lines of force. All of the pseudo-time advancement terms converge monotonically and the conservation laws are strictly satisfied in the steady state. The calculation results are compared with those computed by using the elliptic-parabolic-equation system (EPES) approach using a magnetic-field-aligned mesh (MFAM). Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons yield good agreements of results, indicating that the HES approach with the flux-splitting method attains a high computational accuracy.
- Dec 11 2017 math.NA arXiv:1712.02931v1We begin an investigation of hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) methods for approximating the solution of Dirichlet boundary control problems governed by elliptic PDEs. These problems can involve atypical variational formulations, and often have solutions with low regularity on polyhedral domains. These issues can provide challenges for numerical methods and the associated numerical analysis. We propose an HDG method for a Dirichlet boundary control problem for the Poisson equation, and obtain optimal a priori error estimates for the control. Specifically, under certain assumptions, for a 2D convex polygonal domain we show the control converges at a superlinear rate. We present 2D and 3D numerical experiments to demonstrate our theoretical results.
- Sub-Riemannian cubics are a generalisation of Riemannian cubics to a sub-Riemannian manifold. Cubics are curves which minimise the integral of the norm squared of the covariant acceleration. Sub-Riemannian cubics are cubics which are restricted to move in a horizontal subspace of the tangent space. When the sub-Riemannian manifold is also a Lie group, sub-Riemannian cubics correspond to what we call a sub-Riemannian Lie quadratic in the Lie algebra. The present article studies sub-Riemannian Lie quadratics in the case of $\mathfrak{su}(2)$, focusing on the long term dynamics.
- Dec 11 2017 physics.optics arXiv:1712.02929v1It is quite important to enhance and control the optomechanically induced high-order sideband generation to achieve low-power optical comb and high-sensitivity sensing with an integratable structure. Here we present and analyze a proposal for enhancement and manipulation of optical nonlinearity and high-order sideband generation in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical system that is coherently driven by a bichromatic input field consisting of a control field and a probe field and works beyond the perturbative regime. Our numerical analysis with experimentally achievable parameters confirms that robust high-order sideband generation and typical spectral structures with non-perturbative features can be created even under weak driven fields. The dependence of the high-order sideband generation on the atomic parameters are also discussed in detail, including the decay rate of the atoms and the coupling parameter between the atoms and the cavity field. We show that the cutoff order as well as the amplitude of the higher order sidebands can be well tuned by the atomic coupling strength and the atomic decay rate. The proposed mechanism of enhancing optical nonlinearity is quite general and can be adopted to optomechanical systems with different types of cavity.
- Dec 11 2017 physics.comp-ph arXiv:1712.02928v1A new approach using a hyperbolic-equation system (HES) is proposed to solve for the electron fluids in quasi-neutral plasmas. The HES approach avoids treatments of cross-diffusion terms which cause numerical instabilities in conventional approaches using an elliptic equation (EE). A test calculation reveals that the HES approach can robustly solve problems of strong magnetic confinement by using an upwind method. The computation time of the HES approach is compared with that of the EE approach in terms of the size of the problem and the strength of magnetic confinement. The results indicate that the HES approach can be used to solve problems in a simple structured mesh without increasing computational time compared to the EE approach and that it features fast convergence in conditions of strong magnetic confinement.
- Dec 11 2017 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1712.02927v1We present a general formalism of multipole descriptions under the space-time inversion group. We elucidate that two types of atomic toroidal multipoles, i.e., electric and magnetic, are fundamental pieces to express electronic order parameters in addition to ordinary electric and magnetic multipoles. By deriving quantum-mechanical operators for both toroidal multipoles, we show that electric (magnetic) toroidal multipole higher than dipole (monopole) can become a primary order parameter in a hybridized-orbital system. We also demonstrate emergent cross-correlated couplings between electric, magnetic, and elastic degrees of freedom, such as magneto-electric and magneto(electro)-elastic couplings, under toroidal multipole orders.

For every quantum walk there is a (classical) lifted Markov chain with th...

Danial Dervovic Dec 10 2017 15:25 UTCSimon Apers Dec 09 2017 07:54 UTC

...(continued)Thanks for the comment, Simone. A couple of observations:

- We noticed that Danial's result can in fact be proved more directly using the theorem that is used from ([arXiv:1705.08253][1]): by choosing the quantum walk Cesaro average as the goal distribution, it can be attained with a lifted Markov

Simone Severini Dec 07 2017 02:51 UTC

...(continued)Closely related to

Simon Apers, Alain Sarlette, Francesco Ticozzi, Simulation of Quantum Walks and Fast Mixing with Classical Processes, https://scirate.com/arxiv/1712.01609

In my opinion, lifting is a good opportunity to put on a rigorous footing the relationship between classical and quantu

Mark Everitt Dec 05 2017 07:50 UTC

...(continued)Thank you for the helpful feedback.

Yes these are 14 pairs of graphs [This is an edit - I previously mistakenly posted that it was 7 pairs] that share the same equal angle slice. We have only just started looking at the properties of these graphs. Thank you for the link - that is a really useful r

Simone Severini Dec 05 2017 01:13 UTC

...(continued)When looking at matrix spectra as graph invariants, it is easy to see that the spectrum of the adjacency matrix or the Laplacian fails for 4 vertices. Also, the spectrum of the adjacency matrix together with the spectrum of the adjacency matrix of the complement fail for 7 vertices. So, the algorith

Mark Everitt Dec 04 2017 17:52 UTC

...(continued)Thank you for this - its the sort of feedback we were after.

We have found 14 examples of 8 node graphs (of the possible 12,346) that break our conjecture.

We are looking into this now to get some understanding and see if we can overcome this issue. We will check to see if the failure of our algo

Dave Bacon Dec 02 2017 00:08 UTC

...(continued)A couple of comments:

1. To be a complete algorithm I think you need to specify how many of the equal angles you need to sample from (i.e. how many Euler angles)? And also maybe what "experimental accuracy means"? If those are exponential in order to work that's bad (but still very interesting

Mark Everitt Nov 29 2017 22:13 UTC

...(continued)We received some questions from Jalex Stark. To paraphrase, they asked if we could check if our method can discriminate non-isomorphic graphs that are:

1. "quantum isomorphism" as defined in https://arxiv.org/pdf/1611.09837.pdf

2. isospectral

3. fractional isomorphic

4. C3 equivalenlent (

Zoltán Zimborás Nov 17 2017 07:59 UTC

Interesting title for a work on Mourre theory for Floquet Hamiltonians.

I wonder how this slipped through the prereview process in arXiv.

Aram Harrow Nov 07 2017 08:52 UTC

I am not sure, but the title is great.

- Supported by Silverpond.