Top arXiv papers

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    Anyons exist as point like particles in two dimensions and carry braid statistics which enable interactions that are independent of the distance between the particles. Except for a relatively few number of models which are analytically tractable, much of the physics of anyons remain still unexplored. In this paper, we show how U(1)-symmetry can be combined with the previously proposed anyonic Matrix Product States to simulate ground states and dynamics of anyonic systems on a lattice at any rational particle number density. We provide proof of principle by studying itinerant anyons on a one dimensional chain where no natural notion of braiding arises and also on a two-leg ladder where the anyons hop between sites and possibly braid. We compare the result of the ground state energies of Fibonacci anyons against hardcore bosons and spinless fermions. In addition, we report the entanglement entropies of the ground states of interacting Fibonacci anyons on a fully filled two-leg ladder at different interaction strength, identifying gapped or gapless points in the parameter space. As an outlook, our approach can also prove useful in studying the time dynamics of a finite number of nonabelian anyons on a finite two-dimensional lattice.
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    An essential element of classical computation is the "if-then" construct, that accepts a control bit and an arbitrary gate, and provides conditional execution of the gate depending on the value of the controlling bit. On the other hand, quantum theory prevents the existence of an analogous universal construct accepting a control qubit and an arbitrary quantum gate as its input. Nevertheless, there are controllable sets of quantum gates for which such a construct exists. Here we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a set of unitary transformations to be controllable, and we give a complete characterization of controllable sets in the two dimensional case. This result reveals an interesting connection between the problem of controllability and the problem of extracting information from an unknown quantum gate while using it.
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    Classical thermodynamics is unrivalled in its range of applications and relevance to everyday life. It enables a description of complex systems, made up of microscopic particles, in terms of a small number of macroscopic quantities, such as work and entropy. As systems get ever smaller, fluctuations of these quantities become increasingly relevant, prompting the development of stochastic thermodynamics. Recently we have seen a surge of interest in exploring the quantum regime, where the origin of fluctuations is quantum rather than thermal. Many questions, such as the role of entanglement and the emergence of thermalisation, lie wide open. Answering these questions may lead to the development of quantum heat engines and refrigerators, as well as to vitally needed simple descriptions of quantum many-body systems.
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    Entangled photons have the remarkable ability to be more sensitive to signal and less sensitive to noise than classical light. Joint photons can sample an object collectively, resulting in faster phase accumulation and higher spatial resolution, while common components of noise can be subtracted. Even more, they can accomplish this while physically separate, due to the nonlocal properties of quantum mechanics. Indeed, nearly all quantum optics experiments rely on this separation, using individual point detectors that are scanned to measure coincidence counts and correlations. Scanning, however, is tedious, time consuming, and ill-suited for imaging. Moreover, the separation of beam paths adds complexity to the system while reducing the number of photons available for sampling, and the multiplicity of detectors does not scale well for greater numbers of photons and higher orders of entanglement. We bypass all of these problems here by directly imaging collinear photon pairs with an electron-multiplying CCD camera. We show explicitly the benefits of quantum nonlocality by engineering the spatial entanglement of the illuminating photons and introduce a new method of correlation measurement by converting time-domain coincidence counting into spatial-domain detection of selected pixels. We show that classical transport-of-intensity methods are applicable in the quantum domain and experimentally demonstrate nearly optimal (Heisenberg-limited) phase measurement for the given quantum illumination. The methods show the power of direct imaging and hold much potential for more general types of quantum information processing and control.
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    I propose that the information loss paradox can be resolved by considering the supertranslation of the horizon caused by the ingoing particles. Information can be recovered in principle, but it is lost for all practical purposes.
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    The Temperley--Lieb algebra is a finite dimensional associative algebra that arose in the context of statistical mechanics and occurs naturally as a quotient of the Hecke algebra arising from a Coxeter group of type $A$. It is often realized in terms of a certain diagram algebra, where every diagram can be written as a product of "simple diagrams." These factorizations correspond precisely to factorizations of the so-called fully commutative elements of the Coxeter group that index a particular basis. Given a reduced factorization of a fully commutative element, it is straightforward to construct the corresponding diagram. On the other hand, it is generally difficult to reconstruct the factorization given an arbitrary diagram. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for obtaining a reduced factorization for a given diagram.
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    An introduction to and a partial review of supergravity theories is given, insisting on concepts and on some important technical aspects. Topics covered include elements of global supersymmetry, a derivation of the simplest N=1 supergravity theory, a discussion of N=1 matter-supergravity couplings, of the scalar sector and of some simple models. Space-time is four-dimensional.
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    Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is rapidly gaining prominence in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. Despite this generality, measuring entanglement remains challenging. This is especially true in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Leveraging our single-site resolved control of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare and interfere two identical copies of a many-body state. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Renyi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly-correlated many-body systems.
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    As experimental quantum information processing (QIP) rapidly advances, an emerging challenge is to design a scalable architecture that combines various quantum elements into a complex device without compromising their performance. In particular, superconducting quantum circuits have successfully demonstrated many of the requirements for quantum computing, including coherence levels that approach the thresholds for scaling. However, it remains challenging to couple a large number of circuit components through controllable channels while suppressing any other interactions. We propose a hardware platform intended to address these challenges, which combines the advantages of integrated circuit fabrication and long coherence times achievable in three-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics (3D cQED). This multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuit (MMIQC) platform provides a path toward the realization of increasingly complex superconducting devices in pursuit of a scalable quantum computer.
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    We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state, the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing.
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    We show that any model trained by a stochastic gradient method with few iterations has vanishing generalization error. We prove this by showing the method is algorithmically stable in the sense of Bousquet and Elisseeff. Our analysis only employs elementary tools from convex and continuous optimization. Our results apply to both convex and non-convex optimization under standard Lipschitz and smoothness assumptions. Applying our results to the convex case, we provide new explanations for why multiple epochs of stochastic gradient descent generalize well in practice. In the nonconvex case, we provide a new interpretation of common practices in neural networks, and provide a formal rationale for stability-promoting mechanisms in training large, deep models. Conceptually, our findings underscore the importance of reducing training time beyond its obvious benefit.
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    We consider the problem of solving TAP mean field equations by iteration for Ising model with coupling matrices that are drawn at random from general invariant ensembles. We develop an analysis of iterative algorithms using a dynamical functional approach that in the thermodynamic limit yields an effective dynamics of a single variable trajectory. Our main novel contribution is the expression for the implicit memory term of the dynamics for general invariant ensembles. By subtracting these terms, that depend on magnetizations at previous time steps, the implicit memory terms cancel making the iteration dependent on a Gaussian distributed field only. The TAP magnetizations are stable fixed points if an AT stability criterion is fulfilled. We illustrate our method explicitly for coupling matrices drawn from the random orthogonal ensemble.
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    We present a comprehensive and versatile theoretical framework to study site and bond percolation on clustered and correlated random graphs. Our contribution can be summarized in three main points. (i) We introduce a set of iterative equations that solve the exact distribution of the size and composition of components in finite size quenched or random multitype graphs. (ii) We define a very general random graph ensemble that encompasses most of the models published to this day, and also that permits to model structural properties not yet included in a theoretical framework. Site and bond percolation on this ensemble is solved exactly in the infinite size limit using probability generating functions [i.e., the percolation threshold, the size and the composition of the giant (extensive) and small components]. Several examples and applications are also provided. (iii) Our approach can be adapted to model interdependent graphs---whose most striking feature is the emergence of an extensive component via a discontinuous phase transition---in an equally general fashion. We show how a graph can successively undergo a continuous then a discontinuous phase transition, and preliminary results suggest that clustering increases the amplitude of the discontinuity at the transition.
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    An extension of QED is considered in which the Dirac fermion has both Hermitian and anti-Hermitian mass terms, as well as both vector and axial-vector couplings to the gauge field. Gauge invariance is restored when the Hermitian and anti-Hermitian masses are of equal magnitude, and the theory reduces to that of a single massless Weyl fermion. An analogous non-Hermitian Yukawa theory is considered and it is shown that this model can explain the smallness of the light-neutrino masses and provide an additional source of leptonic CP violation.
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    We present one of the first algorithms on model based reinforcement learning and trajectory optimization with free final time horizon. Grounded on the optimal control theory and Dynamic Programming, we derive a set of backward differential equations that propagate the value function and provide the optimal control policy and the optimal time horizon. The resulting policy generalizes previous results in model based trajectory optimization. Our analysis shows that the proposed algorithm recovers the theoretical optimal solution on linear low dimensional problem. Finally we provide application results on nonlinear systems.
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    Besides achieving secure communication between two spatially-separated parties, another important issue in modern cryptography is related to secure communication in time, i.e., the possibility to confidentially store information on a memory for later retrieval. Here we explore this possibility in the setting of quantum reading, which exploits quantum entanglement to efficiently read data from a memory whereas classical strategies (e.g., based on coherent states or their mixtures) cannot retrieve any information. From this point of view, the technique of quantum reading can provide a new form of technological security for data storage.
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    Despite the promise of brain-inspired machine learning, deep neural networks (DNN) have frustratingly failed to bridge the deceptively large gap between learning and memory. Here, we introduce a Perpetual Learning Machine; a new type of DNN that is capable of brain-like dynamic 'on the fly' learning because it exists in a self-supervised state of Perpetual Stochastic Gradient Descent. Thus, we provide the means to unify learning and memory within a machine learning framework.
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    We study dynamic features of a plasma consisting of gluons whose infrared dynamics is improved by the Gribov-Zwanziger quantization. This approach embodies essential features of color confinement which set the plasma apart from conventional quasiparticle systems in several aspects. Our study focusses on a boost-invariant expansion for in- and out-of-equilibrium settings, which at late times can be characterized by the sound velocity, $c_s$, and the shear, $\eta$, and bulk, $\zeta$, viscosities. We obtain explicit expressions for the transport coefficients $\eta$ and $\zeta$ and check that they are consistent with the numerical solutions of the kinetic equation. At high temperature, we find a scaling $\zeta/\eta \propto 1/3 - c_s^2$ which manifests strong breaking of conformal symmetry in contrast to the case of weakly coupled plasmas.
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    We model repetitive quantum error correction (QEC) with the single-error-correcting five-qubit code on a network of individually-controlled qubits with always-on Ising couplings, using our previously designed universal set of quantum gates based on sequences of shaped decoupling pulses. In addition to serving as accurate quantum gates, the sequences also provide dynamical decoupling (DD) of low-frequency phase noise. The simulation involves integrating unitary dynamics of six qubits over the duration of tens of thousands of control pulses, using classical stochastic phase noise as a source of decoherence. The combined DD/QEC protocol dramatically improves the coherence, with the QEC alone responsible for more than an order of magnitude infidelity reduction.
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    Potentiality of the presence of wormholes in the outer/inner regions of the halos of galaxies, situated on the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile and Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter models are investigated recently. Since this covers our own galaxy also as a possible home for wormholes it prompts us to further the subject by considering alternative density distributions. From this token herein we make use of the Einasto model to describe the density profiles for the same purpose. Our choice for the latter is based on the fact that theoretical dark matter halos produced in computer simulations are described best by such a profile. For technical reasons we trim the number of parameters in the Einasto profile to a possible minimum. Based an such a model it is shown that wormholes in the outer regions of spiral galaxies are possible while the central regions prohibit such formations.
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    We show some improved mapping properties of the Time Domain Electric Field Integral Equation and of its Galerkin semidiscretization in space. We relate the weak distributional framework with a stronger class of solutions using a group of strongly continuous operators. The stability and error estimates we derive are sharper than those in the literature.
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    Through averaging the Einstein equations over transverse gravitational perturbations it is obtained a closed system of two ordinary differential equations describing macroscopic cosmological evolution of the isotropic space-flat Universe filled with gravitational radiation. It is found an asymptotic solution of evolution equation for gravitational perturbation amplitude. Making the substitution of this solution into Einstein equation averaged over gravitational perturbations, the single evolution non-linear ordinary differential second-order equation relative to macroscopic scale factor is obtained. It is also found a solution of evolution equation for scale factor in WKB-approximation which analytically describes the process of transformation from ultrarelativistic regime of cosmological extension to inflationary one.
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    The one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with $N$ particles on a periodic lattice of $L$ sites is an interacting particle system with hopping rates breaking detailed balance. The total time-integrated current of particles $Q$ between time $0$ and time $T$ is studied for this model in the thermodynamic limit $L,N\to\infty$ with finite density of particles $\overline{\rho}=N/L$. The current $Q$ takes at leading order a deterministic value which follows from the hydrodynamic evolution of the macroscopic density profile by the inviscid Burgers' equation. Using asymptotics of Bethe ansatz formulas for eigenvalues and eigenvectors, an exact expression for the probability distribution of the fluctuations of $Q$ is derived on the relaxation time scale $T\sim L^{3/2}$ for an evolution conditioned on simple initial and final states. For flat initial and final states, a large deviation function expressed simply in terms of the Airy function is obtained at small rescaled time $T/L^{3/2}$.
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    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in the Khomas Highland in Namibia. It consists of four 12-m telescopes (CT1-4), which started operations in 2003, and a 28-m diameter one (CT5), which was brought online in 2012. It is the only IACT system featuring telescopes of different sizes, which provides sensitivity for gamma rays across a very wide energy range, from ~30 GeV up to ~100 TeV. Since the camera electronics of CT1-4 are much older than the one of CT5, an upgrade is being carried out; first deployment was in 2015, full operation is planned for 2016. The goals of this upgrade are threefold: reducing the dead time of the cameras, improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the system failure rate related to aging. Upon completion, the upgrade will assure the continuous operation of H.E.S.S. at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. In the design of the new components, several CTA concepts and technologies were used and are thus being evaluated in the field: The upgraded read-out electronics is based on the NECTAR readout chips; the new camera front- and back-end control subsystems are based on an FPGA and an embedded ARM computer; the communication between subsystems is based on standard Ethernet technologies. These hardware solutions offer good performance, robustness and flexibility. The design of the new cameras is reported here.
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    When a fast-moving drop impacts onto a smooth substrate, splashing will be produced at the edge of the expanding liquid sheet. This ubiquitous phenomenon lacks a fundamental understanding. Combining experiment with model, we illustrate that the ultrathin air film trapped under the expanding liquid front triggers splashing. Because this film is thinner than the mean free path of air molecules, the interior airflow transfers momentum with an unusually high velocity comparable to the speed of sound and generates a stress 10 times stronger than the airflow in common situations. Such a large stress initiates Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities at small length scales and effectively produces splashing. Our model agrees quantitatively with experimental verifications and brings a fundamental understanding to the ubiquitous phenomenon of drop splashing on smooth surfaces.
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    To draw inferences about gamma-ray burst (GRB) source populations based on Swift observations, it is essential to understand the detection efficiency of the Swift burst alert telescope (BAT). This study considers the problem of modeling the Swift/BAT triggering algorithm for long GRBs, a computationally expensive procedure, and models it using machine learning algorithms. A large sample of simulated GRBs from Lien 2014 is used to train various models: random forests, boosted decision trees (with AdaBoost), support vector machines, and artificial neural networks. The best models have accuracies of $\gtrsim97\%$ ($\lesssim 3\%$ error), which is a significant improvement on a cut in GRB flux which has an accuracy of $89.6\%$ ($10.4\%$ error). These models are then used to measure the detection efficiency of Swift as a function of redshift $z$, which is used to perform Bayesian parameter estimation on the GRB rate distribution. We find a local GRB rate density of $n_0 \sim 0.48^{+0.41}_{-0.23} \ {\rm Gpc}^{-3} {\rm yr}^{-1}$ with power-law indices of $n_1 \sim 1.7^{+0.6}_{-0.5}$ and $n_2 \sim -5.9^{+5.7}_{-0.1}$ for GRBs above and below a break point of $z_1 \sim 6.8^{+2.8}_{-3.2}$. This methodology is able to improve upon earlier studies by more accurately modeling Swift detection and using this for fully Bayesian model fitting. The code used in this is analysis is publicly available online (https://github.com/PBGraff/SwiftGRB_PEanalysis).
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    We will study a population of individuals playing the infinitely repeated Prisoner's Dilemma under replicator dynamics. The population consists of three kinds of individuals using the following reactive strategies: ALLD (individuals which always defect), ATFT (almost tit-for-tat: individuals which almost always repeat the opponent's last move) and G (generous individuals, which always cooperate when the opponent cooperated in the last move and have a positive probability $q$ of cooperating when they are defected). Our aim is studying in a mathematically rigorous fashion the dynamics of a simplified version for the computer experiment in [Nowak, Sigmund, Nature, 355, pp. 250--53, 1992] involving 100 reactive strategies. We will see that as the generosity degree of the G individuals varies, equilibria (rest points) of the dynamics appear or disappear, and the dynamics changes accordingly. Not only we will prove that the results of the experiment are true in our simplified version, but we will have complete control on the existence or non-existence of the equilbria for the dynamics for all possible values of the parameters, given that ATFT individuals are close enough to TFT. For most values of the parameters the dynamics will be completely determined.
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    The neural dynamics of the nematode C. elegans are experimentally low-dimensional and correspond to discrete behavioral states, where previous modeling work has found neural proxies for some of these states. Experimental results further suggest that dynamics may be understood as long-timescale transitions between multiple low-dimensional attractors. To identify multistable regimes of our model, we develop a method for systematic generation of bifurcation diagrams and their analysis in an interpretable low-dimensional subspace, showing the existence and nature of multistable input responses at a glance. Stimulation of the PLM neuron pair, experimentally associated with forward movement and shown in simulation to drive a limit cycle, defines our low-dimensional projection space. We then obtain bifurcation diagrams for single-neuron excitation over a range of amplitudes and which classify whether the dynamics in this projection space are associated with a limit cycle, fixed point, or multiple states. In the specific case of compound input into both the PLM pair and ASK pair we discover bistability of a limit cycle and a fixed point, with transitional timescales between different states being much longer than other timescales in the system. This suggests consistency of our model with the characterization of dynamics in neural systems as long-timescale transitions between discrete, low-dimensional attractors corresponding to behavioral states. Our methodology thus prescribes a method for identifying these states and transitions in response to arbitrary input.
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    Borexino is a liquid scintillation detector located deep underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). Thanks to the unmatched radio-purity of the scintillator, and to the well understood detector response at low energy, a new limit on the stability of the electron for decay into a neutrino and a single mono-energetic photon was obtained. This new bound, tau > 6.6 10**28 yr at 90 % C.L., is two orders of magnitude better than the previous limit.
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    We study the thermodynamic properties of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the context of the quantum field theory with non-commutative target space. Our main goal is to investigate in which temperature and/or energy regimes the non-commutativity can characterize some influence in the BEC properties described by a relativistic massive non-commutative boson gas. The non-commutative parameters play a key role in the modified dispersion relations of the non-commutative fields, leading to a new phenomenology. We have obtained the condensate fraction, internal energy, pressure and specific heat of the system and taken ultra-relativistic (UR) and non-relativistic limits (NR). The non-commutative effects in the thermodynamic properties of the system are discussed. We found that there appear interesting signatures around the critical temperature.
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    A gapped repeat is a factor of the form $uvu$ where $u$ and $v$ are nonempty words. The period of the gapped repeat is defined as $|u|+|v|$. The gapped repeat is maximal if it cannot be extended to the left or to the right by at least one letter with preserving its period. The gapped repeat is called $\alpha$-gapped if its period is not greater than $\alpha |u|$. A $\delta$-subrepetition is a factor which exponent is less than 2 but is not less than $1+\delta$ (the exponent of the factor is the quotient of the length and the minimal period of the factor). The $\delta$-subrepetition is maximal if it cannot be extended to the left or to the right by at least one letter with preserving its minimal period. We show that in a word of length $n$ the number of maximal $\alpha$-gapped repeats is bounded by $O(\alpha n)$ and the number of maximal $\delta$-subrepetitions is bounded by $O(n/\delta)$. Using the obtained upper bound for the number of maximal $\alpha$-gapped repeats, we prove the asymptotically optimal $O(\alpha n)$ time bound for finding of all maximal $\alpha$-gapped repeats in a word of length $n$ over a constant alphabet.
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    We prove new Pitt inequalities for the Fourier transforms with radial and non-radial weights using weighted restriction inequalities for the Fourier transform on the sphere. We also prove new Riemann-Lebesgue estimates and versions of the uncertainty principle for the Fourier transform.
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    Numerically solving the semiconductor Bloch equations within a phenomenological relaxation time approximation, we extract both the linear and nonlinear optical conductivities of doped graphene and gapped graphene under excitation by a laser pulse. We discuss in detail the dependence of second harmonic generation, third harmonic generation, and the Kerr effects on the doping level, the gap, and the electric field amplitude. The numerical results for weak electric fields agree with those calculated from available analytic perturbation formulas. For strong electric fields when saturation effects are important, all the effective third order nonlinear response coefficients show a strong field dependence.
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    The importance of unsupervised clustering and topic modeling is well recognized with ever-increasing volumes of text data. In this paper, we propose a fast method for hierarchical clustering and topic modeling called HierNMF2. Our method is based on fast Rank-2 nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) that performs binary clustering and an efficient node splitting rule. Further utilizing the final leaf nodes generated in HierNMF2 and the idea of nonnegative least squares fitting, we propose a new clustering/topic modeling method called FlatNMF2 that recovers a flat clustering/topic modeling result in a very simple yet significantly more effective way than any other existing methods. We describe highly optimized open source software in C++ for both HierNMF2 and FlatNMF2 for hierarchical and partitional clustering/topic modeling of document data sets. Substantial experimental tests are presented that illustrate significant improvements both in computational time as well as quality of solutions. We compare our methods to other clustering methods including K-means, standard NMF, and CLUTO, and also topic modeling methods including latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and recently proposed algorithms for NMF with separability constraints. Overall, we present efficient tools for analyzing large-scale data sets, and techniques that can be generalized to many other data analytics problem domains.
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    Here we provide a thorough discussion of the study conducted by Rodgers et al. (J Neurosci. 2015; 35(24):9194-204. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0919-15.2015) to investigate focal seizures and acquired epileptogenesis induced by head injury in the rat. This manuscript serves as supplementary document for our letter to the Editor to appear in the Journal of Neuroscience. We find that the subject article suffers from poor experimental design, very selective consideration of antecedent literature, and application of inappropriate epilepsy diagnostic criteria which, together, lead to unwarranted conclusions.
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    Geographic routing protocols greatly reduce the requirements of topology storage and provide flexibility in the accommodation of the dynamic behavior of mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents performance evaluations and comparisons of two geographic routing protocols and the popular AODV protocol. The tradeoffs among the average path reliabilities, average conditional delays, average conditional numbers of hops, and area spectral efficiencies and the effects of various parameters are illustrated for finite ad hoc networks with randomly placed mobiles. This paper uses a dual method of closed-form analysis and simple simulation that is applicable to most routing protocols and provides a much more realistic performance evaluation than has previously been possible. Some features included in the new analysis are shadowing, exclusion and guard zones, distance-dependent fading, and interference correlation.
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    The accuracy of a single s-orbital representation of Cu towards enabling multi-thousand atom ab initio calculations of electronic structure is evaluated in this work. If an electrostatic compensation charge of approximately 0.3 electrons per atom is used in this basis representation of copper, the electronic transmission in bulk and nanocrystalline Cu compares accurately to that obtained with a Double Zeta Polarized basis set. The use of this representation is analogous to the use of single band effective mass representation for semiconductor electronic structure. With a basis of just one s-orbital per Cu atom, the representation is extremely computationally efficient and can be used to provide much needed ab initio insight into electronic transport in nanocrystalline Cu interconnects at realistic dimensions.
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    Up until around 1980, the Stingray was an ordinary B1 post-AGB star, but then it suddenly sprouted bright emission lines like in a planetary nebula (PN), and soon after this the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered a small PN around the star, so apparently we have caught a star in the act of ionizing a PN. We report here on a well-sampled light curve from 1889 to 2015, with unique coverage of the prior century plus the entire duration of the PN formation plus three decades of its aftermath. Surprisingly, the star anticipated the 1980's ionization event by declining from B=10.30 in 1889 to B=10.76 in 1980. Starting in 1980, the central star faded fast, at a rate of 0.20 mag/year, reaching B=14.64 in 1996. This fast fading is apparently caused by the central star shrinking in size. From 1994-2015, the V-band light curve is almost entirely from the flux of two bright [OIII] emission lines from the unresolved nebula, and it shows a consistent decline at a rate of 0.090 mag/year. This steady fading (also seen in the radio and infrared) has a time scale equal to that expected for ordinary recombination within the nebula, immediately after a short-duration ionizing event in the 1980s. We are providing the first direct measure of the rapidly changing luminosity of the central star on both sides of a presumed thermal pulse in 1980, with this providing a strong and critical set of constraints, and these are found to sharply disagree with theoretical models of PN evolution.
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    Since the 2011 VERITAS discovery of very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma rays from the Crab pulsar, there has been concerted effort by the gamma-ray astrophysics community to detect other pulsars in the VHE band in order to place better constraints on emission models. Pulsar modelling demonstrates that much of the magnetosphere is opaque to VHE photons, limiting emission regions to the outer magnetosphere or beyond the light cylinder. The locations of 19 known pulsars have been observed by VERITAS since full observations began in 2007 with 11 locations having more than 20 hours of observations. Observations of VHE emission from more sources could provide key data to help constrain current models of emission location and mechanisms. We present the status of the ongoing VERITAS program searching for pulsed emission in archival data.
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    The distance matrix of a graph $G$ is the matrix containing the pairwise distances between vertices. The distance eigenvalues of $G$ are the eigenvalues of its distance matrix and they form the distance spectrum of $G$. We determine the distance spectra of halved cubes, double odd graphs, and Doob graphs, completing the determination of distance spectra of distance regular graphs having exactly one positive distance eigenvalue. We characterize strongly regular graphs having more positive than negative distance eigenvalues. We give examples of graphs with few distinct distance eigenvalues but lacking regularity properties. We also determine the determinant and inertia of the distance matrices of lollipop and barbell graphs.
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    Recently, the first example of two-neutron decay from the ground state of an unbound nucleus, $^{16}$Be, was seen. Three-body methods are ideal for exactly treating the degrees of freedom important for these decays. Using a basis expansion over hyperspherical harmonics and the hyperspherical R-matrix method, we construct a realistic model of $^{16}$Be in order to investigate its decay mode and the role of the two-neutron interaction. The neutron-$^{14}$Be interaction is constrained using shell model predictions. We obtain a ground state for $^{16}$Be that is over-bound by approximately 1 MeV with a width of approximately 0.23 MeV. This suggests, that for such systems, the three-body force needs to be repulsive.
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    In this paper we generalize minimal $p$-divisible groups defined by Oort to $F$-crystal over an algebraically closed field of positive characteristic. We prove a structural theorem and give an explicit formula of the Frobenius endomorphism of the isosimple minimal $F$-crystals that are the building blocks of minimal $F$-crystals. We then define an invariant called the minimal height for $F$-crystals using minimal $F$-crystals and give an upper bound of the isomorphism numbers of isosimple $F$-crystals in terms of their ranks, Hodge slopes and Newton slopes.
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    We show that various tameness assertions about abstract elementary classes imply the existence of large cardinals under mild cardinal arithmetic assumptions.
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    A node separator of a graph is a subset S of the nodes such that removing S and its incident edges divides the graph into two disconnected components of about equal size. In this work, we introduce novel algorithms to find small node separators in large graphs. With focus on solution quality, we introduce novel flow-based local search algorithms which are integrated in a multilevel framework. In addition, we transfer techniques successfully used in the graph partitioning field. This includes the usage of edge ratings tailored to our problem to guide the graph coarsening algorithm as well as highly localized local search and iterated multilevel cycles to improve solution quality even further. Experiments indicate that flow-based local search algorithms on its own in a multilevel framework are already highly competitive in terms of separator quality. Adding additional local search algorithms further improves solution quality. Our strongest configuration almost always outperforms competing systems while on average computing 10% and 62% smaller separators than Metis and Scotch, respectively.
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    In this paper, the deployment of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as a flying base station used to provide on the fly wireless communications to a given geographical area is analyzed. In particular, the co-existence between the UAV, that is transmitting data in the downlink, and an underlaid device-todevice (D2D) communication network is considered. For this model, a tractable analytical framework for the coverage and rate analysis is derived. Two scenarios are considered: a static UAV and a mobile UAV. In the first scenario, the average coverage probability and the average sum-rate for the users in the area are derived as a function of the UAV altitude and the number of D2D users. In the second scenario, using the disk covering problem, the minimum number of stop points that the UAV needs to visit in order to completely cover the area is computed. Simulation and analytical results show that, depending on the density of D2D users, optimal values for the UAV altitude exist for which the average sum-rate and the coverage probability are maximized. Moreover, our results also show that, by enabling the UAV to intelligently move over the target area, the overall communication rate and coverage probability can be significantly improved. Finally, in order to provide a full coverage for the area of interest, the tradeoff between the coverage and delay, in terms of the number of stop points, is discussed.
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    Let $\mathbb F$ be a real closed field. We define the notion of a maximal framing for a representation of the fundamental group of a surface with values in ${\rm Sp}(2n,\mathbb F)$. We show that ultralimits of maximal representations in ${\rm Sp}(2n,\mathbb R)$ admit such a framing, and that all maximal framed representations satisfy a suitable generalisation of the classical Collar Lemma. In particular this establishes a Collar Lemma for all maximal representations into ${\rm Sp}(2n,\mathbb R)$. We then describe a procedure to get from representations in ${\rm Sp}(2n,\mathbb F)$ interesting actions on affine buildings, and, in the case of representations admitting a maximal framing, we describe the structure of the elements of the group acting with zero translation length.
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    For a graph $H$ let $c(H)$ denote the supremum of $|E(G)|/|V(G)|$ taken over all non-null graphs $G$ not containing $H$ as a minor. We show that $$c(H) ≤\frac|V(H)|+\mathrmcomp(H)2-1,$$ when $H$ is a union of cycles, verifying conjectures of Reed and Wood, and Harvey and Wood. We derive the above result from a theorem which allows us to find two vertex disjoint subgraphs with prescribed densities in a sufficiently dense graph, which might be of independent interest.
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    This article firstly attempts to explore parallel algorithms of learning distributed representations for both entities and relations in large-scale knowledge repositories with \it MapReduce programming model on a multi-core processor. We accelerate the training progress of a canonical knowledge embedding method, i.e. \it translating embedding (\bf TransE) model, by dividing a whole knowledge repository into several balanced subsets, and feeding each subset into an individual core where local embeddings can concurrently run updating during the \it Map phase. However, it usually suffers from inconsistent low-dimensional vector representations of the same key, which are collected from different \it Map workers, and further leads to conflicts when conducting \it Reduce to merge the various vectors associated with the same key. Therefore, we try several strategies to acquire the merged embeddings which may not only retain the performance of \it entity inference, \it relation prediction, and even \it triplet classification evaluated by the single-thread \bf TransE on several well-known knowledge bases such as Freebase and NELL, but also scale up the learning speed along with the number of cores within a processor. So far, the empirical studies show that we could achieve comparable results as the single-thread \bf TransE performs by the \it stochastic gradient descend (SGD) algorithm, as well as increase the training speed multiple times via adapting the \it batch gradient descend (BGD) algorithm for \it MapReduce paradigm.
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    The recent isolation of black phosphorus has unleashed the interest of the community working on 2D materials because of its interesting electronic and optical properties: narrow intrinsic gap, ambipolar field effect and high carrier mobility. Black phosphorus is composed of phosphorus atoms held together by strong bonds forming layers that interact through weak van der Waals forces holding the layers stacked on top of each other. This structure, without surface dangling bonds, allows black phosphorus susceptible to withstand very large localized deformations without breaking (similarly to graphene and MoS2). Its outstanding mechanical resilience makes black phosphorus a prospective candidate for strain engineering, modification of a material's optical/electrical properties by means of mechanical stress, in contrast to conventional 3D semiconductors that tend to break for moderate deformations. Very recent theoretical works explore the effect of strain on the band structure and optical properties of black phosphorus, predicting an even stronger response than in other 2D semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides. Most of the reported works, however, are limited to theoretical studies dealing exclusively with uniform strain, while the role of non-uniform strain remains poorly-understood. Here we explore the effect of periodic strain profiles to modulate the electronic and optical properties of black phosphorus by combining hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy experiments and tight-binding calculations.
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    The effect of an external magnetic field in QCD phase diagram, namely, in the the location of the critical end point (CEP) is investigated. Using the 2+1 flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop, it is shown that when an external magnetic field is applied its effect on the CEP depends on the strength of the coupling. If the coupling depends on the magnetic field, allowing for inverse magnetic catalysis, the CEP moves to lower chemical potentials eventually disappearing, and the chiral restoration phase transition is always of first order.

Recent comments

Perplexed Platypus Sep 03 2015 10:31 UTC
Very interesting! After looking a bit more into this, it seems like there are actually quite a few websites with such functionality. Most notably, [Publons][1] where reviewers can post their reviews publicly as well as get credit for them.
 
 [1]: https://publons.com/
Juan Bermejo-Vega Sep 02 2015 16:15 UTC
The last site in your comment [PubPeer][1] seems to be a good place to have open research discussions online. There is an intense discussion about this paper there already. By the way, this PubPeer site has an option that could be interesting to have in SciRate as well: one can review papers and/o ...(continued)
Māris Ozols Sep 01 2015 14:42 UTC
This preprint has already generated lots of coverage on various popular websites. Here are some links you can take a look at.
 
 **Popular coverage**
 
 - [Nature][1]
 - [FQXi][2]
 - [New Scientist][3]
 - [Forbes][4]
 - [SienceNews][5]
 - [Phys.org][6]
 
 **Discussions**
 
 - [ Physics Forums ...(continued)
Juan Bermejo-Vega Aug 24 2015 09:08 UTC
@John Bryden. Could you use quotes "" or bloquotes > when citing? It improves readability and avoids potential misunderstandings.
Noon Silk Aug 22 2015 00:59 UTC
Note that it's not possible to submit papers to SciRate directly; this site simply aggregates information from other sites. However, I've added an issue relating to potentially marking withdrawn papers - https://github.com/scirate/scirate/issues/318.
John Bryden Aug 21 2015 22:17 UTC
Aside from the comment above there are other comments that should be made.
 
 A very important comment is this. The fraudulent paper of Ntatin, is quite simply NOT correct.
 By this I mean the following: In 1999 Florian Deloup and I began a project that we called "The linking form conjecture for 3-m ...(continued)
John Bryden Aug 21 2015 20:48 UTC
This article submitted by B. Ntatin and W. Glunt was published in a new Journal called Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM for short) in September of 2013. In July 2014 the Journal APM RETRACTED this article. The reason that APM retracted this article to quote the Journal is :
 
 The following arti ...(continued)
Tom Wong Jul 29 2015 04:56 UTC
Dear Referee,
 
 I found your suggestion of exploring search on a weighted graph to be interesting, so I worked it out with one marked vertex: https://scirate.com/arxiv/1507.07590
 
 Besides the speedup, the new methods are important; I extended degenerate perturbation theory in a couple ways that s ...(continued)
hong Jul 29 2015 02:39 UTC
Sorry. Is it just quantum contextuality?
Richard Kueng Jul 28 2015 07:01 UTC
fyi: our quantum implications are presented in Subsection 2.2 (pp 7-9).