Top arXiv papers

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    In this work, we demonstrate a new way to perform classical multiparty computing amongst parties with limited computational resources. Our method harnesses quantum resources to increase the computational power of the individual parties. We show how a set of clients restricted to linear classical processing are able to jointly compute a non-linear multivariable function that lies beyond their individual capabilities. The clients are only allowed to perform classical XOR gates and single-qubit gates on quantum states. We also examine the type of security that can be achieved in this limited setting. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation using photonic qubits, that allows four clients to compute a specific example of a multiparty function, the pairwise AND.
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    We consider the problem of quantum state certification, where one is given $n$ copies of an unknown $d$-dimensional quantum mixed state $\rho$, and one wants to test whether $\rho$ is equal to some known mixed state $\sigma$ or else is $\epsilon$-far from $\sigma$. The goal is to use notably fewer copies than the $\Omega(d^2)$ needed for full tomography on $\rho$ (i.e., density estimation). We give two robust state certification algorithms: one with respect to fidelity using $n = O(d/\epsilon)$ copies, and one with respect to trace distance using $n = O(d/\epsilon^2)$ copies. The latter algorithm also applies when $\sigma$ is unknown as well. These copy complexities are optimal up to constant factors.
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    We consider the inverse eigenvalue problem for entanglement witnesses, which asks for a characterization of their possible spectra (or equivalently, of the possible spectra resulting from positive linear maps of matrices). We completely solve this problem in the two-qubit case and we derive a large family of new necessary conditions on the spectra in arbitrary dimensions. We also establish a natural duality relationship with the set of absolutely separable states, and we completely characterize witnesses (i.e., separating hyperplanes) of that set when one of the local dimensions is 2.
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    We give an adaptive algorithm which tests whether an unknown Boolean function $f\colon \{0, 1\}^n \to\{0, 1\}$ is unate, i.e. every variable of $f$ is either non-decreasing or non-increasing, or $\epsilon$-far from unate with one-sided error using $\widetilde{O}(n^{3/4}/\epsilon^2)$ queries. This improves on the best adaptive $O(n/\epsilon)$-query algorithm from Baleshzar, Chakrabarty, Pallavoor, Raskhodnikova and Seshadhri when $1/\epsilon \ll n^{1/4}$. Combined with the $\widetilde{\Omega}(n)$-query lower bound for non-adaptive algorithms with one-sided error of [CWX17, BCPRS17], we conclude that adaptivity helps for the testing of unateness with one-sided error. A crucial component of our algorithm is a new subroutine for finding bi-chromatic edges in the Boolean hypercube called adaptive edge search.
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    Zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides complementary analysis modalities to those of high-field NMR and allows for ultra-high-resolution spectroscopy and measurement of untruncated spin-spin interactions. Unlike for the high-field case, however, universal quantum control -- the ability to perform arbitrary unitary operations -- has not been experimentally demonstrated in zero-field NMR. This is because the Larmor frequency for all spins is identically zero at zero field, making it challenging to individually address different spin species. We realize a composite-pulse technique for arbitrary independent rotations of $^1$H and $^{13}$C spins in a two-spin system. Quantum-information-inspired randomized benchmarking and state tomography are used to evaluate the quality of the control. We experimentally demonstrate single-spin control for $^{13}$C with an average gate fidelity of $0.9960(2)$ and two-spin control via a controlled-not (CNOT) gate with an estimated fidelity of $0.99$. The combination of arbitrary single-spin gates and a CNOT gate is sufficient for universal quantum control of the nuclear spin system. The realization of complete spin control in zero-field NMR is an essential step towards applications to quantum simulation, entangled-state-assisted quantum metrology, and zero-field NMR spectroscopy.
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    A pure multipartite quantum state is called absolutely maximally entangled (AME), if all reductions obtained by tracing out at least half of its parties are maximally mixed. However, the existence of such states is in many cases unclear. With the help of the weight enumerator machinery known from quantum error correcting codes and the generalized shadow inequalities, we obtain new bounds on the existence of AME states in higher dimensions. To complete the treatment on the weight enumerator machinery, the quantum MacWilliams identity is derived in the Bloch representation.
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    We study the behavior of non-Markovianity with respect to the localization of the initial environmental state. The "amount" of non-Markovianity is measured using divisibility and distinguishability as indicators, employing several schemes to construct the measures. The system used is a qubit coupled to an environment modeled by an Ising spin chain kicked by ultra-short pulses of a magnetic field. In the integrable regime, non-Markovianity and localization do not have a simple relation, but as the chaotic regime is approached, simple relations emerge, which we explore in detail. We also study the non-Markovianity measures in the space of the parameters of the spin coherent states and point out that the pattern that appears is robust under the choice of the interaction Hamiltonian but does not have a KAM-like phase-space structure.
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    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has been introduced into the mining industry to conduct terrain surveying. This work investigates the application of UAVs with artificial lighting for measurement of rock fragmentation under poor lighting conditions, representing night shifts in surface mines or working conditions in underground mines. The study relies on indoor and outdoor experiments for rock fragmentation analysis using a quadrotor UAV. Comparison of the rock size distributions in both cases show that adequate artificial lighting enables similar accuracy to ideal lighting conditions.
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    We present the universal form of $\eta$-symbols that can be applied to an arbitrary $E_{d(d)}$ exceptional field theory (EFT) up to $d=7$. We then express the $Y$-tensor, which governs the gauge algebra of EFT, as a quadratic form of the $\eta$-symbols. The usual definition of the $Y$-tensor strongly depends on the dimension of the compactification torus while it is not the case for our $Y$-tensor. Furthermore, using the $\eta$-symbols, we propose a universal form of the linear section equation. In particular, in the SL(5) EFT, we explicitly show the equivalence to the known linear section equation.
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    Consider a simple complex Lie group $G$ acting diagonally on a triple flag variety $G/P_1\times G/P_2\times G/P_3$, where $P_i$ is parabolic subgroup of $G$. We provide an algorithm for systematically checking when this action has finitely many orbits. We then use this method to give a complete classification for when $G$ is of type $F_4$. The $E_6, E_7,$ and $E_8$ cases will be treated in a subsequent paper.
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    This is the first paper in the sequence devoted to derived category of moduli spaces of curves of genus $0$ with marked points. We develop several approaches to describe it equivariantly with respect to the action of the symmetric group. We construct an equivariant full exceptional collection on the Losev-Manin space which categorifies derangements. Combining our results with the method of windows in derived categories, we construct an equivariant full exceptional collection on the GIT quotient (or its Kirwan resolution) birational contraction of the Losev-Manin space.
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    In this paper we consider Witten diagrams at one loop in AdS space for scalar $\phi^3+\phi^4$ theory. After using Schwinger parametrization to trivialize the space-time loop integration, we extract the Mellin-Barnes representation for the one-loop corrections to the four-particle scattering up to an integration over the Schwinger parameters corresponding to the propagators of the internal particles running into the loop. We then discuss an approach to deal with those integrals.
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    Joint models of longitudinal and survival data have become an important tool for modeling associations between longitudinal biomarkers and event processes. This association, which is the effect of the marker on the log-hazard, is assumed to be linear in existing shared random effects models with this assumption usually remaining unchecked. We present an extended framework of flexible additive joint models that allows the estimation of nonlinear, covariate specific associations by making use of Bayesian P-splines. The ability to capture truly linear and nonlinear associations is assessed in simulations and illustrated on the widely studied biomedical data on the rare fatal liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis. Our joint models are estimated in a Bayesian framework using structured additive predictors allowing for great flexibility in the specification of smooth nonlinear, time-varying and random effects terms. The model is implemented in the R package bamlss to facilitate the application of this flexible joint model.
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    In a recent work devoted to the magnetism of Li$_{2}$CuO$_{2}$, Shu \emphet al. [New J.\ Phys.\ 19 (2017) 023026] have proposed a "simplified" unfrustrated microscopic model that differs considerably from the models that have been refined through decades of prior work. We show that the proposed model is at odds with known experimental data, including the reported magnetic susceptibility $\chi(T)$ data up to 550 K. Using a high-temperature expansion to the eight order for $\chi(T)$, we show that the experimental data for Li$_{2}$CuO$_{2}$ are consistent with the prior model derived from inelastic neutron scattering (INS) studies. We also establish the $T$-range of validity for a Curie-Weiss law for the real frustrated magnetic system. We argue that the knowledge of the long-range ordered magnetic structure for $T<T_N$ and of $\chi(T)$ in a restricted $T$-range provides insufficient information to extract all the relevant couplings in frustrated magnets, the saturation field and INS data must also be used to determine several exchange couplings, including the weak but decisive frustrating antiferromagnetic (AFM) interchain couplings.
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    We consider the statistical inverse problem of recovering a function $f: M \to \mathbb R$, where $M$ is a smooth compact Riemannian manifold with boundary, from measurements of general $X$-ray transforms $I_a(f)$ of $f$, corrupted by additive Gaussian noise. For $M$ equal to the unit disk with `flat' geometry and $a=0$ this reduces to the standard Radon transform, but our general setting allows for anisotropic media $M$ and can further model local `attenuation' effects -- both highly relevant in practical imaging problems such as SPECT tomography. We propose a nonparametric Bayesian inference approach based on standard Gaussian process priors for $f$. The posterior reconstruction of $f$ corresponds to a Tikhonov regulariser with a reproducing kernel Hilbert space norm penalty that does not require the calculation of the singular value decomposition of the forward operator $I_a$. We prove Bernstein-von Mises theorems that entail that posterior-based inferences such as credible sets are valid and optimal from a frequentist point of view for a large family of semi-parametric aspects of $f$. In particular we derive the asymptotic distribution of smooth linear functionals of the Tikhonov regulariser, which is shown to attain the semi-parametric Cramér-Rao information bound. The proofs rely on an invertibility result for the `Fisher information' operator $I_a^*I_a$ between suitable function spaces, a result of independent interest that relies on techniques from microlocal analysis. We illustrate the performance of the proposed method via simulations in various settings.
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    Voltage control effects provide an energy-efficient means of tailoring material properties, especially in highly integrated nanoscale devices. However, only insulating and semiconducting systems can be controlled so far. In metallic systems, there is no electric field due to electron screening effects and thus no such control effect exists. Here we demonstrate that metallic systems can also be controlled electrically through ionic not electronic effects. In a Pt/Co structure, the control of the metallic Pt/Co interface can lead to unprecedented control effects on the magnetic properties of the entire structure. Consequently, the magnetization and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the Co layer can be independently manipulated to any desired state, the efficient spin toques can be enhanced about 3.5 times, and the switching current can be reduced about one order of magnitude. This ability to control a metallic system may be extended to control other physical phenomena.
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    We discuss the standard ab initio calculation of the refractive index by means of the scalar dielectric function and show its inherent limitations. To overcome these, we start from the general, microscopic wave equation in materials in terms of the frequency- and wavevector-dependent dielectric tensor, and we investigate under which conditions the standard treatment can be justified. We then provide a more general method of calculating the frequency- and direction-dependent refractive indices by means of a $(2 \times 2)$ complex-valued "optical tensor", which can be calculated from a purely frequency-dependent conductivity tensor. Finally, we illustrate the meaning of this optical tensor for the prediction of optical material properties such as birefringence and optical activity.
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    We introduce a notion of quasilinear parabolic equations over metric measure spaces. Under sharp structural conditions, we prove that local weak solutions are locally bounded and satisfy the parabolic Harnack inequality. Applications include the parabolic maximum principle and pointwise estimates for weak solutions.
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    We consider a class of non-equilibrium pure states, which are generally present in an isolated quantum statistical system. These are states of the form $|\Psi\rangle=e^{-{\beta H \over 2}} U e^{{\beta H \over 2}} |\Psi_0\rangle$, where $U$ is a unitary made out of simple operators and $|\Psi_0\rangle$ is a typical equilibrium pure state with sharply peaked energy. We argue that in a system with a holographic dual these states have a natural interpretation as an AdS black hole with transient excitations behind the horizon. We explore the interpretation of these states as pure states undergoing a time-dependent spontaneous fluctuation out of equilibrium. While these states are atypical and the microscopic phases of the wavefunction are correlated with the matrix elements of simple operators, the states are partly disguised as equilibrium states due to cancellations between contributions from different coarse-grained energy bins. These cancellations are guaranteed by the KMS condition of the underlying equilibrium state $|\Psi_0\rangle$. However, in correlators which include the Hamiltonian $H$ these cancellations are spoiled and the non-equilibrium nature of the state $|\Psi\rangle$ can be detected. We discuss connections with the proposal that local observables behind the horizon are realized as state-dependent operators. The states studied in this paper may be useful for implementing an analogue of the "traversable wormhole" protocol for a 1-sided black hole, which could potentially allow us to extract the excitation from behind the horizon. We include some pedagogical background material.
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    We obtain exact analytical solutions for a class of SO($l$) Higgs field theories in a non-dynamic background $n$-dimensional anti de Sitter space. These finite transverse energy solutions are maximally symmetric $p$-dimensional topological defects where $n=(p+1)+l$. The radius of curvature of anti de Sitter space provides an extra length scale that allows us to study the equations of motion in a limit where the masses of the Higgs field and the massive vector bosons are both vanishing. We call this the double BPS limit. In anti de Sitter space, the equations of motion depend on both $p$ and $l$. The exact analytical solutions are expressed in terms of standard special functions. The known exact analytical solutions are for kink-like defects ($p=0,1,2,\dotsc;\, l=1$), vortex-like defects ($p=1,2,3;\, l=2$), and the 'tHooft-Polyakov monopole ($p=0;\, l=3$). In certain cases where we did not find an analytic solution, we present numerical solutions to the equations of motion. The asymptotically exponentially increasing volume with distance of anti de Sitter space imposes different constraints than those found in the study of defects in Minkowski space.
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    We review the recent highlights of theoretical flavour physics, based on the theory summary talk given at FPCP2017. Over the past years, a number of intriguing anomalies have emerged in flavour violating $K$ and $B$ meson decays, constituting some of the most promising hints for the presence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We discuss the theory status of these anomalies and outline possible future directions to test the underlying New Physics.
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    We first give an alternative proof, based on a simple geometric argument, of a result of Marian, Oprea and Pandharipande on top Segre classes of the tautological bundles on Hilbert schemes of $K3$ surfaces equipped with a line bundle. We then turn to the blow-up of $K3$ surface at one point and establish vanishing results for the corresponding top Segre classes in a certain range. This determines, at least theoretically, all top Segre classes of tautological bundles for any pair $(\Sigma,H),\,H\in {\rm Pic}\,\Sigma$.
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    For any quasi-triangular Hopf algebra, there exists the universal R-matrix, which satisfies the Yang-Baxter equation. It is known that the adjoint action of the universal R-matrix on the elements of the tensor square of the algebra constitutes a quantum Yang-Baxter map, which satisfies the set-theoretic Yang-Baxter equation. The map has a zero curvature representation among L-operators defined as images of the universal R-matrix. We find that the zero curvature representation can be solved by the Gauss decomposition of a product of L-operators. Thereby obtained a quasi-determinant expression of the quantum Yang-Baxter map associated with the quantum algebra $U_{q}(gl(n))$. Moreover, the map is identified with products of quasi-Plücker coordinates over a matrix composed of the L-operators. We also consider the quasi-classical limit, where the underlying quantum algebra reduces to a Poisson algebra. The quasi-determinant expression of the quantum Yang-Baxter map reduces to ratios of determinants, which give a new expression of a classical Yang-Baxter map.
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    In order to prove numerically the global existence and uniqueness of smooth solutions of a fourth order, nonlinear PDE, we derive rigorous a-posteriori upper bounds on the supremum of the numerical range of the linearized operator. These bounds also have to be easily computable in order to be applicable to our rigorous a-posteriori methods, as we use them in each time-step of the numerical discretization. The final goal is to establish global bounds on smooth local solutions, which then establish global uniqueness.
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    We present a symmetry-based approach for shape coexistence in nuclei, founded on the concept of partial dynamical symmetry (PDS). The latter corresponds to a situation when only selected states (or bands of states) of the coexisting configurations preserve the symmetry while other states are mixed. We construct explicitly critical-point Hamiltonians with two or three PDSs of the type U(5), SU(3), ${\overline{\rm SU(3)}}$ and SO(6), appropriate to double or triple coexistence of spherical, prolate, oblate and $\gamma$-soft deformed shapes, respectively. In each case, we analyze the topology of the energy surface with multiple minima and corresponding normal modes. Characteristic features and symmetry attributes of the quantum spectra and wave functions are discussed. Analytic expressions for quadrupole moments and $E2$ rates involving the remaining solvable states are derived and isomeric states are identified by means of selection rules.
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    We propose a simple, yet powerful regularization technique that can be used to significantly improve both the pairwise and triplet losses in learning local feature descriptors. The idea is that in order to fully utilize the expressive power of the descriptor space, good local feature descriptors should be sufficiently "spread-out" over the space. In this work, we propose a regularization term to maximize the spread in feature descriptor inspired by the property of uniform distribution. We show that the proposed regularization with triplet loss outperforms existing Euclidean distance based descriptor learning techniques by a large margin. As an extension, the proposed regularization technique can also be used to improve image-level deep feature embedding.
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    We examine the N-Koszul calculus for the N-symmetric algebras. The case N=2 corresponds to the Elie Cartan calculus. We conjecture that, as in the case N=2, the N-Cartan calculus extends to manifolds when N>2, which would provide a new type of noncommutative differential geometry.
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    Sensitive, real-time optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond relies on accurate imaging of small ($\ll 10^{-2}$) fractional fluorescence changes across the diamond sample. We discuss the limitations on magnetic-field sensitivity resulting from the limited number of photoelectrons that a camera can record in a given time. Several types of camera sensors are analyzed and the smallest measurable magnetic-field change is estimated for each type. We show that most common sensors are of a limited use in such applications, while certain highly specific cameras allow to achieve nanotesla-level sensitivity in $1$~s of a combined exposure. Finally, we demonstrate the results obtained with a lock-in camera that pave the way for real-time, wide-field magnetometry at the nanotesla level and with micrometer resolution.
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    Let $(X,J,\omega,g)$ be a complete $n$-dimensional Kähler manifold. A Theorem by Gromov \citeG states that the if the Kähler form is $d$-bounded, then the space of harmonic $L_2$ forms of degree $k$ is trivial, unless $k=\frac{n}{2}$. Starting with a contact manifold $(M,\alpha)$ we show that the same conclusion does not hold in the category of almost Kähler manifolds. Let $(X,J,g)$ be a complete almost Hermitian manifold of dimension four. We prove that the reduced $L_2$ $2^{nd}$-cohomology group decomposes as direct sum of the closure of the invariant and anti-invariant $L_2$-cohomology. This generalizes a decomposition theorem by Drǎghici, Li and Zhang \citeDLZ for $4$-dimensional closed almost complex manifolds to the $L_2$-setting.
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    The numerical renormalization group (NRG) is tailored to describe interacting impurity models in equilibrium, but faces limitations for steady-state nonequilibrium, arising, e.g., due to an applied bias voltage. We show that these limitations can be overcome by describing the thermal leads using a thermofield approach, integrating out high energy modes using NRG, and then treating the nonequilibrium dynamics at low energies using a quench protocol, implemented using the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (tDMRG). This approach yields quantitatively reliable results down to the exponentially small energy scales characteristic of impurity models. We present results of benchmark quality for the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the zero-bias conductance peak for the single-impurity Anderson model.
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    We have conducted experimental measurements and numerical simulations of a precession driven flow in a cylindrical cavity. The study is dedicated to the precession dynamo experiment currently under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and aims at the evaluation of the hydrodynamic flow with respect to its ability to drive a dynamo. We focus on the strongly non-linear regime in which the flow is essentially composed of the directly forced primary Kelvin mode and higher modes in terms of standing inertial waves arising from non-linear self-interactions. We obtain an excellent agreement between experiment and simulation with regard to both, flow amplitudes and flow geometry. A peculiarity is the resonance-like emergence of an axisymmetric mode that represents a double role structure in the meridional plane. Kinematic simulations of the magnetic field evolution induced by the time-averaged flow yield dynamo action at critical magnetic Reynolds numbers around ${\rm{Rm}}^{\rm{c}}\approx 430$ which is well within the range of the planned liquid sodium experiment.
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    Optical communication systems represent the backbone of modern communication networks. Since their deployment, different fiber technologies have been used to deal with optical fiber impairments such as dispersion-shifted fibers and dispersion-compensation fibers. In recent years, thanks to the introduction of coherent detection based systems, fiber impairments can be mitigated using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. Coherent systems are used in the current 100 Gbps wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) standard technology. They allow the increase of spectral efficiency by using multi-level modulation formats, and are combined with DSP techniques to combat the linear fiber distortions. In addition to linear impairments, the next generation 400 Gbps/1 Tbps WDM systems are also more affected by the fiber nonlinearity due to the Kerr effect. At high input power, the fiber nonlinear effects become more important and their compensation is required to improve the transmission performance. Several approaches have been proposed to deal with the fiber nonlinearity. In this paper, after a brief description of the Kerr-induced nonlinear effects, a survey on the fiber nonlinearity compensation (NLC) techniques is provided. We focus on the well-known NLC techniques and discuss their performance, as well as their implementation and complexity. An extension of the inter-subcarrier nonlinear interference canceler approach is also proposed. A performance evaluation of the well-known NLC techniques and the proposed approach is provided in the context of Nyquist and super-Nyquist superchannel systems.
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    In this paper we present a translation from the quantum programming language Quipper to the QPMC model checker, with the main aim of verifying Quipper programs. Quipper is an embedded functional programming language for quantum computation. It is above all a circuit description language, for this reason it uses the vector state formalism and its main purpose is to make circuit implementation easy providing high level operations for circuit manipulation. Quipper provides both an high-level circuit building interface and a simulator. QPMC is a model checker for quantum protocols based on the density matrix formalism. QPMC extends the probabilistic model checker IscasMC allowing to formally verify properties specified in the temporal logic QCTL on Quantum Markov Chains. We implemented and tested our translation on several quantum algorithms, including Grover's quantum search.
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    A tabletop low-noise differential amplifer with a bandwidth of 100 kHz is presented. Low voltage drifts of the order of 100 nV/day are reached by thermally stabilizing relevant amplifer components. The input leakage current is below 100 fA. Input-stage errors are reduced by extensive circuitry. Voltage noise, current noise, input capacitance and input current are extraordinarily low. The input resistance is larger than 1 TOhm. The amplifers were tested with and deployed for electrical transport measurements of quantum devices at cryogenic temperatures.
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    We study a generalized nonlocal theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether Symmetry Approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings are needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to by introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de-Sitter and power law cosmological solutions for different nonlocal theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory is also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved under the full theory.
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    Manual annotations are a prerequisite for many applications of machine learning. However, weaknesses in the annotation process itself are easy to overlook. In particular, scholars often choose what information to give to annotators without examining these decisions empirically. For subjective tasks such as sentiment analysis, sarcasm, and stance detection, such choices can impact results. Here, for the task of political stance detection on Twitter, we show that providing too little context can result in noisy and uncertain annotations, whereas providing too strong a context may cause it to outweigh other signals. To characterize and reduce these biases, we develop ConStance, a general model for reasoning about annotations across information conditions. Given conflicting labels produced by multiple annotators seeing the same instances with different contexts, ConStance simultaneously estimates gold standard labels and also learns a classifier for new instances. We show that the classifier learned by ConStance outperforms a variety of baselines at predicting political stance, while the model's interpretable parameters shed light on the effects of each context.
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    Mobile crowdsensing allows a large number of mobile devices to measure phenomena of common interests and form a body of knowledge about natural and social environments. In order to get location annotations for indoor mobile crowdsensing, reference tags are usually deployed which are susceptible to tampering and compromises by attackers. In this work, we consider three types of location-related attacks including tag forgery, tag misplacement, and tag removal. Different detection algorithms are proposed to deal with these attacks. First, we introduce location-dependent fingerprints as supplementary information for better location identification. A truth discovery algorithm is then proposed to detect falsified data. Moreover, visiting patterns are utilized for the detection of tag misplacement and removal. Experiments on both crowdsensed and emulated dataset show that the proposed algorithms can detect all three types of attacks with high accuracy.
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    In this short note we provide a quantitative version of the classical Runge approximation property for second order elliptic operators. This relies on quantitative unique continuation results and duality arguments. We show that these estimates are essentially optimal. As a model application we provide a new proof of the result from \citeF07, \citeAK12 on stability for the Calderón problem with local data.
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    This report considers linear multistep methods through time filtering. The approach has several advantages. It is modular and requires the addition of only one line of additional code. Error estimation and variable timesteps is straightforward and the individual effect of each step\ is conceptually clear. We present its development for the backward Euler method and a curvature reducing time filter leading to a 2-step, strongly A-stable, second order linear multistep method.
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    Bacteria populations rely on mechanisms such as quorum sensing to coordinate complex tasks that cannot be achieved by a single bacterium. Quorum sensing is used to measure the local bacteria population density, and it controls cooperation by ensuring that a bacterium only commits the resources for cooperation when it expects its neighbors to reciprocate. This paper proposes a simple model for sharing a resource in a bacterial environment, where knowledge of the population influences each bacterium's behavior. Game theory is used to model the behavioral dynamics, where the net payoff (i.e., utility) for each bacterium is a function of its current behavior and that of the other bacteria. The game is first evaluated with perfect knowledge of the population. Then, the unreliability of diffusion introduces uncertainty in the local population estimate and changes the perceived payoffs. The results demonstrate the sensitivity to the system parameters and how population uncertainty can overcome a lack of explicit coordination.
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    General dark solitons and mixed solutions consisting of dark solitons and breathers for the third-type Davey-Stewartson (DS-III) equation are derived by employing the bilinear method. By introducing the two differential operators, semi-rational solutions consisting of rogue waves, breathers and solitons are generated. These semi-rational solutions are given in terms of determinants whose matrix elements have simple algebraic expressions. Under suitable parametric conditions, we derive general rogue wave solutions expressed in terms of rational functions. It is shown that the fundamental (simplest) rogue waves are line rogue waves. It is also shown that the multi-rogue waves describe interactions of several fundamental rogue waves, which would generate interesting curvy wave patterns. The higher order rogue waves originate from a localized lump and retreat back to it. Several types of hybrid solutions composed of rogue waves, breathers and solitons have also been illustrated. Specifically, these semi-rational solutions have a new phenomenon: lumps form on dark solitons and gradual separation from the dark solitons is observed.
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    Networks are models representing relationships between entities. Often these relationships are explicitly given, or we must learn a representation which generalizes and predicts observed behavior in underlying individual data (e.g. attributes or labels). Whether given or inferred, choosing the best representation affects subsequent tasks and questions on the network. This work focuses on model selection to evaluate network representations from data, focusing on fundamental predictive tasks on networks. We present a modular methodology using general, interpretable network models, task neighborhood functions found across domains, and several criteria for robust model selection. We demonstrate our methodology on three online user activity datasets and show that network model selection for the appropriate network task vs. an alternate task increases performance by an order of magnitude in our experiments.
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    Gaussian processes (GPs) are commonly used as models for functions, time series, and spatial fields, but they are computationally infeasible for large datasets. Focusing on the typical setting of modeling observations as a GP plus an additive nugget or noise term, we propose a generalization of the Vecchia (1988) approach as a framework for GP approximations. We show that our general Vecchia approach contains many popular existing GP approximations as special cases, allowing for comparisons among the different methods within a unified framework. Representing the models by directed acyclic graphs, we determine the sparsity of the matrices necessary for inference, which leads to new insights regarding the computational properties. Based on these results, we propose a novel sparse general Vecchia approximation, which ensures computational feasibility for large datasets but can lead to tremendous improvements in approximation accuracy over Vecchia's original approach. We provide several theoretical results, and conduct numerical comparisons. We conclude with guidelines for the use of Vecchia approximations.
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    Depth estimation from stereo images remains a challenge even though studied for decades. The KITTI benchmark shows that the state-of-the-art solutions offer accurate depth estimation, but are still computationally complex and often require a GPU or FPGA implementation. In this paper we aim at increasing the accuracy of depth map estimation and reducing the computational complexity by using information from previous frames. We propose to transform the disparity map of the previous frame into the current frame, relying on the estimated ego-motion, and use this map as the prediction for the Kalman filter in the disparity space. Then, we update the predicted disparity map using the newly matched one. This way we reduce disparity search space and flickering between consecutive frames, thus increasing the computational efficiency of the algorithm. In the end, we validate the proposed approach on real-world data from the KITTI benchmark suite and show that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate results, while at the same time reducing the disparity search space.
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    In this note we analyse \emphquantitative approximation properties of a certain class of \emphnonlocal equations: Viewing the fractional heat equation as a model problem, which involves both \emphlocal and \emphnonlocal pseudodifferential operators, we study quantitative approximation properties of solutions to it. First, relying on Runge type arguments, we give an alternative proof of certain \emphqualitative approximation results from \citeDSV16. Using propagation of smallness arguments, we then provide bounds on the \emphcost of approximate controllability and thus quantify the approximation properties of solutions to the fractional heat equation. Finally, we discuss generalizations of these results to a larger class of operators involving both local and nonlocal contributions.
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    To efficiently establish training databases for machine learning methods, collaborative and crowdsourcing platforms have been investigated to collectively tackle the annotation effort. However, when this concept is ported to the medical imaging domain, reading expertise will have a direct impact on the annotation accuracy. In this study, we examine the impact of expertise and the amount of available annotations on the accuracy outcome of a liver segmentation problem in an abdominal computed tomography (CT) image database. In controlled experiments, we study this impact for different types of weak annotations. To address the decrease in accuracy associated with lower expertise, we propose a method for outlier correction making use of a weakly labelled atlas. Using this approach, we demonstrate that weak annotations subject to high error rates can achieve a similarly high accuracy as state-of-the-art multi-atlas segmentation approaches relying on a large amount of expert manual segmentations. Annotations of this nature can realistically be obtained from a non-expert crowd and can potentially enable crowdsourcing of weak annotation tasks for medical image analysis.
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    In this paper, we study the local asymptotics of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a general class of sample covariance matrices, where the spectrum of the population covariance matrices can have a finite number of spikes and bulk components. Our paper is a unified framework combining the spiked model and covariance matrices without outliers. Examples and statistical applications are considered to illustrate our results.
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    In Part I of this paper, we presented a Hilbert-style system $\Sigma_D$ axiomatizing of stit logic of justification announcements (JA-STIT) interpreted over models with discrete time structure. In this part, we prove three frame definability results for $\Sigma_D$ using three different definitions of a frame plus a yet another version of completeness result.
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    The Calderón problem for the fractional Schrödinger equation was introduced in the work \citeGSU, which gave a global uniqueness result also in the partial data case. This article improves this result in two ways. First, we prove a quantitative uniqueness result showing that this inverse problem enjoys logarithmic stability under suitable a priori bounds. Second, we show that the results are valid for potentials in scale-invariant $L^p$ or negative order Sobolev spaces. A key point is a quantitative approximation property for solutions of fractional equations, obtained by combining a careful propagation of smallness analysis for the Caffarelli-Silvestre extension and a duality argument.
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    For well-generated complex reflection groups, Chapuy and Stump gave a simple product for a generating function counting reflection factorizations of a Coxeter element by their length. This is refined here to record the number of reflections used from each orbit of hyperplanes. The proof is case-by-case via the classification of well-generated groups. It implies a new expression for the Coxeter number, expressed via data coming from a hyperplane orbit; a case-free proof of this due to J. Michel is included.

Recent comments

Māris Ozols Aug 03 2017 09:34 UTC

If I'm not mistaken, what you describe here is equivalent to the [QR decomposition][1]. The matrices $R_{ij}$ that act non-trivially only in a two-dimensional subspace are known as [Givens rotations][2]. The fact that any $n \times n$ unitary can be decomposed as a sequence of Givens rotations is ex

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gae Jul 26 2017 21:19 UTC

For those interested in the literature on teleportation simulation of quantum channels, a detailed and *comprehensive* review is provided in Supplementary Note 8 of https://images.nature.com/original/nature-assets/ncomms/2017/170426/ncomms15043/extref/ncomms15043-s1.pdf
The note describes well the t

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Maciej Malinowski Jul 26 2017 15:56 UTC

In what sense is the ground state for large detuning ordered and antiferromagnetic? I understand that there is symmetry breaking, but other than that, what is the fundamental difference between ground states for large negative and large positive detunings? It seems to be they both exhibit some order

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Stefano Pirandola Jul 26 2017 15:28 UTC

The performance of the memory assisted MDI-QKD with "quasi-EPR" sources is remarkable. It improves the key rate by 5 orders of magnitude over the PLOB bound at about 600 km (take a look at Figure 4).

Māris Ozols Jul 26 2017 11:07 UTC

Conway's list still has four other $1000 problems left:

https://oeis.org/A248380/a248380.pdf

SHUAI ZHANG Jul 26 2017 00:20 UTC

I am still working on improving this survey. If you have any suggestions, questions or find any mistakes, please do not hesitate to contact me: shuai.zhang@student.unsw.edu.au.

Alvaro M. Alhambra Jul 24 2017 16:10 UTC

This paper has just been updated and we thought it would be a good
idea to advertise it here. It was originally submitted a year ago, and
it has now been essentially rewritten, with two new authors added.

We have fixed some of the original results and now we:
-Show how some fundamental theorem

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Steve Flammia Jul 21 2017 13:43 UTC

Actually, there is even earlier work that shows this result. In [arXiv:1109.6887][1], Magesan, Gambetta, and Emerson showed that for any Pauli channel the diamond distance to the identity is equal to the trace distance between the associated Choi states. They prefer to phrase their results in terms

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Stefano Pirandola Jul 21 2017 09:43 UTC

This is very interesting. In my reading list!