- Sep 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.01837v1Several variants of nonlocal games have been considered in the study of quantum entanglement and nonlocality. This paper concerns two of these variants, called quantum-classical games and extended nonlocal games. We give a construction of an extended nonlocal game from any quantum-classical game that allows one to translate certain facts concerning quantum- classical games to extended nonlocal games. In particular, based on work of Regev and Vidick, we conclude that there exist extended nonlocal games for which no finite-dimensional entangled strategy can be optimal. While this conclusion is a direct consequence of recent work of Slofstra, who proved a stronger, analogous result for ordinary (non-extended) nonlocal games, the proof based on our construction is considerably simpler, and the construction itself might potentially have other applications in the study of entanglement and nonlocality.
- A well-known result of Gottesman and Knill states that Clifford circuits - i.e. circuits composed of only CNOT, Hadamard, and $\pi/4$ phase gates - are efficiently classically simulable. We show that in contrast, "conjugated Clifford circuits" (CCCs) - where one additionally conjugates every qubit by the same one-qubit gate U - can perform hard sampling tasks. In particular, we fully classify the computational power of CCCs by showing that essentially any non-Clifford conjugating unitary U can give rise to sampling tasks which cannot be simulated classically to constant multiplicative error, unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. Furthermore, we show that this hardness result can be extended to allow for the more realistic model of constant additive error, under a plausible complexity-theoretic conjecture.
- Aug 31 2017 physics.hist-ph hep-th arXiv:1708.09093v2While I was dealing with a brain injury and finding it difficult to work, two friends (Derek Westen, a friend of the KITP, and Steve Shenker, with whom I was recently collaborating), suggested that a new direction might be good. Steve in particular regarded me as a good writer and suggested that I try that. I quickly took to Steve's suggestion. Having only two bodies of knowledge, myself and physics, I decided to write an autobiography about my development as a theoretical physicist. This is not written for any particular audience, but just to give myself a goal. It will probably have too much physics for a nontechnical reader, and too little for a physicist, but perhaps there with be different things for each. Parts may be tedious. But it is somewhat unique, I think, a blow-by-blow history of where I started and where I got to. Probably the target audience is theoretical physicists, especially young ones, who may enjoy comparing my struggles with their own. Some disclaimers: This is based on my own memories, jogged by the arXiv and Inspire. There will surely be errors and omissions. And note the title: this is about my memories, which will be different for other people. Also, it would not be possible for me to mention all the authors whose work might intersect mine, so this should not be treated as a reference work.
- Fully-homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables computation on encrypted data while maintaining secrecy. Recent research has shown that such schemes exist even for quantum computation. Given the numerous applications of classical FHE (zero-knowledge proofs, secure two-party computation, obfuscation, etc.) it is reasonable to hope that quantum FHE (or QFHE) will lead to many new results in the quantum setting. However, a crucial ingredient in almost all applications of FHE is circuit verification. Classically, verification is performed by checking a transcript of the homomorphic computation. Quantumly, this strategy is impossible due to no-cloning. This leads to an important open question: can quantum computations be delegated and verified in a non-interactive manner? In this work, we answer this question in the affirmative, by constructing a scheme for QFHE with verification (vQFHE). Our scheme provides authenticated encryption, and enables arbitrary polynomial-time quantum computations without the need of interaction between client and server. Verification is almost entirely classical; for computations that start and end with classical states, it is completely classical. As a first application, we show how to construct quantum one-time programs from classical one-time programs and vQFHE.
- Typically, quantum mechanics is thought of as a linear theory with unitary evolution governed by the SchrÃ¶dinger equation. While this is technically true and useful for a physicist, with regards to computation it is an unfortunately narrow point of view. Just as a classical computer can simulate highly nonlinear functions of classical states, so too can the more general quantum computer simulate nonlinear evolutions of quantum states. We detail one particular simulation of nonlinearity on a quantum computer, showing how the entire class of $\mathbb{R}$-unitary evolutions (on $n$ qubits) can be simulated using a unitary, real-amplitude quantum computer (consisting of $n+1$ qubits in total). These operators can be represented as the sum of a unitary and antiunitary operator, and add an intriguing new set of nonlinear quantum gates to the toolbox of the quantum algorithm designer. Furthermore, a subgroup of these nonlinear evolutions, called the $\mathbb{R}$-Cliffords, can be efficiently classically simulated, by making use of the fact that Clifford operators can simulate non-Clifford (in fact, non-linear) operators. This perspective of using the physical operators that we have to simulate non-physical ones that we do not is what we call bottom-up simulation, and we give some examples of its broader implications.
- Aug 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.07359v1The problem of reliably certifying the outcome of a computation performed by a quantum device is rapidly gaining relevance. We present two protocols for a classical verifier to verifiably delegate a quantum computation to two non-communicating but entangled quantum provers. Our protocols have near-optimal complexity in terms of the total resources employed by the verifier and the honest provers, with the total number of operations of each party, including the number of entangled pairs of qubits required of the honest provers, scaling as $O(g\log g)$ for delegating a circuit of size $g$. This is in contrast to previous protocols, which all require a prohibitively large polynomial overhead. Our first protocol requires a number of rounds that is linear in the depth of the circuit being delegated, and is blind, meaning neither prover can learn the circuit being delegated. The second protocol is not blind, but requires only a constant number of rounds of interaction. Our main technical innovation is an efficient rigidity theorem which allows a verifier to test that two entangled provers perform measurements specified by an arbitrary $m$-qubit tensor product of single-qubit Clifford observables on their respective halves of $m$ shared EPR pairs, with a robustness that is independent of $m$. Our two-prover classical-verifier delegation protocols are obtained by combining this rigidity theorem with a single-prover quantum-verifier protocol for the verifiable delegation of a quantum computation, introduced by Broadbent.
- Aug 23 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.06595v1We provide simple analytical and numerical examples of entangled states that are positive under partial transposition, and hence undistillable. The construction makes use of the properties of the projectors onto the symmetric and antisymmetric subspaces, and the examples can be considered as generalizations of the celebrated Werner states.
- Aug 23 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.06522v1Completely determining the relationship between quantum correlation sets is a long-standing open problem, known as Tsirelson's problem. Following recent progress by Slofstra [arXiv:1606.03140 (2016), arXiv:1703.08618 (2017)] only two instances of the problem remain open. One of them is the question of whether the set of finite-dimensional quantum correlations is strictly contained in the set of infinite-dimensional ones (i.e. whether $\mathcal C_{q} \neq \mathcal C_{qs}$). The usual formulation of the question assumes finite question and answer sets. In this work, we show that, when one allows for either infinite answer sets (and finite question sets) or infinite question sets (and finite answer sets), there exist correlations that are achievable using an infinite-dimensional quantum strategy, but not a finite-dimensional one. For the former case, our proof exploits a recent result [Nat. Comm. 8, 15485 (2017)], which shows self-testing of any pure bipartite entangled state of arbitrary local dimension $d$, using question sets of size 3 and 4 and answer sets of size $d$. For the latter case, a key step in our proof is to show a novel self-test, inspired by [Nat. Comm. 8, 15485 (2017)], of all bipartite entangled states of any local dimension d, using question sets of size $O(d)$, and answer sets of size 4 and 3 respectively.
- Quantum versions of de Finetti's theorem are powerful tools, yielding conceptually important insights into the security of key distribution protocols or tomography schemes and allowing to bound the error made by mean-field approaches. Such theorems link the symmetry of a quantum state under the exchange of subsystems to negligible quantum correlations and are well understood and established in the context of distinguishable particles. In this work, we derive a de Finetti theorem for finite sized Majorana fermionic systems. It is shown, much reflecting the spirit of other quantum de Finetti theorems, that a state which is invariant under certain permutations of modes loses most of its anti-symmetric character and is locally well described by a mode separable state. We discuss the structure of the resulting mode separable states and establish in specific instances a quantitative link to the quality of Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum systems. We hint at a link to generalized Pauli principles for one-body reduced density operators. Finally, building upon the obtained de Finetti theorem, we generalize and extend the applicability of Hudson's fermionic central limit theorem.
- We present a computationally secure classical homomorphic encryption scheme for quantum circuits. The scheme allows a classical server to blindly delegate a quantum computation to a quantum server; the server is able to run the computation without learning about the computation itself. We show that it is possible to construct such a scheme directly from quantum secure classical homomorphic encryption schemes with certain properties. Finally, we show that an existing classical homomorphic encryption scheme has the required properties, and can therefore be used to homomorphically evaluate quantum circuits.