- This book is an introduction to quantum Markov chains and explains how this concept is connected to the question of how well a lost quantum mechanical system can be recovered from a correlated subsystem. To achieve this goal, we strengthen the data-processing inequality such that it reveals a statement about the reconstruction of lost information. The main difficulty in order to understand the behavior of quantum Markov chains arises from the fact that quantum mechanical operators do not commute in general. As a result we start by explaining two techniques of how to deal with non-commuting matrices: the spectral pinching method and complex interpolation theory. Once the reader is familiar with these techniques a novel inequality is presented that extends the celebrated Golden-Thompson inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. This inequality is the key ingredient in understanding approximate quantum Markov chains and it answers a question from matrix analysis that was open since 1973, i.e., if Lieb's triple matrix inequality can be extended to more than three matrices. Finally, we carefully discuss the properties of approximate quantum Markov chains and their implications.
- We show that DNF formulae can be quantum PAC-learned in polynomial time under product distributions using a quantum example oracle. The best classical algorithm (without access to membership queries) runs in superpolynomial time. Our result extends the work by Bshouty and Jackson (1998) that proved that DNF formulae are efficiently learnable under the uniform distribution using a quantum example oracle. Our proof is based on a new quantum algorithm that efficiently samples the coefficients of a \mu-biased Fourier transform.
- In [arXiv:1712.03219] the existence of a strongly (pointwise) converging sequence of quantum channels that can not be represented as a reduction of a sequence of unitary channels strongly converging to a unitary channel is shown. In this work we give a simple characterization of sequences of quantum channels that have the above representation. The corresponding convergence is called the $*$-strong convergence, since it relates to the convergence of selective Stinespring isometries of quantum channels in the $*$-strong operator topology. Some properties of the $*$-strong convergence of quantum channels are considered.
- Feb 16 2018 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1802.05278v1Many fractional quantum Hall states can be expressed as a correlator of a given conformal field theory used to describe their edge physics. As a consequence, these states admit an economical representation as an exact Matrix Product States (MPS) that was extensively studied for the systems without any spin or any other internal degrees of freedom. In that case, the correlators are built from a single electronic operator, which is primary with respect to the underlying conformal field theory. We generalize this construction to the archetype of Abelian multicomponent fractional quantum Hall wavefunctions, the Halperin states. These latest can be written as conformal blocks involving multiple electronic operators and we explicitly derive their exact MPS representation. In particular, we deal with the caveat of the full wavefunction symmetry and show that any additional SU(2) symmetry is preserved by the natural MPS truncation scheme provided by the conformal dimension. We use our method to characterize the topological order of the Halperin states by extracting the topological entanglement entropy. We also evaluate their bulk correlation length which are compared to plasma analogy arguments.
- Feb 16 2018 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1802.05689v1We study a one-dimensional system of strongly-correlated bosons interacting with a dynamical lattice. A minimal model describing the latter is provided by extending the standard Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian to include extra degrees of freedom on the bonds of the lattice. We show that this model is capable of reproducing phenomena similar to those present in usual fermion-phonon models. In particular, we discover a bosonic analog of the Peierls transition, where the translational symmetry of the underlying lattice is spontaneously broken. The latter provides a dynamical mechanism to obtain a topological insulator in the presence of interactions, analogous to the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model for electrons. We numerically characterize the phase diagram of the model, which includes different types of bond order waves and topological solitons. Finally, we study the possibility of implementing the model experimentally using atomic systems.
- Feb 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.05478v1Non-Markovian quantum effects are typically observed in systems interacting with structured reservoirs. Discrete-time quantum walks are prime example of such systems in which, quantum memory arises due to the controlled interaction between the coin and position degrees of freedom. Here we show that the information backflow that quantifies memory effects can be enhanced when the particle is subjected to uncorrelated static or dynamic disorder. The presence of disorder in the system leads to localization effects in 1-dimensional quantum walks. We shown that it is possible to infer about the nature of localization in position space by monitoring the information backflow in the reduced system. Further, we study other useful properties of the reduced system such as entanglement, interference and its connection to quantum non-Markovianity.
- Feb 16 2018 physics.atom-ph quant-ph arXiv:1802.05707v1Optical cavities are one of the best ways to increase atom-light coupling and will be a key ingredient for future quantum technologies that rely on light-matter interfaces. We demonstrate that traveling-wave "ring" cavities can achieve a greatly reduced mode waist $w$, leading to larger atom-cavity coupling strength, relative to conventional standing-wave cavities for given mirror separation and stability. Additionally, ring cavities can achieve arbitrary transverse-mode spacing simultaneously with the large mode-waist reductions. Following these principles, we build a parabolic atom-ring cavity system that achieves strong collective coupling $NC = 15(1)$ between $N=10^3$ Rb atoms and a ring cavity with a single-atom cooperativity $C$ that is a factor of $35(5)$ times greater than what could be achieved with a near-confocal standing-wave cavity with the same mirror separation and finesse. By using parabolic mirrors, we eliminate astigmatism--which can otherwise preclude stable operation--and increase optical access to the atoms. Cavities based on these principles, with enhanced coupling and large mirror separation, will be particularly useful for achieving strong coupling with ions, Rydberg atoms, or other strongly interacting particles, which often have undesirable interactions with nearby surfaces.
- We analyze the tailored coupled-cluster (TCC) method, which is a multi-reference formalism that combines the single-reference coupled-cluster (CC) approach with a full configuration interaction (FCI) solution covering the static correlation. This covers in particular the high efficiency coupled-cluster method tailored by tensor-network states (TNS-TCC). For statically correlated systems, we introduce the conceptually new CAS-ext-gap assumption for multi-reference problems which replaces the unreasonable HOMO-LUMO gap. We characterize the TCC function and show local strong monotonicity and Lipschitz continuity such that Zarantonello's Theorem yields locally unique solutions fulfilling a quasi-optimal error bound for the TCC method. We perform an energy error analysis revealing the mathematical complexity of the TCC-method. Due to the basis-splitting nature of the TCC formalism, the error decomposes into several parts. Using the Aubin-Nitsche-duality method we derive a quadratic (Newton type) error bound valid for the linear-tensor-network TCC scheme DMRG-TCC and other TNS-TCC methods.
- The 1-D Anderson model possesses a completely localized spectrum of eigenstates for all values of the disorder. We consider the effect of projecting the Hamiltonian to a truncated Hilbert space, destroying time reversal symmetry. We analyze the ensuing eigenstates using different measures such as inverse participation ratio and sample-averaged moments of the position operator. In addition, we examine amplitude fluctuations in detail to detect the possibility of multifractal behavior (characteristic of mobility edges) that may arise as a result of the truncation procedure.
- Feb 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.05683v1The core problem in optimal control theory applied to quantum systems is to determine the temporal shape of an applied field in order to maximize the expectation of value of some physical observable. The functional which maps the control field into a given value of the observable defines a Quantum Control Landscape (QCL). Studying the topological and structural features of these landscapes is of critical importance for understanding the process of finding the optimal fields required to effectively control the system, specially when external constraints are placed on both the field $\epsilon(t)$ and the available control duration $T$. In this work we analyze the rich structure of the $QCL$ of the paradigmatic Landau-Zener two-level model, studying several features of the optimized solutions, such as their abundance, spatial distribution and fidelities. We also inspect the optimization trajectories in parameter space. We are able rationalize several geometrical and topological aspects of the QCL of this simple model and the effects produced by the constraints. Our study opens the door for a deeper understanding of the QCL of general quantum systems.
- Feb 16 2018 quant-ph physics.app-ph arXiv:1802.05517v1Uniquely among the sciences, quantum cryptography has driven both foundational research as well as practical real-life applications. We review the progress of quantum cryptography in the last decade, covering quantum key distribution and other applications.
- Feb 16 2018 math.DS arXiv:1802.05704v1In this paper we study continuous parametrized families of dissipative flows, which are those flows having a global attractor. The main motivation for this study comes from the observation that, in general, global attractors are not robust, in the sense that small perturbations of the flow can destroy their globality. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a global attractor to be continued to a global attractor. We also study, using shape theoretical methods and the Conley index, the bifurcation global to non-global.
- Feb 16 2018 math.FA arXiv:1802.05700v1Let f be local diffeomorphism between real Banach spaces. We prove that if the locally Lipschitz functional F(x)=1/2|f(x)-y|^2 satisfies the Chang Palais-Smale condition for all y in the target space of f, then f is a norm-coercive global diffeomorphism. We also give a version of this fact for a weighted Chang Palais-Smale condition. Finally, we study the relationship of this criterion to some classical global inversion conditions.
- We propose the Roe C*-algebra from coarse geometry as a model for topological phases of disordered materials. We explain the robustness of this C*-algebra and formulate the bulk-edge correspondence in this framework. We describe the map from the K-theory of the group C*-algebra of Z^d to the K-theory of the Roe C*-algebra, both for real and complex K-theory.
- Feb 16 2018 math.FA arXiv:1802.05531v1An $n \times n$ matrix $A$ with real entries is said to be Schur stable if all the eigenvalues of $A$ are inside the open unit disc. We investigate the structure of linear maps on $M_n(\mathbb{R})$ that preserve the collection $\mathcal{S}$ of Schur stable matrices. We prove that if $L$ is a linear map such that $L(\mathcal{S}) \subseteq \mathcal{S}$, then $\rho(L)$ (the spectral radius of $L$) is at most $1$ and when $L(\mathcal{S}) = \mathcal{S}$, we have $\rho(L) = 1$. In the latter case, the map $L$ preserves the spectral radius function and using this, we characterize such maps on both $M_n(\mathbb{R})$ as well as on $\mathcal{S}^n$.
- Feb 16 2018 math.CA arXiv:1802.05516v1We provide a characterization of $\mathrm{BMO}$ in terms of endpoint boundedness of commutators of singular integrals. In particular, in one dimension, we show that $\|b\|_{\mathrm{BMO}}\eqsim B$, where $B$ is the best constant in the endpoint $L\log L$ modular estimate for the commutator $[H,b]$. We provide a similar characterization of the space $\mathrm{BMO}$ in terms of endpoint boundedness of higher order commutators of the Hilbert transform. In higher dimension we give the corresponding characterization of $\mathrm{BMO}$ in terms of the first order commutators of the Riesz transforms. We also show that these characterizations can be given in terms of commutators of more general singular integral operators of convolution type.
- The Gram spectrahedron $\text{Gram}(f)$ of a form $f$ with real coefficients parametrizes the sum of squares decompositions of $f$, modulo orthogonal equivalence. For $f$ a sufficiently general positive binary form of arbitrary degree, we show that $\text{Gram}(f)$ has extreme points of all ranks in the Pataki range. This is the first example of a family of spectrahedra of arbitrarily large dimensions with this property. We also calculate the dimension of the set of rank $r$ extreme points, for any $r$. Moreover, we determine the pairs of rank two extreme points for which the connecting line segment is an edge of $\text{Gram}(f)$.
- Stochastic growth processes in dimension $(2+1)$ were conjectured by D. Wolf, on the basis of renormalization-group arguments, to fall into two distinct universality classes, according to whether the Hessian $H_\rho$ of the speed of growth $v(\rho)$ as a function of the average slope $\rho$ satisfies $\det H_\rho>0$ ("isotropic KPZ class") or $\det H_\rho\le 0$ ("anisotropic KPZ (AKPZ)" class). The former is characterized by strictly positive growth and roughness exponents, while in the AKPZ class fluctuations are logarithmic in time and space. It is natural to ask (a) if one can exhibit interesting growth models with "rigid" stationary states, i.e., with $O(1)$ fluctuations (instead of logarithmically or power-like growing, as in Wolf's picture) and (b) what new phenomena arise when $v(\cdot)$ is not smooth, so that $H_\rho$ is not defined. The two questions are actually related and here we provide an answer to both, in a specific framework. We define a $(2+1)$-dimensional interface growth process, based on the so-called shuffling algorithm for domino tilings. The stationary, non-reversible measures are translation-invariant Gibbs measures on perfect matchings of $\mathbb Z^2$, with $2$-periodic weights. If $\rho\ne0$, fluctuations are known to grow logarithmically in space and to behave like a two-dimensional GFF. We prove that fluctuations grow at most logarithmically in time and that $\det H_\rho<0$: the model belongs to the AKPZ class. When $\rho=0$, instead, the stationary state is "rigid", with correlations uniformly bounded in space and time; correspondingly, $v(\cdot)$ is not differentiable at $\rho=0$ and we extract the singularity of the eigenvalues of $H_\rho$ for $\rho\sim 0$.
- In a previous paper we derived equivalence relations for pseudo-Wronskian determinants of Hermite polynomials. In this paper we obtain the analogous result for Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials. The equivalence formulas are richer in this case since rational Darboux transformations can be defined for four families of seed functions, as opposed to only two families in the Hermite case. The pseudo-Wronskian determinants of Laguerre and Jacobi type will thus depend on two Maya diagrams, while Hermite pseudo-Wronskians depend on just one Maya diagram. We show that these equivalence relations can be interpreted as the general transcription of shape invariance and specific discrete symmetries acting on the parameters of the isotonic oscillator and Darboux-Poschl-Teller potential.
- We show how the iterative decoding threshold of tailbiting spatially coupled (SC) low-density parity-check (LDPC) code ensembles can be improved over the binary input additive white Gaussian noise channel by allowing the use of different transmission energies for the codeword bits. We refer to the proposed approach as energy shaping. We focus on the special case where the transmission energy of a bit is selected among two values, and where a contiguous portion of the codeword is transmitted with the largest one. Given these constraints, an optimal energy boosting policy is derived by means of protograph extrinsic information transfer analysis. We show that the threshold of tailbiting SC-LDPC code ensembles can be made close to that of terminated code ensembles while avoiding the rate loss (due to termination). The analysis is complemented by Monte Carlo simulations, which confirm the viability of the approach.
- We study the Boussinesq approximation for rapidly rotating stably-stratified fluids in a three dimensional infinite layer with either stress-free or periodic boundary conditions in the vertical direction. For initial conditions satisfying a certain quasi-geostrophic smallness condition, we use dispersive estimates and the large rotation limit to prove global-in-time existence of solutions. We then use self-similar variable techniques to show that the barotropic vorticity converges to an Oseen vortex, while other components decay to zero. We finally use algebraically weighted spaces to determine leading order asymptotics. In particular we show that the barotropic vorticity approaches the Oseen vortex with algebraic rate while the barotropic vertical velocity and thermal fluctuations go to zero as Gaussians whose amplitudes oscillate in opposite phase of each other while decaying with an algebraic rate.
- Feb 16 2018 hep-th arXiv:1802.05362v1We study the large source asymptotics of the generating functional in quantum field theory using the holographic renormalization group, and draw comparisons with the asymptotics of the Hopf characteristic function in fractal geometry. Based on the asymptotic behavior, we find a correspondence relating the Weyl anomaly and the fractal dimension of the Euclidean path integral measure. We are led to propose an equivalence between the logarithmic ultraviolet divergence of the Shannon entropy of this measure and the integrated Weyl anomaly, reminiscent of a known relation between logarithmic divergences of entanglement entropy and a central charge. It follows that the information dimension associated with the Euclidean path integral measure satisfies a c-theorem.
- We introduce a join construction as a way of completing the description of the relative conormal space of a function, and then apply a recent result of the second author to deduce a numerical criterion for the A_f condition for the case when the function has non-vanishing derivative at the origin.
- Feb 16 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05304v1We point out the existence of a new general relativistic contribution to the perihelion advance of Mercury that, while smaller than the contributions arising from the solar quadrupole moment and angular momentum, is 100 times larger than the second-post-Newtonian contribution. It arises in part from relativistic "cross-terms" in the post-Newtonian equations of motion between Mercury's interaction with the Sun and with the other planets, and in part from an interaction between Mercury's motion and the gravitomagnetic field of the moving planets. At a few parts in $10^6$ of the leading general relativistic precession of 42.98 arcseconds per century, these effects are likely to be detectable by the BepiColombo mission to place and track two orbiters around Mercury, scheduled for launch around 2018.
- We determine constraints on spatially-flat tilted dynamical dark energy XCDM and $\phi$CDM inflation models by analyzing Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) distance measurements. XCDM is a simple and widely used but physically inconsistent parameterization of dynamical dark energy, while the $\phi$CDM model is a physically consistent one in which a scalar field $\phi$ with an inverse power-law potential energy density powers the currently accelerating cosmological expansion. Both these models have one additional parameter compared to standard $\Lambda$CDM and both better fit the TT + lowP + lensing + BAO data than does the standard tilted flat-$\Lambda$CDM model, with $\Delta \chi^2 = -1.26\ (-1.60)$ for the XCDM ($\phi$CDM) model relative to the $\Lambda$CDM model. While this is a 1.1$\sigma$ (1.3$\sigma$) improvement over standard $\Lambda$CDM and so not significant, dynamical dark energy models cannot be ruled out. In addition, both dynamical dark energy models reduce the tension between the Planck 2015 CMB anisotropy and the weak lensing $\sigma_8$ constraints.
- In this paper, we will show that gravity can emerge from an effective field theory, obtained by tracing out the fermionic system from an interacting quantum field theory, when we impose the condition that the field equations must be Cauchy predictable. The source of the gravitational field can be identified with the quantum interactions that existed in the interacting QFT. This relation is very similar to the ER= EPR conjecture and strongly relies on the fact that emergence of a classical theory will be dependent on the underlying quantum processes and interactions. We consider two concrete example for reaching the result - one where initially there was no gravity and other where gravity was present. The latter case will result in first order corrections to Einstein's equations and immediately reproduces well-known results like effective event horizons and gravitational birefringence.
- Feb 16 2018 astro-ph.CO arXiv:1802.05706v1
- Feb 16 2018 math.GR arXiv:1802.05705v1
- Feb 16 2018 math.AG arXiv:1802.05702v1
- Feb 16 2018 cs.CV arXiv:1802.05701v1
- Feb 16 2018 cs.NE arXiv:1802.05698v1
- Feb 16 2018 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1802.05691v1
- Feb 16 2018 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1802.05685v1
- Feb 16 2018 math.NT arXiv:1802.05684v1
- Feb 16 2018 math.NA arXiv:1802.05681v1
- Feb 16 2018 stat.ML arXiv:1802.05680v1
- Feb 16 2018 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1802.05677v1