Top arXiv papers

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    Although the Gaia catalogue on its own will be a very powerful tool, it is the combination of this high accuracy archive with other archives that will truly open up amazing possibilities for astronomical research. The advanced interoperation of archives is based on cross-matching, leaving the user with the feeling of working with one single data archive. The data retrieval should work not only across data archives but also across wavelength domains. The first step for a seamless data access is the computation of the cross-match between Gaia and external surveys. The matching of astronomical catalogues is a complex and challenging problem both scientifically and technologically (especially when matching large surveys like Gaia). We describe the cross-match algorithm used to pre-compute the match of Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) catalogue with a selected list of large optical and IR surveys publicly available. The overall principles of the adopted cross-match algorithm are outlined. Details are given on the developed algorithm, including the methods to account for position errors, proper motions and environment, to define the neighbours and to define the figure of merit used to select the most probable counterpart. Statistics on the results are also given. The results of the cross-match are part of the official Gaia DR1 release.
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    We study the potential of future lepton colliders to probe violation of the CP symmetry in the top quark sector. In certain extensions of the Standard Model, such as the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM), sizeable anomalous top quark dipole moments can arise, that may be revealed by a precise measurement of top quark pair production. We present results from detailed Monte Carlo studies for the ILC at 500~\GeV and CLIC at 380~\gev and use parton-level simulations to explore the potential of high-energy operation. We find that precise measurements in $e^+e^- \rightarrow t\bar{t}$ production with subsequent decay to lepton plus jets final states can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect Higgs-boson-induced CP violation in a viable two-Higgs-doublet model. The potential of a linear $e^+e^-$ collider to detect CP-violating electric and weak dipole form factors of the top quark exceeds the prospects of the HL-LHC by over an order of magnitude.
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    Temporal modes (TM) are a new basis for storage and retrieval of quantum information in states of light. The full TM manipulation toolkit requires a practical quantum pulse gate (QPG), which is a device that unitarily maps any given TM component of the optical input field onto a different, easily separable subspace or degree of freedom. An ideal QPG must "separate" the selected TM component with unit efficiency, whilst avoiding crosstalk from orthogonal TMs. All attempts at implementing QPGs in pulsed-pump traveling-wave systems have been unable to satisfy both conditions simultaneously. This is due to a known selectivity limit in processes that rely on spatio-temporally local, nonlinear interactions between pulsed modes traveling at independent group velocities. This limit is a consequence of time ordering in the quantum dynamical evolution, which is predicted to be overcome by coherently cascading multiple stages of low-efficiency, but highly TM-discriminatory QPGs. Multi-stage interferometric quantum frequency conversion in nonlinear waveguides was first proposed for precisely this purpose. TM-nonselective cascaded frequency conversion, also called optical Ramsey interferometry, has recently been demonstrated with continuous-wave (CW) fields. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of TM-selective optical Ramsey interferometry and show a significant enhancement in TM selectivity over single-stage schemes.
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    This paper deals with model order selection in context of correlated noise. More precisely, one considers sources embedded in an additive Complex Elliptically Symmetric (CES) noise, with unknown parameters. The main difficultly for estimating the model order lies into the noise correlation, namely the scatter matrix of the corresponding CES distribution. In this work, to tackle that problem, one adopts a two-step approach: first, we develop two different methods based on a Toeplitz-structured model for estimating this unknown scatter matrix and for whitening the correlated noise. Then, we apply Maronna's $M$-estimators on the whitened signal to estimate the covariance matrix of the "decorrelated" signal in order to estimate the model order. The proposed methodology is based both on robust estimation theory as well as large Random Matrix Theory, and original results are derived, proving the efficiency of this methodology. Indeed, the main theoretical contribution is to derive consistent robust estimators for the covariance matrix of the signal-plus-correlated noise in a large dimensional regime and to propose efficient methodology to estimate the rank of signal subspace. Finally, as shown in the analysis, these results show a great improvement compared to the state-of-the-art, on both simulated and real hyperspectral images.
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    We present preliminary results for the masses and decay constants of the $\eta$ and $\eta^\prime$ mesons using CLS $N_f = 2+1$ ensembles. One of the major challenges in these calculations are the large statistical fluctuations due to disconnected quark loops. We tackle these by employing a combination of noise reduction techniques which are tuned to minimize the statistical error at a fixed cost. On the analysis side we carefully assess excited states contributions by using a direct fit approach.
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    In this brief review, the importance of the so called neutrinoless double beta decay transition in the search for physics beyond the Standard Model is emphasized. The expectations for the transition rate are examined in the assumption that ordinary neutrinos have Majorana masses. We stress the relevance of cosmological measurements and discuss the uncertainties implied by nuclear physics.
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    In this thesis, we studied the Topologically Massive Gravity (TMG) in two perspectives. Firstly, by using real scalar and abelian gauge fields, we built the Weyl-invariant extension of TMG which unifies cosmological TMG and Topologically Massive Electrodynamics (TME) with a Proca mass term. Here, we have demonstrated that the presence of (Anti)-de Sitter spaces as the background solution, spontaneously breaks the local Weyl symmetry, whereas the radiative corrections at two-loop level breaks the symmetry in flat vacuum. The breaking of Weyl symmetry fixes all the dimensionful parameters and provides masses to spin-2 and spin-1 particles as in the Higgs mechanism. Secondly, we calculated the tree-level scattering amplitude in the cosmological TMG plus the Fierz-Pauli mass term in (Anti)-de Sitter spaces and accordingly found the relevant weak field potential energies between two covariantly conserved localized point-like spinning sources. We have shown that in addition to spin-spin and mass-mass interactions, there also occurs a mass-spin interaction which is generated by the gravitational Chern-Simons term that changes the initial spin of particles converting them to gravitational anyons. In addition to these works concerning TMG, we have also discussed the issue of local causality in $2+1$ dimensional gravity theories and shown that Einstein's gravity, TMG and the new massive gravity are causal as long as the sign of the Newton's constant is set to negative. We study the causality discussion with the Shapiro time delay method.
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    This paper describes a simple yet novel system for generating a highly viscous microjet. The jet is produced inside a wettable thin tube partially submerged in a liquid. The gas-liquid interface inside the tube, which is initially concave, is kept much deeper than that outside the tube. An impulsive force applied at the bottom of a liquid container leads to significant acceleration of the liquid inside the tube followed by flow-focusing due to the concave interface. The jet generation process can be divided into two parts that occur in different time scales, i.e. the Impact time (impact duration $\le O(10^{-4})$ s) and Focusing time (focusing duration $\gg O(10^{-4})$ s). In Impact time, the liquid accelerates suddenly due to the impact. In Focusing time, the microjet emerges due to flow-focusing. In order to explain the sudden acceleration inside the tube in Impact time, we develop a physical model based on a pressure impulse approach. Numerical simulations confirm the proposed model, indicating that the basic mechanism of the acceleration of the liquid due to the impulsive force is elucidated. Remarkably, the viscous effect is negligible in Impact time. In contrast, in Focusing time, the viscosity plays an important role in the microjet generation. We experimentally and numerically investigate the velocity of microjets with various viscosities. We find that higher viscosities lead to reduction of the jet velocity, which can be described by using Reynolds number (the ratio between the inertia force and the viscous force). This novel device may be a starting point for next-generation technologies, such as high-viscosity inkjet printers including bioprinters and needle-free injection devices for minimally invasive medical treatments.
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    We construct and study the weak solution to stochastic differential equation $dX(t)=-b(X(t))dt+\sqrt{2}dW(t)$, $X_0=x$, for every $x \in \mathbb R^d$, $d \geq 3$, with $b$ in the class of weakly form-bounded vector fields, containing, as proper subclasses, a sub-critical class $[L^d+L^\infty]^d$, as well as critical classes such as weak $L^d$ class, Kato class, Campanato-Morrey class, Chang-Wilson-T. Wolff class.
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    Classical and quantum optical devices rely on the powerful light trapping and transporting architectures offered by nanophotonic systems. These properties derive from the way the optical modes are sculpture by multiple scattering. Here we propose a graph approach to nanophotonics, and a network platform to design of light-matter interaction. We report a photonic network built from recurrent scattering in a mesh of subwavelength waveguides, with Anderson-localized network modes. These modes are designed via the network connectivity and topology and can be modeled by a graph description of Maxwell's equations. The photonic networks sustain random lasing action and exhibit lasing thresholds and optical properties which are determined by the network topology. Photonic network lasers are promising new device architectures for sensitive biosensing and for developing on-chip tunable laser sources for future information processing.
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    Cause-effect relationships are typically evaluated by comparing the outcome responses to binary treatment values, representing cases and controls. However, in certain applications, treatments of interest are continuous and high dimensional. For example, in oncology, the causal relationship between severity of radiation therapy, represented by a high dimensional vector of radiation exposure values at different parts of the body, and side effects is of clinical interest. In such circumstances, a more appropriate strategy for making interpretable causal inferences is to reduce the dimension of the treatment. If individual elements of a high dimensional feature vector weakly affect the outcome, but the overall relationship between the feature vector and the outcome is strong, careless approaches to dimension reduction may not preserve this relationship. The literature on sufficient dimension reduction considers strategies that avoid this issue. Parametric approaches to sufficient dimension reduction in regression problems [6] were generalized to semi-parametric models in [7]. Methods developed for regression problems do not transfer in a straightforward way to causal inference due to complications arising from confounding. In this paper, we use semi-parametric inference theory for structural models [12] to give a general approach to causal sufficient dimension reduction of a high dimensional treatment.
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    We present accurate methods of abundance determination based on the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for carbon, oxygen, calcium, titanium, and iron in the atmospheres of BAF-type stars. For C I-II, O I, Ca I-II, and Ti I-II, their comprehensive model atoms were described in our previous papers. A fairly complete model atom of Fe I-II is first applied in this study. We determine the NLTE abundances of the nine BAF-type stars with well-determined atmospheric parameters, using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectral observations in the broad wavelength range, from the UV to the IR. For C, Ca, Ti, and Fe, NLTE leads to consistent abundances from the lines of the two ionisation stages. The C I, Ca II, and Fe II emission lines were detected in the near IR spectrum of the late B-type subgiant star HD 160762. They are well reproduced in the classical model atmosphere, when applying our NLTE methods.
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    Roughly 40% of the Earth's total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth's radiogenic heating using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors. We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth.
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    We study an optimal control problem on infinite horizon for a controlled stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion, with a discounted reward functional. The equation may have memory or delay effects in the coefficients, both with respect to state and control, and the noise can be degenerate. We prove that the value, i.e. the supremum of the reward functional over all admissible controls, can be represented by the solution of an associated backward stochastic differential equation (BSDE) driven by the Brownian motion and an auxiliary independent Poisson process and having a sign constraint on jumps. In the Markovian case when the coefficients depend only on the present values of the state and the control, we prove that the BSDE can be used to construct the solution, in the sense of viscosity theory, to the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman partial differential equation of elliptic type on the whole space, so that it provides us with a Feynman-Kac representation in this fully nonlinear context. The method of proof consists in showing that the value of the original problem is the same as the value of an auxiliary optimal control problem (called randomized), where the control process is replaced by a fixed pure jump process and maximization is taken over a class of absolutely continuous changes of measures which affect the stochastic intensity of the jump process but leave the law of the driving Brownian motion unchanged.
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    We consider the Banfi-Marchesini-Smye (BMS) equation which resums non-global energy logarithms in the QCD evolution of the energy lost by a pair of jets via soft radiation at large angles. We identify a new physical regime where, besides the energy logarithms, one has to also resum (anti)collinear logarithms. Such a regime occurs when the jets are highly collimated (boosted) and the relative angles between successive soft gluon emissions are strongly increasing. These anti-collinear emissions can violate the correct time-ordering for time-like cascades and result in large radiative corrections enhanced by double collinear logs, making the BMS evolution unstable beyond leading order. We isolate the first such a correction in a recent calculation of the BMS equation to next-to-leading order by Caron-Huot. To overcome this difficulty, we construct a collinearly-improved version of the leading-order BMS equation which resums the double collinear logarithms to all orders. Our construction is inspired by a recent treatment of the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation for the high-energy evolution of a space-like wavefunction, where similar time-ordering issues occur. We show that the conformal mapping relating the leading-order BMS and BK equations correctly predicts the physical time-ordering, but it fails to predict the detailed structure of the collinear improvement.
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    Heat production rates for the geologically important nuclides ${}^{26}$Al, ${}^{40}$K, ${}^{60}$Fe, ${}^{232}$Th, ${}^{235}$U, and ${}^{238}$U are calculated on the basis of recent data on atomic and nuclear properties. The revised data differ by several per cent from some older values, but indicate that more recent analyses converge toward values with an accuracy sufficient for all common geoscience applications, although some possibilities for improvement still remain, especially in the case of ${}^{40}$K and with regard to the determination of half-lives. A Python script is provided for calculating heat production (https://github.com/trg818/radheat).
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    We study the rheology of dense granular flows for frictionless spherocylinders by means of 3D numerical simulations. As in the case of spherical particles, the effective friction $\mu$ is an increasing function of the inertial number $I$, and we systematically investigate the dependence of $\mu$ on the particle aspect ratio $Q$, as well as that of the normal stress differences, the volume fraction and the coordination number. We show in particular that the quasi-static friction coefficient is non-monotonic with $Q$: from the spherical case $Q=1$, it first sharply increases, reaches a maximum around $Q \simeq 1.05$, and then gently decreases, reaching back its initial value for $Q \simeq 2$. We provide a microscopic interpretation for this unexpected behavior through the analysis of the distribution of dissipative contacts around the particles: as compared to spheres, slightly elongated grains enhance contacts in their central cylindrical band, whereas at larger aspect ratios particles tend to align and dissipate by preferential contacts at their hemispherical caps.
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    Given a graph $G$, the unraveled ball of radius $r$ around a vertex $v$ is the ball of radius $r$ around $v$ in the universal cover of $G$. We prove a lower bound on the maximum spectral radius of unraveled balls of a fixed radius, and we explore some of its applications to the problems in the neighborhood of the Alon--Boppana bound. In particular, we show that if the average degree of $G$ after deleting any ball of radius $r$ is at least $d$ then its second largest eigenvalue is at least $2\sqrt{d-1}\cos(\frac{\pi}{r+1})$.
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    The magnetoresistance (MR) for relativistic electrons, i.e., the Dirac electrons in solids, is investigated on the basis of the Boltzmann's theory. The new formula of MR so obtaiend includes a relativistic correction, which has not appeared in the conventional Boltzmann's theories. Our formula is quantitatively consistent with that obtained by the Kubo theory except for the quantum oscillations. While a field dependence of MR is unclear in the formula by Kubo theory, a clear field dependence is obtained in our formula, which is useful for the analysis of experimental results. The effects of the relativistic correction on the MR for the one-band and two-band model are discussed. By taking into account the field dependence of carrier density in semimetals, the linear field dependence of MR is explained by our formula based on the Boltzmann's theory
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    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a computational imaging technique that overcomes the physical space-bandwidth product (SBP) limit of a conventional microscope by applying angular diversity illuminations. In the usual model of FPM, the microscopic system is approximated as being space-invariant with transfer function determined by a complex pupil function of the objective. However, in real experimental conditions, several unexpected "semi-bright and semi-dark" images with strong vignetting effect can be easily observed when the sample is illuminated by the LED within the "transition zone" between bright field and dark field. These imperfect images, apparently, are not coincident with the space-invariant model and could deteriorate the reconstruction quality severely. In this Letter, we examine the impact of this space-invariant approximation on FPM image formation based on rigorous wave optics-based analysis. Our analysis shows that for a practical FPM microscope with a low power objective and a large field of view, the space invariance is destroyed by diffraction at other stops associated with different lens elements to a large extent. A modified version of the space-variant model is derived and discussed. Two simple countermeasures are also presented and experimentally verified to bypass or partially alleviate the vignetting-induced reconstruction artifacts.
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    We perform a comprehensive spectroscopic analysis of four such bright sdO stars, namely Feige 34, Feige 67, AGK$+$81 266, and LS II$+$18 9, among which the first three are used as standard stars for flux calibration. We used non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres in combination with high quality optical and UV spectra. Photometric data were also used to compute the spectroscopic distances of our stars and to characterize the companion responsible for the infrared excess of Feige 34. The four bright sdO stars have very similar atmospheric parameters with Teff between 60 000 and 63 000 K and log g in the range 5.9 to 6.1. This places these objects right on the theoretical post-EHB evolutionary tracks. The UV spectra are dominated by strong iron and nickel lines and suggest abundances that are enriched with respect to those of the Sun by factors of 25 and 60. On the other hand, the lighter elements, C, N, O, Mg, Si, P, and S, are depleted. The stars have very similar abundances, although AGK$+$81 266 shows differences in its light element abundances. For instance, the helium abundance of this object is 10 times lower than that observed in the other three stars. All our stars show UV spectral lines that require additional line broadening that is consistent with a rotational velocity of about 25 km s$^{-1}$. The infrared excess of Feige 34 is well reproduced by a M0 main-sequence companion and the surface area ratio of the two stars suggests that the system is a physical binary. However, the lack of radial velocity variations points towards a low inclination and/or long orbital period. Spectroscopic and Hipparcos distances are in good agreement for our three brightest stars.
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    As part of an ongoing programme to study $\mathrm{Sp}(2N)$ gauge theories as potential realisations of composite Higgs models, we consider the case of $\mathrm{Sp}(4)$ on the lattice, both as a pure gauge theory, and with two Dirac fermion flavors in the fundamental representation. In order to compare results between these two cases and maintain control of lattice artefacts, we make use of the gradient flow to set the scale of the simulations. We present some technical aspects of the simulations, including preliminary results for the scale setting in the two cases and results for the topological charge history.
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    We report the polarization-dependent electromagnetic response from a series of novel terahertz (THz) metasurfaces where asymmetry is introduced through the displacement of two adjacent metallic arms separated by a distance $\delta$. For all polarization states, the symmetric metasurface exhibits a low quality (Q) factor fundamental dipole mode. By breaking the symmetry, we experimentally observe a secondary dipole-like mode with a Q factor nearly $9\times$ higher than the fundamental resonance. As $\delta$ increases, the fundamental dipole mode $f_{1}$ redshifts and the secondary mode $f_{2}$ blueshifts creating a highly transmissive spectral window. Polarization-dependent measurements reveal a full suppression of $f_{2}$ for all asymmetries at $\theta \geq 60^\circ$. Furthermore, at $\delta \geq 60 \text{ }\mu\text{m}$, we observe a polarization selective electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) for the fundamental mode. This work paves the way for applications in filtering, sensing and slow-light devices common to other high Q factor THz metasurfaces with EIT-like response.
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    We present the results of state-of-the-art simulations of recollimation shocks induced by the interaction of a relativistic jet with an external medium, including the effect of radiative losses of the shocked gas. Our simulations confirm that -- as suggested by earlier semi-analytical models -- the post-shock pressure loss induced by radiative losses may lead to a stationary equilibrium state characterized by a very strong focusing of the flow, with the formation of quite narrow nozzles, with cross-sectional radii as small as $10^{-3}$ times the length scale of the jet. We also study the time-dependent evolution of the jet structure induced of a density perturbation injected at the flow base. The set-up and the results of the simulations are particularly relevant for the interpretation of the observed rapid variability of the $\gamma$-ray emission associated to flat spectrum radio quasars. In particular, the combined effects of jet focusing and Doppler beaming of the observed radiation make it possible to explain the sub-hour flaring events such as that observed in the FSRQ PKS 1222+216 by MAGIC.
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    We consider a $\mathcal{C}^3$ family $t\mapsto f_t$ of $\mathcal{C}^4$ Anosov diffeomorphisms on a compact Riemannian manifold $M$. Denoting by $\rho_t$ the SRB measure of $f_t$, we prove that the map $t\mapsto\int \theta d\rho_t$ is differentiable if $\theta$ is of the form $\theta(x)=h(x)\delta(g(x)-a)$, with $\delta$ the Dirac distribution, $g:M\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ a $\mathcal{C}^4$ function, $h:M\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ a $\mathcal{C}^3$ function and $a$ a regular value of $g$. We also require a transversality condition, namely that the intersection of the support of $h$ with the level set $\{g(x)=a\} $ is foliated by 'admissible stable leaves'.
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    Technology is becoming increasingly pervasive. At present, the system components working together to provide functionality, be they purely software or with a physical element, tend to operate within silos, bound to a particular application or usage. This is counter to the wider vision of pervasive computing, where a potentially limitless number of applications can be realised through the dynamic and seamless interactions of system components. We believe this application composition should be externally controlled, driven by policy and subject to access control. We present ComFlux, our open source middleware, and show through a number of designs and implementations, how it supports this functionality with acceptable overhead.
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    We consider systems that start from and/or end in thermodynamic equilibrium while experiencing a finite rate of change of their energy density or of other intensive quantities $q$ at intermediate times. We demonstrate that at these times, during which the global intensive quantities $q$ vary, the size of the associated covariance, the connected pair correlator $|G_{ij}| = |\langle q_{i} q_{j} \rangle - \langle q_{i} \rangle \langle q_{j} \rangle|$, between any two (\it arbitrarily far separated) sites $i$ and $j$ is, on average, finite. This non-vanishing character of the connected correlations for asymptotically distant sites also applies to theories with purely local interactions. In simple models, these correlations may be traced to the generic volume law entanglement of finite temperature states. Once the global mean of $q$ no longer changes, the average of $|G_{ij}|$ over all spatial separations $|i-j|$ may tend to zero. However, when the equilibration times are significant (e.g., as in a glass that is not in true thermodynamic equilibrium yet in which the energy density (or temperature) reaches a final steady state value), these long range correlations may persist also long after $q$ ceases to change. We briefly discuss possible experimental implications of our findings and discuss their potential realization in glasses (where a prediction of a theory based on the effect that we describe here leads to a universal collapse of the viscosity data) and non-Fermi liquids.
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    We present a comprehensive study of Z CVn, an RR Lyrae star that shows long-term cyclic variations of its pulsation period. A possible explanation suggested from the shape of the O-C diagram is the light travel-time effect, which we thoroughly examine. We used original photometric and spectroscopic measurements and investigated the period evolution using available maximum times spanning more than one century. If the binary hypothesis is valid, Z CVn orbits around a black hole with minimal mass of $56.5$ $\mathfrak{M}_{\odot}$ on a very wide ($P_{\rm orbit}=78.3$ years) and eccentric orbit ($e=0.63$). We discuss the probability of a formation of a black hole-RR Lyrae pair and, although we found it possible, there is no observational evidence of the black hole in the direction to Z CVn. However, the main objection against the binary hypothesis is the comparison of the systemic radial velocity curve model and spectroscopic observations that clearly show that Z CVn cannot be bound in such a binary. Therefore, the variations of pulsation period are likely intrinsic to the star. This finding represents a discovery/confirmation of a new type of cyclic period changes in RR Lyrae stars. By the analysis of our photometric data, we found that the Blazhko modulation with period of 22.931 d is strongly dominant in amplitude. The strength of the phase modulation varies and is currently almost undetectable. We also estimated photometric physical parameters of Z CVn and investigated their variations during the Blazhko cycle using the Inverse Baade-Wesselink method.
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    Let $\Gamma^{+}$ be the positive cone of a totally ordered abelian discrete group $\Gamma$, and $\alpha$ an action of $\Gamma^{+}$ by extendible endomorphisms of a $C^*$-algebra $A$. We prove that the partial-isometric crossed product $A\times_{\alpha}^{\textrm{piso}}\Gamma^{+}$ is a full corner of a group crossed product $\mathcal{B}\times_{\beta}\Gamma$, where $\mathcal{B}$ is a subalgebra of $\ell^{\infty}(\Gamma,A)$ generated by a collection of faithful copies of $A$, and the action $\beta$ on $\mathcal{B}$ is induced by shift on $\ell^{\infty}(\Gamma,A)$. We then use this realization to show that $A\times_{\alpha}^{\textrm{piso}}\Gamma^{+}$ has an essential ideal $J$, which is a full corner in an ideal $\mathcal{I}\times_{\beta}\Gamma$ of $\mathcal{B}\times_{\beta}\Gamma$.
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    Superconductivity was recently observed in CrAs as the helimagnetic order is suppressed by applying pressure, suggesting possible unconventional superconductivity. To reveal the nature of the superconducting order parameter of CrAs, here we report the angular dependence of the upper critical field under pressure. Upon rotating the field by 360 degrees in the $bc$-plane, six maxima are observed in the upper critical field, where the oscillations have both six-fold and two-fold symmetric components. Our analysis suggests the presence of an unconventional odd-parity spin triplet state.
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    Using a nondegenerate four-wave mixing process based on a double-$\Lambda$ scheme in hot cesium vapor, we generate quantum correlated twin beams with a maximum intensity-difference squeezing of 6.5 dB. The substantially improved squeezing can be mainly attributed to very good frequency and phase-difference stability between the pump and probe beams in our experiment. Intensity-difference squeezing can be observed within a wide experimental parameter range, which guarantees its robust generation. Since this scheme produces multi-spatial-mode twin beams at the Cs $D_{1}$ line, it is of interest for experiments involving quantum imaging and coherent interfaces between atomic and solid-state systems.
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    The goal of this "Habilitation à diriger des recherches" is to present two different applications, namely computations of certain partition functions in probability and applications to integrable systems, of the topological recursion developed by B. Eynard and N. Orantin in 2007. Since its creation, the range of applications of the topological recursion has been growing and many results in different fields have been obtained. The first aspect that I will develop deals with the historical domain of the topological recursion: random matrix integrals. I will review the formalism of the topological recursion as well as how it can be used to obtain asymptotic $\frac{1}{N}$ series expansion of various matrix integrals. In particular, a key feature of the topological recursion is that it can recover from the leading order of the asymptotic all sub-leading orders with elementary computations. This method is particularly well known and fruitful in the case of hermitian matrix integrals, but I will also show that the general method can be used to cover integrals with hard edges, integrals over unitary matrices and much more. In the end, I will also briefly mention the generalization to $\beta$-ensembles. In a second chapter, I will review the connection between the topological recursion and the study of integrable systems having a Lax pair representation. Most of the results presented there will be illustrated by the case of the famous six Painlevé equations. Though the formalism used in this chapter may look completely disconnected from the previous one, it is well known that the local statistics of eigenvalues in random matrix theory exhibit a universality phenomenon and that the encountered universal systems are precisely driven by some solutions of the Painlevé equations. As I will show, the connection can be made very explicit with the topological recursion formalism.
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    Adopting the geometric description of steering assemblages and local hidden states (LHS) model, we propose a geometric LHS model for some two-qubit states under continuous projective measurements of the steering side. We show that the model is the optimal LHS model for these states, and obtain a sufficient steering criterion for all two-qubit states. Then we demonstrate asymmetric steering using the results we get.
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    In this article, we prove a generalization of a theorem of Lisca-Matic to Stein cobordisms. Using this result along with standard techniques from convex surface theory and classifications of tight contact structures on certain 3-manifolds due to Honda, we then classify the contact structures with no Giroux torsion (most of which are Stein fillable) on a certain class of plumbed 3-manifolds that bound non-simply connected 4-manifolds. Moreover, we give descriptions of the Stein fillings.
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    We prove an Obata-type rigidity result for the spherical cap and apply it for an eigenvalue problem with mixed boundary condition.
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    In this paper we describe the complexity of building a lemmatizer for Arabic which has a rich and complex derivational morphology, and we discuss the need for a fast and accurate lammatization to enhance Arabic Information Retrieval (IR) results. We also introduce a new data set that can be used to test lemmatization accuracy, and an efficient lemmatization algorithm that outperforms state-of-the-art Arabic lemmatization in terms of accuracy and speed. We share the data set and the code for public.
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    In this paper we discuss a family of viscous Cahn-Hilliard equations with a non-smooth viscosity term. This system may be viewed as an approximation of a "forward-backward" parabolic equation. The resulting problem is highly nonlinear, coupling in the same equation two nonlinearities with the diffusion term. In particular, we prove existence of solutions for the related initial and boundary value problem. Under suitable assumptions, we also state uniqueness and continuous dependence on data.
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    When individual particles pass through a double slit, a fringe pattern appears on a screen. If an observer detects the path of the particle, the interference fringes disappear. This is called the quantum decoherence. In this paper, we discuss a parameter estimation problem using the quantum decohenrece in the double-slit experiment. As a simple model, we consider a massive scalar field interacting with the particle which have passed through the double slit. The scalar field, as well as the observer, can induce the loss of the fringe pattern of the particle. Because the interference fringes of the particle depend on the field mass and coupling, we can estimate the field parameters from the fringes. For qualitative analysis, we introduce the interferometric visibility of the fringe pattern and the Fisher information (FI) matrix of the field mass and coupling. Using the fringe pattern observed on the distant screen, we derive a simple relation between the visibility and the FI matrix. Also if we focus on FI of the mass, then we find that FI characterizes the wave-particle duality in the double-slit experiment.
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    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are regarded as the basic building blocks in the formation of larger galaxies and are believed to be the most dark matter dominated systems known in the Universe. There are several models that attempt to explain their formation and evolution, but they have problems to model the formation of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Here, we will explain a possible formation scenario in which star clusters form inside the dark matter halo of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Those star clusters suffer from low star formation efficiency and dissolve while orbiting inside the dark matter halo. Thereby, they build the faint luminous components that we observe in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In this paper we study this model by adding different star formation histories to the simulations to compare the results with our previous work and observational data to show that we can explain the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.
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Recent comments

Siddhartha Das Oct 06 2017 03:18 UTC

Here is a work in related direction: "Unification of Bell, Leggett-Garg and Kochen-Specker inequalities: Hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities", Europhysics Letters 104, 60006 (2013), which may be relevant to the discussions in your paper. [https://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0270]

Bin Shi Oct 05 2017 00:07 UTC

Welcome to give the comments for this paper!

Bassam Helou Sep 22 2017 17:21 UTC

The initial version of the article does not adequately and clearly explain how certain equations demonstrate whether a particular interpretation of QM violates the no-signaling condition.
A revised and improved version is scheduled to appear on September 25.

James Wootton Sep 21 2017 05:41 UTC

What does this imply for https://scirate.com/arxiv/1608.00263? I'm guessing they still regard it as valid (it is ref [14]), but just too hard to implement for now.

Ben Criger Sep 08 2017 08:09 UTC

Oh look, there's another technique for decoding surface codes subject to X/Z correlated errors: https://scirate.com/arxiv/1709.02154

Aram Harrow Sep 06 2017 07:54 UTC

The paper only applies to conformal field theories, and such a result cannot hold for more general 1-D systems by 0705.4077 and other papers (assuming standard complexity theory conjectures).

Felix Leditzky Sep 05 2017 21:27 UTC

Thanks for the clarification, Philippe!

Philippe Faist Sep 05 2017 21:09 UTC

Hi Felix, thanks for the good question.

We've found it more convenient to consider trace-nonincreasing and $\Gamma$-sub-preserving maps (and this is justified by the fact that they can be dilated to fully trace-preserving and $\Gamma$-preserving maps on a larger system). The issue arises because

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